Coronation of Queen Victoria
The coronation of Queen Victoria took place on 28 June 1838, just over a year after she succeeded to the throne at the age of 18. The procession to and from the ceremony at Westminster Abbey was witnessed by unprecedentedly huge crowds, as the new railways made it easier for an estimated 400,000 to come to London from the rest of the country.
The ceremony cost £79,000 (£6.41 million as of 2015), midway between the £30,000 (£2.46 million as of 2015) spent on that of her predecessor William IV in 1831 and the £240,000 (£18.5 million as of 2015) for the grandiose coronation of his brother George IV. William IV's coronation had established much of what remains today the pageantry of the event, which had previously involved ceremonies in Westminster Hall (now attached to the Houses of Parliament) before a procession on foot across the road to the Abbey. This form was replaced with a procession through the streets with the new monarch in the Gold State Coach or Coronation Coach, dating to 1762 and still used in coronations, with many other coaches and a cavalry escort.
The procession by coach of 1831 was again adopted in 1838, and has been followed in all subsequent coronations. The road route was extended to allow for more spectators, taking a nearly circular route from the Queen's new home at the just-completed Buckingham Palace via Hyde Park Corner, Piccadilly, St James's Street, Pall Mall, Charing Cross and Whitehall. The budget stressed the procession and there was no coronation banquet; according to The Gentleman's Magazine it was the longest coronation procession since that of Charles II in 1660. The weather was fine and the day was generally considered a great success by the press and wider public, though those inside the Abbey witnessed a good deal of mishaps and confusion, and there was Radical opposition, especially in northern England.
According to the historian Roy Strong, "the ceremony of 1838 was the last of the botched coronations", before Victorian historians put together a programme more typical of medieval coronations, and which has been used since that of Edward VII in 1902. The picturesque ritual of the Queen's Champion riding through Westminster Hall in full armour and issuing his challenge was omitted and has never been revived; the Champion, Henry Dymoke, was made a baronet instead. There was very little rehearsal, although the Queen was persuaded by Lord Melbourne, the Prime Minister, to visit the Abbey the evening before. Several of the congregation reported that, in the words of Benjamin Disraeli, those with parts to play "were always in doubt as to what came next, and you saw the want of rehearsal".
As was usual, special seating galleries had been erected to accommodate guests, and the music came from an orchestra of 80 players, a total of 157 singers, and the various military bands in the processions to and from the Abbey.
The whole coronation service lasted five hours and involved two changes of dress for the Queen. At points in the service when they were not needed at the Coronation Theatre (composed of the pavement fronting the main altar and the crossing), the royal party retreated to "St. Edward's Chapel, as it is called; but which as Ld Melbourne said, was more unlike a Chapel, than anything he had ever seen, for what was called an altar, was covered with plates of sandwiches, bottles of wine, &c."
One accident that turned to the advantage of the Queen is described in her journal: "Poor old Ld Rolls [actually Lord Rolle], who is 82, & dreadfully infirm, fell, in attempting to ascend the steps, — rolled right down, but was not the least hurt. When he attempted again to ascend the steps, I advanced to the edge, in order to prevent another fall".
The reaction of the diarist Charles Greville, who was present, was typical of the wider public:
"[Lord Rolle] fell down as he was getting up the steps of the throne. Her first impulse was to rise, and when afterwards he came again to do homage she said, "May I not get up and meet him?" and then rose from the throne and advanced down one or two of the steps to prevent his coming up, an act of graciousness and kindness which made a great sensation. It is, in fact, the remarkable union of naïveté, kindness, nature, good-nature, with propriety and dignity, which makes her so admirable and so endearing to those about her, as she certainly is".
The incident was made the moment represented by John Martin in his large painting of the ceremony, and is also included in Richard Harris Barham's poem Mr. Barney Maguire's Account of the Coronation:
|“||Then the trumpets braying, and the organ playing,
And the sweet trombones, with their silver tones;
At the end of the service the Treasurer of the Household threw silver Coronation medals to the crowd, causing an undignified scramble for the souvenirs.
The quality of the coronation music did nothing to dispel the lacklustre impression of the ceremony. The music was directed by Sir George Smart, who attempted to conduct and play the organ simultaneously; the result was less than effective. Smart's fanfares for the State Trumpeters were described as "a strange medley of odd combinations" by one journalist. Smart had tried to improve the quality of the choir by hiring professional soloists; he spent in all £1,500 including his own fee of £300; in contrast, the budget for the much more elaborate music at the coronation of Edward VII in 1902 was £1,000.
Thomas Attwood had been working on a new coronation anthem but had died three months before the event and it was never completed. The elderly Master of the King's Musick, Franz Cramer, contributed nothing; leading The Spectator to complain that Cramer had been allowed "to proclaim to the world his inability to discharge the first, and the most grateful duty of his office — the composition of a Coronation Anthem". Although William Knyvett had written an anthem; This is the Day that the Lord hath made, there was a great reliance on the music of George Frederick Handel; no less than four of his pieces, including the famous Hallelujah chorus—the only time that it has been sung at a British coronation.
Not everyone was critical however, the Bishop of Rochester wrote that the music "was all that it was not in 1831. It was impressive and compelled all to realize that they were taking part in a religious service - not merely in a pageant".
Queen Victoria's account
The new queen wrote a very full account of the events in her journals, from which these extracts come (removing the mentions of her relations and others, which take up much of the account):
"At ¼ p. 4 I went with Lady Lansdowne, Ly Barham & Ld Conyngham & Col: Wemyss, to Westminster Abbey, where the Dss of Sutherland met me, to see all the preparations for tomorrow. The streets were full of people & there were preparations of all kinds. I was received at the Abbey by Ld Melbourne, the Duke of Norfolk, Sir William Woods & Sir Benjamin Stevenson, All the arrangements are splendidly & very conveniently carried out. Ld M. made me try the 2 Thrones, which was very fortunate, as they were both too low, Came home at 5, — great crowds in the streets, & all, so friendly. The preparations for fairs, balloons, &c – in the Parks quite changes the aspect of the place, & the Camps of the Artillery, with all their white tents, had a very pretty effect. I am very glad I went to the Abbey as I shall now know exactly where I am to go & what I have to do, &c." ...
"We [Lord Melbourne] spoke for a long time about the Coronation & all I had to do. I said I felt very agitated & as if something awful were going to happen to me tomorrow, at which he smiled Spoke of the Bishops, & the Bishop of Durham being so remarkably awkward. Ld M. said "He is very maladroit in all those things", adding, in speaking of the Coronation, "Oh! you will like it, when you are there. I observed I was glad to think he would be near me, as then I always felt so much safer." "I was awoke at 4 o'clock by the guns in the Park & could not get much sleep afterwards, on account of the noise of the people, Bands, &c. Got up at 7, feeling strong & well. The Park presented a curious spectacle, — crowds of people up Constitution Hill, — soldiers, Bands, &c." ... "It was a fine day, & the crowds of people exceeded what I have ever seen, being even much greater than when I went to the City. There were millions of my loyal subjects, assembled in every spot, to witness the Procession. Their good humour & excessive loyalty was everything. I really cannot say how proud I felt to be the Queen of such a nation. I was alarmed at times for fear the people would be crushed, in consequence of the tremendous rush & pressure. Reached the Abby a little after ½ p. 11, amidst deafening cheers. First went into a robing room, quite close to the entrance, where I met my 8 Train Bearers: Ly Caroline Lennox, Ly Adelaide Paget, Ly Mary Talbot, Ly Fanny Cowper, Ly Wilhelmina Stanhope, Ly Anne Fitzwilliam, Ly Mary Grimston & Lady Louisa Jenkinson, all dressed alike & beautifully, in white satin, & silver tissue, with wreaths of silver wheatears on the front of their hair & small ones of pink roses, round the plait, behind. There were also trimmings of pink roses on the dresser. ..."
"Then followed all the various ceremonies, ending by the Crown being placed on my head, which I must own was the most beautiful impressive moment. All the Peers & Peeresses put on their coronets, at the same instant. My excellent Ld Melbourne, who stood very close to me throughout the whole ceremony was quite overcome at this moment, & gave me such a kind, & I may say, fatherly look. The shouts, which were very great, the drums, the trumpets, the firing of the guns, — all at the same moment, rendered the spectacle most imposing."...
"The Archbishop had (most awkwardly) put the ring on the wrong finger, the consequence being that I had the greatest difficulty n taking it off again, which I at last succeeded in doing, but not without great pain. All my Train Bearers looked quite beautiful. At about ½ p. 4 I reentered the State Coach, the crown on my head & Sceptre & Orb in my hands, & we proceeded the same way as we came, the crowds, if possible, having become still greater. The demonstrations of enthusiasm affection, & loyalty were really touching & shall ever remember this day as the proudest in my life, I came home at a little after 6, really not feeling too tired. — At 8 we dined, besides we 13, my Uncle, sister, & brother Spëth & the German Gentlemen, — my excellent Ld Melbourne & Ld Surry dining".
The coronation attracted considerable criticism from opponents of the Whig government of both Tory and Radical views. The Tory objections, mostly made beforehand, were that the government's plans to put much of the spending into the long public procession detracted from the traditional dignity of the ceremonies at Westminster, which would be "shorn of majesty by Benthamite utilitarianism". The Radical left, including the Chartist movement, thought the whole occasion far too expensive; many opposed the continuation of the monarchy completely. For different reasons, both Tories and Radicals objected to the government's effort to turn the day into a popular celebration, seen by as wide a public as possible.
The identification of the new monarch with the Whig party would be a problem for the early part of her reign, leading to the so-called Bedchamber Crisis in 1839 over what were then the political appointments of her Ladies-in-Waiting. In 1837, the accession of a new monarch still automatically triggered the dissolution of Parliament and a general election, which had taken place in 1837, and returned to power the existing Whig government under Lord Melbourne. The Whig party had exploited Victoria's name in its election campaign, suggesting that a monarch from a new generation would inevitably mean the progress of reform. William IV and his wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, had strong Tory sympathies, while Victoria's namesake mother was known to favour the Whigs. It was assumed, to some extent correctly, that Queen Victoria had been brought up to hold similar views, which was reflected in popular ballads sold on the streets, one of which had Victoria saying:
- I'll make some alterations,
- I'll gain the people's right,
- I will have a radical Parliament
- Or they don't lodge here tonight.
Although this was a wild distortion of Victoria's political views, it was only an exaggeration of what parts of the Whig campaign had implied. In addition, Victoria was extremely fond of Lord Melbourne, who was something of a father figure to her (her own father had died in 1820 when she was less than a year old), and it was widely known that she relied heavily on his advice.
The Tory campaign of protest included several public meetings and an open letter from the Marquess of Londonderry to the Mayor of London and the aldermen and tradesmen, published in The Times on 2 June. It culminated in Londonderry's speech in the House of Lords on a motion asking the Queen to postpone the coronation until 1 August so that it could be carried out with proper splendour.
The Radical left, whose press complained of the expense in the run-up to the day, concentrated on trying to dampen public enthusiasm. These efforts had some success in the north of England. In Manchester, a campaign organised by trade unions and other groups reduced the attendance at the local procession organised by the city council to a third of the turnout of that for the previous coronation. The Radicals had one sympathiser inside the Abbey, Harriet Martineau, who recorded her very sceptical view of the day. Although she recorded some favourable comments, on the whole she thought the ceremony "highly barbaric", "worthy only of the old Pharaonic times in Egypt", and "offensive ... to the God of the nineteenth century in the Western world". In Manchester and other manufacturing towns of northern England there were coordinated anti-monarchist demonstrations by the Chartists.
Crowns and coronation robes
Victoria was crowned with a new Imperial State Crown made for her by the Crown Jewellers Rundell and Bridge, with 3093 gems, including the Black Prince's Ruby (actually a spinel), set on the front cross pattée; the cross at the top was set with a stone known as St. Edward's Sapphire, a sapphire taken from the ring (or possibly coronet) of Edward the Confessor. As Edward VII was later to do, she had judged the usual St Edward's Crown too heavy. The crown still exists, but has been stripped of its jewels; a new and lighter version was made in 1937 and has been worn by several monarchs in processions by coach. The George IV State Diadem was worn by the Queen in the returning procession.
Victoria's coronation robes remain in the Royal Collection, and are kept at Kensington Palace with the other items in their collection of historic dress, though they are not normally on display, as her wedding dress has been. They are reported to be in excellent condition. Victoria wore them again in a portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter in 1859, and on her Golden Jubilee in 1897 a marble statue showing her wearing them in 1838 was placed in Kensington Gardens near Kensington Palace.
- Strong; Rappaport, 361
- UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
- Strong; Rappaport, 361
- Strong; Rappaport, 361; Plunkett, 22–24
- Strong; Plunkett, 22–24
- Strong; Rappaport, 361
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) Thursday 28 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, p. 81). Retrieved 24 May 2013.; Rappaport, 361; Strong
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) Thursday 28 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, p. 79). Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Philip Whitwell Wilson (ed.), The Greville Diary. Volume II (New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1927), p. 30.
- Verse 10 of Mr. Barney Maguire's Account of the Coronation
- Victoria and Albert Museum, 'Coronation of Queen Victoria', medal, by Benedetto Pistrucci, after a special sitting by the Queen
- Cowgill, Rachel and Rushton, Julian (2006),Europe, Empire, and Spectacle in Nineteenth-century British Music, Ashgate Publishing Limited, ISBN 0-7546-5208-4 (p. 123)
- Cowgill and Rushton p. 121
- Gatens, William J (1987), Victorian Cathedral Music in Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-26808-7 (p. 84)
- The Spectator Archive - 11 AUGUST 1838, Page 13 - METROPOLITAN LIBRARY OF MUSIC
- Cowgill and Rushton p. 129
- Range, Matthias (2012), Music and Ceremonial at British Coronations: From James I to Elizabeth II, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-02344-4 (p. 224)
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) 27 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, pp. 73–74). Retrieved 24 May 2013, online text
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) 27 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, p. 74). Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) 27 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, pp. 75–77). Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) 27 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, p. 78). Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) 27 June 1838 (Princess Beatrice's copies, p. 82). Retrieved 24 May 2013.
- Plunkett, 22 ff., 22 quoted
- Plunkett, 18–21, ballad p. 21
- Plunkett, 24
- Plunkett, 25–30; Strong
- Plunkett, pp. 26-27
- A History of the World in 100 Objects website BBC/British Museum
- Melanie Clegg, on "Madame Guillotine", "Royal Ceremonial Dress – Kensington Palace"
- Also Royal Collection, image
- royalparks.org.uk, "Monuments in Kensington Gardens";image
- Plunkett, John, Queen Victoria: First Media Monarch, 2003, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199253927, 9780199253920, google books
- "RA VIC" Queen Victoria's Journals, in the Royal Archive, online
- Rappaport, Helen, Queen Victoria: a biographical companion, 2003, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1851093559, 9781851093557
- Strong, Roy, Queen Victoria's Coronation at: Royal Archives: RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ (W) Queen Victoria's Coronation, by Sir Roy Strong (Essay). Retrieved 24 May 2013, online