Neoaves

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Neoavians
Temporal range: Late CretaceousHolocene, 69–0 Ma
[1]
Toulouse - Sturnus vulgaris - 2012-02-26 - 3.jpg
Common starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Neognathae
Clade: Neoaves
Sibley et al., 1988
Clades

Neoaves is a clade that consists of all modern birds (Neornithes or Aves) with the exception of Paleognathae (ratites and kin) and Galloanserae (ducks, chickens and kin). Almost 95% of the roughly 10,000 known species of modern birds belong to the Neoaves.

The early diversification of the various neoavian groups occurred very rapidly around the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event,[2] and attempts to resolve their relationships with each other have resulted initially in much controversy.[3][4]

Phylogeny[edit]

One hypothesis for the phylogeny of modern birds was presented by Prum, R.O. et al. (2015)[5] The following cladogram illustrates the proposed relationships, with some taxon names following Yury, T. et al. (2013)[6] and Kimball et al. 2013.[7]

Neoaves
Strisores

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)

Steatornithiformes (oilbird)

Nyctibiiformes (potoos)

Podargiformes (frogmouths)

Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars)

Apodiformes (hummingbirds, treeswifts, and swifts) Haaksnavelkolibrie.jpg

Columbaves
Otidimorphae

Musophagiformes (turacos)Planches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) (Tauraco persa).jpg

Otidiformes (bustards)Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (pigeons) Meyers grosses Konversations-Lexikon - ein Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen Wissens (1908) (Antwerpener Breiftaube).jpg

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg

Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouse)Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg

Aequorlitornithes
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg

Podicipediformes (grebes)Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg

Charadriiformes (waders and relatives)D'Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white background.jpg

Ardeae
Eurypygimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu)Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatross and petrels)

Sphenisciformes (penguins) Cuvier-90-Manchot du Cap.jpg

Ciconiiformes (storks) Weißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons, ibises, etc.)Spot-billed pelican takeoff white background.jpg

(core waterbirds)
Inopinaves

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg

Telluraves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (New World vultures)Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg

Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives)Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg

Afroaves

Strigiformes (owls)Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mouse birds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives)A monograph of the Bucerotidæ, or family of the hornbills (Plate II) (white background).jpg

Picodynastornithes

Coraciformes (kingfishers and relatives)Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d'Europe.jpg

Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)Atlante ornitologico (Tav. 26) (picchio verde).jpg

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpg

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg

Passeriformes (passerines)Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpg

(core landbirds)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Van Tuinen M. (2009) Birds (Aves). In The Timetree of Life, Hedges SB, Kumar S (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 409–411.
  2. ^ Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Sci Adv. 1 (11). doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
  3. ^ Mayr G. (2011) Metaves, Mirandornithes, Strisores and other novelties - a critical review of the higher-level phylogeny of neornithine birds. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 49:58-76.
  4. ^ Matzke, A. et al. (2012) Retroposon insertion patterns of neoavian birds: strong evidence for an extensive incomplete lineage sorting era Mol. Biol. Evol.
  5. ^ Prum, R.O. et al. (2015) A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526, 569–573.
  6. ^ Yuri et al. (2013) Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals. Biology, 2(1):419-444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419
  7. ^ Kimball, R.T. et al. (2013) Identifying localized biases in large datasets: A case study using the Avian Tree of Life. Mol Phylogenet Evol. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.029