COVID-19 pandemic in New York City

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COVID-19 pandemic in New York City
USNS Comfort passing by Statue of Liberty, March 30, 2020.png
The USNS Comfort passing by the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor on March 30
COVID-19 outbreak New York CSA per capita cases map.svg
Confirmed cases per 100,000 residents in the greater New York City area
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationNew York City, New York, United States
New York Metropolitan Area (depending on criteria of study)
Index caseManhattan
Arrival datemid-February[1]
(first case found March 1)[2]
Confirmed cases
  • 535,700 (CSA; Jun 4)[3]
  • 278,956 (NYC; November 22)[4]
Hospitalized cases60,547[4]
Deaths
24,206 (19,537 confirmed,
4,669 probable)[4]
Government website
www.nyc.gov/coronavirus

The first case relating to the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed in New York City in March 2020 by a woman who had recently traveled to New York City from Iran, a country already seriously affected by the pandemic at the time. Nearly a month later, the metropolitan area was the worst-affected area in the country.[5][6] By April, the city had more confirmed coronavirus cases than China, the U.K., or Iran, and by May, had more cases than any country other than the United States.

On March 20, the governor's office issued an executive order closing down non-essential businesses. The city's public transportation system remained open but experienced crowding due to reduced transit service and an increase of homeless persons seeking shelter on the subway.

By April, hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers were out of work with lost tax revenues estimated to run into the billions. Low income jobs in the retail, transportation and restaurant sectors are especially affected. The drop in income, sales tax and tourism revenues including hotel tax revenue may cost the city up to $10 billion.[7][8] Mayor Bill de Blasio has said the city's unemployment system collapsed following a surge in claims and it will require federal assistance to maintain basic services.[9]

The ongoing pandemic is the deadliest disaster by death toll in the history of New York City.[10][11][12]

Timeline[edit]

Before March[edit]

The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in New York State on March 1, 2020, in a 39-year-old health care worker who had returned home to Manhattan from Iran on February 25.[13][2] Genomic analyses suggest the disease had been introduced to New York as early as January, and that most cases were linked to Europe, rather than Asia.[1]

A Queens man contracted COVID-19 via community transmission in late February, falling ill on February 29.[14]

March[edit]

NYPD taping off One Grand Central Place during the early afternoon of March 3, 2020, in response to New York's first confirmed case of COVID-19 person-to-person spread
New York City Subway passengers on March 9, when there were 16 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in New York City, with NYC Transit Interim President Sarah Feinberg on the right

On March 3, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that the first recorded case of person-to-person spread in New York State had been confirmed via a New Rochelle man who was working at a law firm within One Grand Central Place in Midtown Manhattan.[15] Six days later, on March 9, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that there were 16 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in New York City.[16]

The Bronx Zoo in New York City, New York closed in mid-March. Towards the end of March, Nadia and her sister Azul two Malayan tigers at the Bronx Zoo showed signs of COVID-19. They both had a dry cough, wheezing, and neglected meals. Nadia tested positive for COVID-19, and so did her sister. Nadia was the first animal in North America to test positive for COVID-19. Seven other large cats at the zoo also showed signs of COVID. It was assumed that the Bronx Zoo cats may have contacted the virus from humans. The area around the Zoo had been hit by the virus in high numbers.[17][18]

The virus then grew exponentially: by March 25, over 17,800 cases had been confirmed in New York City, with 199 deaths.[19] At the time, the city's infection rate was five times higher than the rest of the country, and its cases and were one-third of total confirmed US cases.[20] The reasons for the high infection rate continue to be discussed.[21] On March 27, infection in New York City surpassed 23,000, with 365 deaths. Queens was the worst-affected borough by number of deaths, with over a third of total deaths; the majority of the deceased had underlying health issues.[22] Between March 28 and 29, the number of deaths in New York City tripled from the previous 24-hour period; 222 people died of the virus bringing the city's fatalities to 672, with 30,765 confirmed cases.[23]

Refrigerated trucks filled with COVID-19 victims outside a hospital

The USNS Comfort hospital ship arrived in New York Harbor on March 30.[24] Field hospitals were also set up in several places citywide.[25][26] Refrigerator trucks were set up on city streets outside hospitals to accommodate the overflow of bodies of the deceased.[27] On March 31, the first death of a child from COVID-19 in New York City was recorded.[28]

April[edit]

On April 4, Governor Cuomo announced that the Chinese government had arranged for a donation of 1,000 ventilators to be sent to New York through foundations run by Jack Ma and Joseph Tsai.[29] The state of Oregon was reported to be sending 140 ventilators.[30] Trump announced that 1,000 additional federal medical soldiers would be deployed to New York City.[31] It was reported that "Urban Area Medical Task Forces" made up of army reservists would be working in the New York City field hospitals and other parts of the country.[32] As of April 4, there were 1,200 medical military personnel serving on the USNS Comfort. 2,700 New York State National Guard forces had also been deployed.[29]

Closed non-essential retailers in Morris Park, the Bronx, during the COVID-19 pandemic
Masks for sale in June, South Bronx

On April 5, it was reported that a tiger at the Bronx Zoo had contracted COVID-19, the first known case of a tiger anywhere being infected with the disease. Several other "big cats" were found to have COVID-19, the first of which had started showing symptoms on March 27; they were believed to have contracted COVID-19 from an infected zookeeper who was not yet showing symptoms.[33] This was also the first known case of an animal contracting the disease from human contact in the US.[34] On April 22 it was reported that four additional tigers plus three lions had tested positive.[35]

On April 6 there were 72,181 confirmed cases, with at least 2,475 deaths. NYC accounted for 25% of COVID-19 deaths in the United States.[36] The next day Gothamist reported that the death toll in New York City was undercounted.[37] It was estimated that 1,125 people had died at home or on the street in NYC in the first five days of April, an eight-fold increase compared with FDNY figures for 2019. Due to the large increase, many of the deaths were presumed to be caused by COVID-19, but only residents with confirmed infections had been recorded in the official count. Due to the crisis circumstances of the pandemic, the real death toll was unknown. Bodies of those who had died at home, around 280 per day, were being picked up by the US Army, National Guard, and Air National Guard.[38]

Some of the communities most affected by the pandemic included densely-populated neighborhoods in north-central Queens with high immigrant populations, including Corona, East Elmhurst, Elmhurst, and Jackson Heights. As of April 8, these communities, with a cumulative 600,000 residents, had recorded 7,260 COVID-19 cases.[39] On April 23, state officials said that based on preliminary antibody testing results, they estimated around 21.2% of city residents had contracted COVID-19.[40]

May[edit]

On May 10, de Blasio said 38 children were known to be affected by an inflammatory syndrome believed to be linked to an immune response to COVID-19.[41] Known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), this life-threatening condition resembles Kawasaki disease and other pediatric inflammatory conditions, such as toxic shock syndrome.[42] Symptoms include high fevers that can last for days, rash, racing heart beat, changes in skin color, redness of the tongue, and severe abdominal pain.[41] At least one child had died in New York City, and two additional deaths were reported statewide. The link with COVID-19 has not yet been proven.[43] On May 19, Cuomo confirmed 137 cases of the illness, stating it was "the tip of the iceberg" with 90% of the cases testing positive for the virus or antibodies.[44] By May 26, three deaths and 89 cases of MIS-C had been confirmed in the city, mostly effecting children and teenagers. Doctors reported that the risk of death or serious illness for MIS-C was mitigated by early detection. Hospitals were instructed to prioritize kids for testing.[45]

A survey conducted May 5–12 and reported in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that 42% of 286 respondents residing in the New York City metropolitan area knew someone who had tested positive for COVID-19, and 23.1% knew someone who had died.[46]

During May, COVID-19 cases started to decline.[47] After the George Floyd protests in New York City started in late May, public officials expressed concern about the spread of COVID-19 via the crowded events.[48]

June[edit]

On June 8, the city commenced the first phase of its reopening plan after meeting seven conditions of the stay-at-home order, which had been put in place three months earlier.[49] Safety protocols were put in place to limit occupancy of confined spaces like elevators to one person at a time, and occupancy ceilings were reduced to under 50% of their usual capacity.[50] On June 24, New York state, along with New Jersey and Connecticut, began requiring travelers to self-quarantine for 14 days if traveling from an area with high infection rates.[51]

July[edit]

Prometheus, masked for protection

Patience and Fortitude, the lion statues outside the New York Public Library Main Branch, were masked as a symbol of the city's resilience.[52] Health experts noted that the effectiveness of contact tracing in preventing resurgence would depend on careful monitoring of hospitalizations and targeted testing of high-risk populations to screen for asymptomatic carriers.[52] COVID hospitalizations fell below 700, the lowest levels since mid-March, but more cases were reported in the age group between 21 and 30.[53]

Plans to open indoor dining during the Phase 3 reopening were postponed due to the heightened risks posed by customers refusing to wear face masks and the uncertain role of air conditioning on spread in indoor spaces. Indoor dining in other states has resulted in superspreading at certain venues. To compensate in part, outdoor space was expanded by shutting down certain areas to create more space for outdoor eating.[54][55] Plans to reopen museums in Phase 4 were also postponed.[56]

The governor's office announced that malls would be allowed to reopen only after installation of antiviral air filtration systems, which was opposed by mall owners and their tenants.[57]

In late July over 130 bars were cited for violations of COVID related regulations. The governor warned bars would be shut down again if compliance did not improve. At least 40 businesses have lost their liquor licenses since March. Some restaurants have reported difficulty controlling the crowds gathered outside, despite hiring security.[58]

On July 11, a seven-year-old German Shepherd named Buddy died of COVID-19. He tested positive back in mid-April when his owners noticed he was having trouble breathing. He was the first dog in the United States to test positive for COVID-19.[59][60]

August[edit]

By August 1, the total number of establishments who had their liquor licenses suspended for not following social distancing guidelines had risen to 52.[61] In mid-August, Cuomo announced that bowling alleys would be able to reopen on August 17, and museums and other cultural institutions on August 24 at reduced capacity.[62][63]

September[edit]

On the 19th anniversary ceremony of the September 11 attacks at the National September 11 Memorial & Museum the reading of names of victims usually by family members was instead recorded in advance. Mask protocols, and social distance measures were also in place. The Tunnels to Towers foundation held a simultaneous memorial nearby at Zuccotti Park where around 125 family members took part in reading names.[64]

In late September parents of yeshiva students in Brooklyn were texted "DO NOT test your child for Covid", advised not to report symptoms consistent with COVID-19 and told that it was "up to parents" to prevent the school from being closed.[65]

By the end of September, de Blasio had ordered the police department to enforce public health guidelines in several Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods and conduct emergency inspections at private religious schools.[66] President Trump's views on masks were embraced by residents of these neighborhoods, who refused to wear masks or follow the social distancing restrictions. The rate of infection in some predominantly Orthodox neighborhoods rose to six times greater than the rest of the city. City health officials said another lock down might be needed, similar to the one imposed in Israel, which at the time had the highest per-capita rate of new cases of any country.[67]

October[edit]

In early October, the city was still in Phase 4 of reopening, which included museums, gardens, botanical gardens and gyms. Twenty ZIP Codes were identified as cluster areas, with an average 5.2% of positive tests, relatively high compared to the rest of New York State. These 20 ZIP Codes contained 26% of all positive cases in the state on October 2.[68] In response, the governor's office announced what they called "direct enforcement" of COVID-19 related restrictions in high-risk neighborhoods in Brooklyn and Queens. The mayor's office proposed closing businesses deemed "non-essential", on-site dining, and in-person schooling would have to shut down in nine ZIP Codes with 14-day positivity rates over 3%, while another eleven ZIP Codes were placed on a "watch list" because their positivity rates were 1–3%.[69][70] A twelfth ZIP Code was placed on the "watch list" on October 5, the same day that the governor's office rejected the mayor's plan to close non-essential businesses.[71][72]

Community leaders from the Jewish communities in Queens, including the neighborhoods of Rego Park, Kew Gardens, and Kew Gardens Hills, expressed concerns that singling out neighborhoods and ZIP Codes was unfairly targeting the Jewish community.[73][74][75] Barry Grodenchik said that "One of the worst things is Jews being blamed for outbreaks and epidemics...slander is akin to murder." Councilwoman Karen Koslowitz said Kew Gardens and Rego Park are diverse neighborhoods and that it was unnecessary to single out Orthodox Jewish communities.[76]

On October 6, Governor Andrew Cuomo introduced the Cluster Action Initiative. The new plan places new restrictions in cluster areas that have spikes in COVID-19 cases. The first areas to experience these new restrictions were parts of Brooklyn and Queens. On October 7, protesters opposing the Cluster Action Initiative burned masks in the street and set a fire in Borough Park.[77][78][79] Clusters have been added and removed since October 6.

There were 779 hospitalizations on October 9, the highest number reported since July 15. Significant fines of up to $15,000 per day were put in place for mass gatherings, and up to $1000 per day for violations of social distancing and mask-wearing rules. Over the first weekend under the new rules the city issued over $150,000 in fines.[80] Religious communities have protested the restrictions. A federal judge has denied to grant an injunction to prevent restrictions on mass gatherings in houses of worship in red zones, ruling that the state has a compelling state interest to protect the "health and life of all New Yorkers" and that the restrictions were not motivated by any animus.[81][82] The United States Supreme Court declined to hear similar cases on appeal from two other states.[83]

The New York Sheriff's Office broke up a rave party with over 100 attendees in Queens on October 11. The organizers were charged with multiple criminal offenses, as well as violations of the park and health codes.[84]

November[edit]

On November 10, Governor Cuomo stated that starting November 13 for the entirety of New York state, gatherings are to be limited to 10 people and that gyms, bars, and restaurants must close by 10 pm, with local municipalities handling responsibility when it comes to enforcement. This came as the positivity rate in the city climbed back up to 2.52%, levels not seen since early June according to Mayor de Blasio.[85][86]

Public schools were closed indefinitely on November 19 after the rolling seven-day average reached 3%.[87] Despite calls from health experts to close indoor dining before it was too late "to reverse the tide of new infections" the governor's office has declined to impose restrictions until the statistical thresholds were met. The mayor's office took charge of closing schools only. Some epidemiologists and public health officials have criticized the decision to close schools, while allowing indoor dining to continue.[87]

By late November the governor's office was warning that the entire city was approaching the threshold for the "orange zone" designation that would close indoor dining, salons and gyms.[88]

Government response[edit]

Woman wearing a mask walks by the Cobble Hill Cinemas in Brooklyn, which closed as a non-essential business

On March 2, de Blasio tweeted that people should ignore the virus and "go on with your lives + get out on the town despite Coronavirus".[89] At a press conference the next day, New York City Commissioner of Health Oxiris Barbot said: "We are encouraging New Yorkers to go about their everyday lives".[90] On March 4, she said: "There’s no indication that being in a car, being in the subways with someone who’s potentially sick is a risk factor."[91] New York City Councilmen Robert Holden and Eric Ulrich wrote to Mayor de Blasio asking him to relieve Barbot of her position.[91]

On March 7, Cuomo declared a state of emergency in New York State after 89 cases had been confirmed in the state, 70 of them in Westchester County, 12 in New York City, and 7 elsewhere.[92]

On April 20, de Blasio announced that major events had been cancelled through June including the Pride March and the Puerto Rican Day Parade.[93]

On August 5, de Blasio announced that COVID-19 checkpoints would be set up at major crossings and tunnels to help enforcement of a mandatory 14-day quarantine for travelers from areas of a high transmission rate per Cuomo's order in coordination with the New York's Sheriff department.[94] Failure to comply with this order would result in fines ranging from $2,000 to US$10,000 with de Blasio adding "We’re not going to let our hard work slip away and will continue to do everything we can to keep New Yorkers safe and healthy.”[95][96]

Stay-at-home order[edit]

On March 14, before the statewide stay-at-home order (also known as the "New York State on PAUSE" executive order) was put in place, all New York Public Library branches in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island were temporarily closed. The Queens Public Library and Brooklyn Public Library were also closed.[97][98][99] Theaters, concert venues, and nightclubs in NYC have been shut down since March 17, and restaurants were restricted to take-out and delivery only. Schools were closed until at least April 20.[100] Gyms were closed as well.[101]

On March 17, despite de Blasio's message to New Yorkers that they should be "prepared right now" for the possibility of "shelter in place" orders, Cuomo expressed doubts about whether the policy would be effective. The governor's office issued a statement that the shelter in place order could only be put in place by the governor's office; the Mayor's office agreed.[101][102] On March 20, with 5,683 confirmed cases in NYC, the governor's office issued the PAUSE order that would go into effect on March 22 at 8 PM. The order put in place the following restrictions, summarized in the executive order in ten points:[103]

  1. Effective at 8pm on Sunday, March 22, all non-essential businesses statewide will be closed
  2. Non-essential gatherings of individuals of any size for any reason (e.g. parties, celebrations or other social events) are canceled or postponed at this time
  3. Any concentration of individuals outside their home must be limited to workers providing essential services and social distancing should be practiced
  4. When in public individuals must practice social distancing of at least six feet from others
  5. Businesses and entities that provide other essential services must implement rules that help facilitate social distancing of at least six feet
  6. Individuals should limit outdoor recreational activities to non-contact and avoid activities where they come in close contact with other people
  7. Individuals should limit use of public transportation to when absolutely necessary and should limit potential exposure by spacing out at least six feet from other riders
  8. Sick individuals should not leave their home unless to receive medical care and only after a telehealth visit to determine if leaving the home is in the best interest of their health
  9. Young people should also practice social distancing and avoid contact with vulnerable populations
  10. Use precautionary sanitizer practices such as using isopropyl alcohol wipes

The governor said the provisions would be enforced. Businesses that violated the order faced fines and closure.[104][105] Businesses that qualified as "essential businesses" under the stay-at-home order included but were not limited to:[104]

  • utility companies
  • banks
  • pharmacies
  • laundromats
  • gas stations
  • grocers, restaurants, and convenience stores
  • liquor stores
  • hardware stores
  • auto repair shops
  • delivery services
  • skilled contractors like plumbers
  • health care providers
  • warehouses
  • manufacturers
  • construction companies
  • animal-care providers

On April 6, the statewide PAUSE order was extended through April 29. The rate of increase had slowed from 10,000 new confirmed cases daily to 8,700. Intubation and ICU admission rates were slowing. Fines for violating social distancing protocols were increased from $500 to $1000.[36] On April 16, the statewide PAUSE order was extended through May 15, in coordination with "a multi-state council".[106]

Four-phase reopening plan[edit]

Restaurants with street dining corrals, August 2020

Governor Andrew Cuomo first announced the four-phase reopening plan for businesses on May 7. In order for the New York City region to begin reopening in Phase 1, it needed to meet these seven metrics:

  • 14-day decline in hospitalizations or under 15 new hospitalizations (3-day average)
  • 14-day decline in hospitalized deaths OR under 5 new (3-day average)
  • New hospitalizations — under 2 per 100,000 residents (3-day rolling average)
  • Share of total beds available (threshold of 30 percent)
  • Share of ICU beds available (threshold of 30 percent)
  • 30 per 1,000 residents tested monthly (7-day average of new tests per day)
  • 30 contact tracers per 100,000 residents or to meet current infection rate.

As of July 20, the four-phase reopening plan for New York City is detailed as follows:[107]

  • Phase 1: construction, manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, fishing, and select retail that can offer curbside pickup.
  • Phase 2: outdoor dining at restaurants, hair salons and barber shops, offices, real estate firms, in-store retail, vehicle sales, retail rental, repair services, cleaning services, and commercial building management.
  • Phase 3: indoor dining at restaurants and bars at 50% capacity (excluding New York City) and personal care services.
  • Phase 4: low-risk outdoor activities at 33% capacity (outdoor zoos, botanical gardens, nature parks, historical sites, outdoor museums, etc.); low-risk indoor activities at 25% capacity are allowed in Phase 4 regions outside of New York City.[108]

Some types of businesses, such as drive-in theaters, landscaping and gardening, and places of worship, were allowed to reopen regardless of the phase as part of a separate executive order. On May 14, Governor Cuomo issued an executive order to extend the PAUSE order through May 28 for New York City and other regions that did not meet the state's requirements to begin Phase 1 of reopening.[109][110] A week later, it still had only met four of seven reopening conditions.[111]

Phase 1 of reopening in New York City began on June 8.[49][112][113] In total, between 200,000 and 400,000 people were expected to return to work during Phase 1.[114] On June 22, the region moved to Phase 2 with an expected 300,000 returning to work. Cuomo announced in late June that shopping malls would need to install virus-filtering air conditioning systems before reopening.[115] On July 6, New York City entered Phase 3, excluding indoor dining.[54] On July 20, the region entered Phase 4.[116][117]

On August 17, Cuomo announced gyms and fitness centers would be able to reopen starting August 24 and no later than September 2. Gyms would be required to limit their capacity to 33%, mandate mask wearing at all times, as well as having proper ventilation systems.[118][119]

As of September 1, some types of businesses have not been allowed to open regardless of the phase, including but not limited to concert venues, nightclubs, and arenas.

In a press conference on September 9, Cuomo announced New York City would be permitted to resume indoor dining services at 25 percent capacity on September 30.

Social distancing and face masks[edit]

Social distancing has been recommended nationwide by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization since COVID-19 was first declared a national health emergency back in March 2020.[120] It was mandated by Cuomo on March 20 as part of the statewide stay-at-home order.[103]

Face masks were first mandated by law via an executive order issued by Cuomo on April 15. The order states that face masks must be in all public places when social distancing is not possible.[121] On May 28, another executive order gave business owners the authority to decide whether patrons must wear a face covering to enter.[122]

Cluster Action Initiative[edit]

Governor Andrew Cuomo introduced the Cluster Action Initiative on October 6, 2020. The new plan places new restrictions in cluster areas that have spikes in COVID-19 cases. The first areas to experience these new restrictions were parts of Brooklyn and Queens. The cluster areas are further zoned with three levels of restrictions:[123]

  • Red zone (most extreme): prohibits all social gatherings, reduces houses of worship to 25% capacity, closes all non-essential businesses, limits dining to takeout only, and limits schools to remote only
  • Orange zone (warning zone): limits social gatherings to 10 people, reduces houses of worship to 33% capacity, closes all high-risk non-essential businesses (such as gyms and personal care), limits dining to outdoor only, and limits schools to remote only
  • Yellow zone (precautionary zone): limits social gatherings to 25 people, reduces houses of worship to 50% capacity, limits dining to 4 people per table, and requires mandatory weekly testing for schools.

Public transport[edit]

New York City transit bus. 177th Street near Devoe Ave, Bronx, NY. Route sign reads, "Masks Required"
These stickers have been placed six feet apart from one another on the platforms of nearly all subway stations

New York City issued new commuter guidelines following the start of the outbreak, asking sick individuals to stay off public transit, encouraging citizens to avoid densely packed buses, subways, and trains.[124] Beginning March 25, service on buses, subways, and commuter rail was reduced due to decreased ridership.[125][126] Ridership had decreased by 92% on April 8, when 41 Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) workers had died.[127] By April 22, 2020, COVID-19 had killed 83 agency employees; that number had increased to 131 by late August.[128] the agency announced that their families would be eligible for $500,000 in death benefits.[129][130]

On April 20 four City Council members requested that subway service be temporarily suspended, saying that reduced service had resulted in crowding on the subway and that entire cars had been taken over by homeless people. The request was to shut down the subway was initially rejected by the governor's office[131] and criticized by interim New York City Transit President Sarah Feinberg.[132][133] Starting in May 2020, stations were closed overnight for cleaning; the overnight closures would be a temporary measure that would be suspended once the pandemic was over.[134] Of the approximately 800 homeless people on the subway system, about half have been willing to accept offers of assistance from the city government.[135] Not only because the homeless people cause congestion in the subway, but also because they are more vulnerable to infection than normal people. The New York government helped to replace homeless people in shelters and even private hotels. The hotels provided shelter for high-risk groups of homeless people.[136][137] On June 8, 2020, regular subway and bus service resumed with Phase 1 of the city's reopening, though the overnight subway closure remained in place.[138][139] Although officials stated that only one percent of subway ridership occurred at night, trains continued to run overnight, leading to complaints that essential workers were being unnecessarily inconvenienced. Internal MTA sources stated that it was theoretically possible for the MTA to clean the system without closing it.[140]

Jeffrey E. Harris, a member of the economics faculty at MIT, has said the service cuts "most likely accelerated the spread of coronavirus." In his study published on April 15 he argues that public transportation was a "major disseminator" of novel coronavirus in New York City. The MTA has said the study was "flawed – period."[141] The advice to continue taking public transportation given by city officials during the early stages of the pandemic is now believed to have contributed to the intensity of the outbreak in New York City.[142]

An app feature was added to the MYmta app to give riders real time information about the number of riders on the bus.[143]

Α report published by the Daily News on September 29 asserted that there was "no correlation" between mass transit and COVID-19 infection rates. The MTA has not reported any deaths since June 2, but lost at least 131 employees to COVID-19 during in the first three months of the pandemic.[144] On October 4, the Daily News reported that an epidemiologist affiliated with Yale University recommended that the MTA should advise riders not to talk to reduce the risk from spreading infectious aerosols. The MTA issued a statement that they were considering "all options".[145]

Over 170 transit workers reported being assaulted or harassed for asking passengers to wear face masks, including a 62-year-old man who was knocked unconscious on his route through East New York, Brooklyn,[146] prompting officials to implement a $50 fine for riders who refused to wear a face mask. Sarah Feinberg says the fine is "a last resort" for people who refuse masks after they are offered.[145]

Education[edit]

On March 8, all NYC school trips were canceled.[147] On March 13, de Blasio stated that he would keep the schools open, citing the need for school meal programs and child care to continue.[148] On March 15, all schools in the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) system closed until at least mid-April.[149]

On April 11, de Blasio ordered all schools to remain closed for the rest of the academic year, while Cuomo insisted that the authority to close and reopen schools throughout the state belonged to himself as the governor, not to de Blasio or any other mayor.[150][151] On May 1, Governor Cuomo announced that all schools would be closed for the academic year and continue to provide distance education.[152]

On July 2 De Blasio announced that schools will be opening in September. Cuomo's office has said the final decision will be made by the governor's office.[153] Cuomo said that a final decision on schools would be based on the infection rate in the state: "You can't open a school if the virus is on the increase." New York City has said that full remote learning will be an option even if schools do reopen.[154]

As of July 30, the city was planning for 2 to 3 days of classroom instruction, with remote learning on other days. School staff will be tested for COVID-19 before the start of the school year. There are plans for confirmed cases:[155]

  1. If there are one to two confirmed cases in the same class, the class will switch to full-time remote learning while the students and staff self-quarantine for two weeks.
  2. If there are two or more confirmed cases in multiple classes in one school, the entire school will close and switch to full-time remote learning. Contact tracers will investigate.

On August 7, Cuomo announced schools can open in the fall if they publicly disclose plans to address remote learning, testing of virus, and tracing procedures. Of the state's 749 school districts, 127 had not submitted plans, and 50 have submitted incomplete or deficient ones to the Department of Health, including the New York City region which 'disappointed' the Governor. This came the same day for a deadline for parents in New York City to choose entirely blended or entirely remote learning for their children.[156] On August 10, de Blasio with officials from NYCDOE gave details on their reopening plan in a news conference before the August 14 deadline set by the State.[157]

In preparation of the first day of classes, the city deployed School Ventilation Teams to inspect public school buildings for problems with windows and supply and exhaust fans. Any rooms that did not meet the ventilation requirements would not be used. Some schools applied for outdoor learning space.[158] Around 25% of students opted for all-remote learning.[159]

On September 1, Mayor de Blasio and teacher unions reached an agreement to start remote and in person classes 10 days later than originally scheduled for September 21.[160]

On September 17, Mayor de Blasio announced the shift of the start of the school year again, opting for a phased approach, due to continued obstacles including teacher shortages. Pre-K and students with special needs would begin on September 21, with elementary student schools opening by September 29, and middle / high school students opened up on October 1.[161]

New targeted closures were put in place in October as clusters with daily rates above city thresholds were identified. All public and private schools in "red zones" were ordered to switch to remote learning for 14 days, but some private schools refused to comply with the order prompting the governor's office to issue an executive order that schools refusing to comply with closures would lose their funding.[162]

Schools were closed again on November 19th after the city reached a seven day rolling average positivity rate of 3%. Some criticized the decision to close down schools without also restricting indoor dining and gyms. [163]

Parks[edit]

On April 1, Cuomo ordered all playgrounds in the city to be shut in order to promote social distancing. Parks would mostly remain open.[164] The exceptions were Fort Totten in Queens, which was closed to provide a staging area for first responders, and the High Line, which was closed because it is a linear park with few means to spread out. Sports fields and facilities were also closed, as were the historic-house museums operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.[165] With the start of the summer season in May, public beaches remained closed as well.[166]

On May 7, de Blasio said that entry to public parks may be limited to prevent overcrowding and to promote social distancing.[167] It was later announced that access might also be limited within parts of parks, such as Sheep Meadow at Central Park.[168] On July 1, the city's public beaches were opened.[169] On July 16, the High Line reopened to the public with free timed-entry passes in order to limit capacity in order to allow for social distancing.[170]

Open space[edit]

Open Streets[edit]

On April 27, de Blasio announced plans to convert 40 to 100 miles (64 to 161 km) of streets to open streets. The affected streets would be closed to through traffic and blocked-off by temporary wooden or metal barricades with DOT signage. The purpose of the Open Streets is to provide "the space for essential workers to pursue safer commuting options, provide outdoor opportunities for vulnerable New Yorkers, and give families the chance to play beyond the four walls of their home".[171] The totals reached 44 miles (71 km) in May and 67 miles (108 km) in June.[172]

The program has been largely successful, but has received some criticism from transit activists due to the poor enforcement and upkeep of barricades, the choice of segments which are too-short or border existing parks, and racial and socio-economic disparity in street choice and upkeep.[173]

Open Restaurants[edit]

Masked New Yorkers walk by a restaurant providing outdoor dining under Open Restaurants

On June 22, the city initiated the Open Restaurants program, permitting restaurants to apply to use the sidewalk or curb lane adjacent to their business for outdoor dining, in order to promote open space, encourage social distancing, and help businesses economically recover.[174][175] By September 5, 10,000 restaurants had participated.[174] Additionally, starting in July, some of the open streets were made available for outdoor dining from Friday through Sunday.[176]

On September 25, de Blasio in an interview with WNYC announced the outdoor dining and open streets programs would be extended indefinitely. The Open Restaurants program was set to expire on October 31.[177]

Temporary burials[edit]

COVID-19 burials on Hart Island

On April 6, The New York Times reported that the city's overall death rate had tripled and that morgues were overwhelmed. After councilman Mark D. Levine tweeted that temporary internment "likely will be done by using a NYC park for burials", NYC officials said they were not considering temporary burials in city parks.[178][179]

The mayor's press secretary said that a next resort could be to store or bury bodies on Hart Island off the coast of the Bronx in the Long Island Sound.[180] Following reports that mass burials had begun there,[181][182] the mayor clarified that Hart Island was only being used for unclaimed bodies or for those who chose it as a burial place.[183] Bodies are ordinarily held at the city's morgues anywhere from 30 to 60 days, but to make room for the influx of deceased individuals during the pandemic, the city's medical examiner's office announced a new policy of holding unclaimed bodies for only up to 15 days before they are transferred to the island.[184]

On April 29, authorities discovered dozens of decomposing bodies in two trucks parked outside a funeral home in Brooklyn.[185]

Economic impact[edit]

Change in New York City electrical usage, February–April 2020

By April 20, The New York Times reported that hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers were unemployed, with at least $7.4 billion lost tax revenue projected over the year. Broadway theaters, restaurants, hotels and the subway are among the most affected; construction and real estate development activities have halted, and millions of renters are uncertain as to how their rents will be paid. Law firms, financial services companies and other white collar businesses expect declining profits, and in some cases losses as a result of the pandemic. Between 475,000 and 1.2 million jobs, mostly low-wage positions in the retail, transportation and restaurant sectors, were expected to be cut by the end of April.[186]

The drop in income, sales tax and tourism revenues including hotel tax revenue may cost the city up to $10 billion according to the Mayor's office. De Blasio said "We're not going to be able to provide basic services and actually have a normal society if we don't get help from the federal government."[187] According to the New York City Independent Budget Office, a full economic recovery might not be achieved until 2024.[188]

Business closures[edit]

Some stores and restaurants have closed permanently. Record Mart, the oldest record store in the city, announced that its shop in the Times Square–42nd Street station's mezzanine would not be reopening.[189] Other businesses that have closed permanently include Momofuku,[190] the Copacabana nightclub, the Gem Spa, and two locations of Gimme! Coffee.[191] As of July 16, 2020, four Michelin starred restaurants had announced permanent closures: Gotham Bar and Grill, Nix, Jewel Bako and Ukiyo.[192] In August 2020, The New York Times estimated that up to 80,000 small businesses might never reopen, eliminating jobs for up to 520,000 people and representing one-third of the total number of small businesses in operation before the pandemic. At the time, 2,800 small businesses had already closed, a third of which were restaurants.[193]

Real estate[edit]

Before the pandemic, a demographic study by the Brookings Institute had found that the largest metropolitan areas in the U.S., including New York City, had been losing population for several years. High rents and cost of living in the city contributed to slowing growth by the mid-2010s as salary in the city was no longer competitive after adjusting for the cost of living. Some residents have questioned whether the high rents can be justified while public spaces, theaters and other event venues remain closed. Employees who have been furloughed from corporate jobs at institutions like Macy's may not renew their lease agreements.[187] Realtors have reported an increase in inquiries about suburban home purchases and rentals from residents of Manhattan and other densely populated urban centers.[194]

In July 2020, according to StreetEasy, there were more than 67,300 vacant rental units in New York City, the highest number since 2010. The median rental price in Manhattan dropped 10% from July 2019 to $3,167.[195][196] Although there was an increase in people moving out of the city during the pandemic, the increase in vacancies was also attributed to the fact that real estate agents were also unable to show houses between March and June.[197] A smaller number of buyers and renters decided to move in during the pandemic as well; between April and July, market data showed that almost 700 buyers from around the world finalized contracts for apartments in Manhattan.[198]

The pandemic also affected commercial real estate, as office workers started telecommuting. Even after office buildings were allowed to reopen in June 2020 during Phase 2 of reopening, less than one-tenth of the city's office workers had gone back to their workplaces by August. According to a New York Times article in September 2020, only one-fourth of large employers anticipated that their employees would return to their offices by December, while 54% expected their employees to return by the following July. Commercial office leases in the first eight months of 2020 also decreased sharply compared to in the first eight months of 2019.[199]

Social impact[edit]

Social distancing[edit]

Line at Costco in Brooklyn on March 19, 2020

On March 30, the mayor announced that most religious buildings had shut down in accordance with quarantine regulations. However, he warned that some churches and synagogues were not in compliance and would be shut down by authorities if they remained open.[200] Several summonses and arrests were made for violating social distancing rules. On March 28, a Brooklyn bar owner was arrested for defying Cuomo's ban on bars and restaurants.[201] On April 3, the NYPD broke up a party in the Bronx where several dozen people had gathered in violation of social distancing rules.[202] On April 7 NBC News reported violations of the statewide PAUSE order throughout the city, and de Blasio said violations of the order could be reported to 311.[203]

Social distancing marker inside an elevator in a building in Manhattan - July 2020

One epidemiologist at Columbia University noted "Social distancing is a privilege that not everybody has equal opportunity to practice." Of the five boroughs, Manhattan had reported the lowest number of confirmed cases. Epidemiologists have observed that low income communities were being disproportionately affected. Many residents of these neighborhoods work in essential jobs where it may not be possible to work from home.[204]

After some arrests for violations of social distancing protocols turned violent, the city relaxed enforcement. As the weather warmed large groups began gathering at parks and beaches. Some non-compliant bars and restaurants, limited to take out service during the pandemic, continued to allowing customers to dine in or to gather outside bars with drinks. De Blasio said non-compliant establishments risk closure.[205]

During May and June 2020, there were mass arrests due to the George Floyd protests, and due to close confinement of those detained along with poor rates of mask wearing by law enforcement, the probability of a second wave of COVID-19 increased significantly.[206][207] Several outlets criticized police working the events for failing to wear face masks as required by policy and by order of the governor.[208] As the number of arrests during the protests increased, many people were detained for longer periods and, as of June 5, hundreds were still waiting to see a judge, being held in close quarters in the meantime.[209] Some of the arrested also had inadequate access to water to wash their hands.[210]

Police and crime[edit]

At the beginning of March, prior to the confirmation of the first case of COVID-19, and the onset of the coronavirus pandemic in New York City, a 20 percent spike in crime for the first two months of 2020 was reported.[211] After movement in the city became restricted, New York City Police Commissioner Dermot Shea stated that the pandemic had curtailed crime.[212] At the end of March, Shea said that crime had decreased sharply during the epidemic (other than car theft, which increased markedly), though there is concern that domestic violence was not being reported.[213][214]

By the end of the month, 911 calls were at a record high, and 1,048 officers and 145 civilian employees had tested positive for COVID-19. 5,657 uniformed officers, or more than 15% of the force, called out sick on March 31.[215] The percentage of officers out sick rose to nearly 20 percent, as reported on April 6.[216] By April 30, 4,959 members of the NYPD had tested positive for the virus, and 37 had died.[217]

Xenophobia and racism against Asians in the city increased due to the pandemic. Police investigated 11 anti-Asian hate crimes between January 1 and March 29, 2020, up from three during the same time period in the previous year.[218]

Starting in May, after the killing of George Floyd, protests erupted in New York City calling for police reform.

Deaths[edit]

Several prominent restaurant owners and chefs have died of COVID-19 including Indian chef Floyd Cardoz[219] and Andreas Koutsoudakis (who opened the Gee Whiz diner in Tribeca in 1989).[220] Maria Mercader, a news producer at CBS, died on March 29.[221][222][223] Musician Alan Merrill died on March 29 at Mount Sinai Hospital.[224]

Nursing homes have had high fatality rates, accounting for at least 2,056 deaths in the city as of April 20. New York State Health Commissioner Howard Zucker stated that the policy was for nursing home residents who test positive back to be readmitted to nursing homes.[225]

Between March 11 and May 2 there were 32,107 deaths in the city; based on past data, this number was higher than expected by 24,172. According to official figures, COVID-19 is linked with 18,879 of the excess deaths (including probable cases that were not confirmed with testing).[226]

A study published in JAMA Network Open found New York City's COVID-19 death rates in the spring were comparable to the peak of the Spanish flu, per capita.[227]

Public health impact[edit]

Hospitals[edit]

New York City usually has about 20,000 hospital beds and 5,000 ventilators, many of which are routinely in use to keep ICU patients alive. Social distancing measures were implemented to slow the spread of the virus and prevent the hospital system from collapsing.[228] In the early days of the crisis, on March 14, the Health and Hospitals Corporation and New York-Presbyterian cancelled non-emergency surgeries. Northwell Health put out a call for retired nurses to return. The Tisch Hospital of NYU Langone converted a pediatric emergency ward into a respiratory ward. Personal protective equipment (PPE) was rationed due to shortages.[228] By March 25 the situation at Elmhurst Hospital, one of the worst-affected hospitals in the city, had deteriorated to the point that staff described it as "apocalyptic."[229] Dr. David Reich, President and COO of Mount Sinai Hospital, announced in March that the hospital was converting its lobbies into extra patient rooms to "meet the growing volume of patients" suffering from coronavirus.[230][231]

The "Javits New York Medical Station" was a field hospital set up in the Javits Center

In response to the increasing number of COVID-19 cases at the end of March 2020, several temporary field hospitals were built or proposed, including the Javits Center in Manhattan,[26] USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Queens (350 beds),[232] and in Central Park in Manhattan (68-bed COVID respiratory care unit).[233][234] Field hospitals were also proposed at the New York Expo Center in the Bronx, Aqueduct Racetrack in Queens, the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal, and the College of Staten Island.[235] At the request of the Mayor, veterinary clinics sent their ventilators to human hospitals.[236] The USTA field hospital only treated 79 COVID-19 patients until it closed on May 13, while costing the city at least $52 million.[237] Due to rules constraining transfers and preventing 911 calls from going there, it remained mostly empty as at least three COVID-19 patients quarantining at home died and nearby hospitals exceeded capacity. USTA also had its own ambulances it could not use to pick up transfers due to exclusivity agreements between hospitals and ambulance companies.[237] During the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, private hospitals had spare beds while some public hospitals were unable to offload enough patients to stay within normal capacity, unlike during Hurricane Sandy, when patients were actively balanced across the region.[237]

Although the number of new patients admitted to the hospitals started to slow in early April, Cuomo stated that social distancing protocols would continue to be enforced to prevent a rise in these figures that could overwhelm the strained healthcare system.[238] The USNS Comfort was originally intended to take non-COVID patients to ease the burden on city hospitals, but most New Yorkers remained isolated in their homes and non-COVID admissions decreased dramatically; the admission processes for patients who did present at the emergency room was cumbersome.[239] On April 21, when Cuomo told Trump that the Comfort was no longer needed, the ship had treated 179 patients.[240] Another field hospital, built in Brooklyn for $21 million during April, was closed the next month without ever seeing any patients.[241][242]

Syra Madad, who worked through the first wave in spring, said "We never want this to happen again", referring to the nearly 20,000 deaths from COVID-19 in New York City.[243]

Shortages and policy changes[edit]

The New York City healthcare system continued to experience major shortages with its COVID-19 testing capacity. An alert sent out on April 11, 2020, by the city's Department of Health and Mental Hygiene stated that the city's hospitals are close to running out of cotton swabs used for COVID-19 testing. The same alert reminded the providers that only those patients admitted for hospitalization should be given COVID-19 tests.[244]

Some doctors have been trying to crowdsource tablets so patients can say goodbye to loved ones. The last contact patients have with their families was when they were dropped off at the hospital or taken by ambulance.[245]

Field hospital in Central Park

Due to the demand from the pandemic on New York City hospitals, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel were ordered not to transport adult cardiac arrest cases to the hospital, if the EMS personnel were unable to restart the patient's heart at the scene.[246] On April 21 this order was modified to "do not resuscitate", meaning EMS should no longer try to revive persons on scene.[247]

Guidelines[edit]

On April 5 a state Health Department official confirmed that seriously ill patients were being treated with hydroxychloroquine. The effects are being observed by the University of Albany's School of Public Health.[248] On April 23, Cuomo said that one based on one study the drug "didn't really have much on an effect on the recovery rate." Although studies are still ongoing, hospitals have stopped using the drug as treatment.[249]

On May 1, 2020, the New York State Department of Health issued fresh COVID-19 guidelines for the Medicaid providers who are serving low-income families, nursing homes (including adult care facilities), and physically disabled individuals.[250] These guidelines were directed towards the providers of the following home and community-based services  — social daycare (SDC) services which also included the elderly (PACE) organizations and providers of Consumer Directed Personal Assistance Program (CDPAP).[251][252] However, just a month ago, New York State signed a 2021 fiscal budget to cap Medicaid long-term care (LTC) enrollment at 3% under the managed long-term care (MLTC) plans.[253] In the long run, the 3% capping will gradually reduce the number of individuals served by current Medicaid LTC plans, and also reduce the number of provider organizations able to contract with MLTC plans. However, the LTC recipients are a substantial population at risk for COVID-19 and there are cost involved to make sure the LTC facilities are adequately staffed and that infection control protocols are closely followed.[254]

Demographics[edit]

On April 5, it was reported that 51% of lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases in NYC involved people at least 50 years old.[36] In previous weeks, the dominant cohort of cases had been men between 18 and 49 years of age.[255][256]

In April, The New York Times reported that the virus is twice as deadly for Black and Latino people than whites in New York City.[257] Officials attribute this difference to longstanding inequalities of health care access, economic status, prevalence of chronic health issues or other co-morbidities, and the fact that Black and Latino people might be over represented among essential workers.[257] 75% of front line works are minorities.[258] By early May, over 5,200 Latinos in the city had died of COVID-19, making them the ethnic group with the highest number of deaths from the disease.[259]

COVID-19 is also considered to disproportionately affect low-income immigrants, who may have higher risk of exposure, misinformation, and be hesitant to access care.[260]

Data[edit]

COVID-19 cases in New York City, New York State, United States  ()
     Deaths        Hospitalizations        Confirmed cases

Feb Feb Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Jul Jul Aug Aug Sep Sep Oct Oct Nov Nov Last 30 days Last 30 days

Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-02-29 1 0
2020-03-01 1(0%) 0
2020-03-02 1(0%) 0
2020-03-03 2(+100%) 0
2020-03-04 7(+250%) 0
2020-03-05
10(+42.9%) 0
2020-03-06
18(+80%) 0
2020-03-07
25(+38.9%) 0
2020-03-08
46(+84%) 0
2020-03-09
103(+123.9%) 0
2020-03-10
172(+67%) 0
2020-03-11
327(+90.1%) 1
2020-03-12
682(+108.6%) 1(0%)
2020-03-13
1,301(+90.8%) 1(0%)
2020-03-14
1,943(+49.3%) 3(+200%)
2020-03-15
2,978(+53.3%) 8(+166.7%)
2020-03-16
5,099(+71.2%) 16(+100%)
2020-03-17
7,551(+48.1%) 24(+50%)
2020-03-18
10,522(+39.3%) 44(+83.3%)
2020-03-19
14,229(+35.2%) 68(+54.5%)
2020-03-20
18,236(+28.2%) 115(+69.1%)
2020-03-21
20,873(+14.5%) 159(+38.3%)
2020-03-22
23,452(+12.4%) 209(+31.4%)
2020-03-23
27,022(+15.2%) 291(+39.2%)
2020-03-24
31,523(+16.7%) 386(+32.6%)
2020-03-25
36,397(+15.5%) 509(+31.9%)
2020-03-26
41,444(+13.9%) 698(+37.1%)
2020-03-27
46,560(+12.3%) 916(+31.2%)
2020-03-28
50,039(+7.5%) 1,190(+29.9%)
2020-03-29
53,602(+7.1%) 1,481(+24.5%)
2020-03-30
59,732(+11.4%) 1,806(+21.9%)
2020-03-31
65,191(+9.1%) 2,191(+21.3%)
2020-04-01
70,640(+8.4%) 2,639(+20.4%)
2020-04-02
76,388(+8.1%) 3,137(+18.9%)
2020-04-03
82,058(+7.4%) 3,635(+15.9%)
2020-04-04
85,923(+4.7%) 4,146(+14.1%)
2020-04-05
89,704(+4.4%) 4,726(+14%)
2020-04-06
96,057(+7.1%) 5,301(+12.2%)
2020-04-07
102,100(+6.3%) 5,900(+11.3%)
2020-04-08
107,680(+5.5%) 6,469(+9.6%)
2020-04-09
112,750(+4.7%) 7,030(+8.7%)
2020-04-10
117,261(+4%) 7,570(+7.7%)
2020-04-11
120,993(+3.2%) 8,112(+7.2%)
2020-04-12
123,880(+2.4%) 8,684(+7.1%)
2020-04-13
127,192(+2.7%) 9,254(+6.6%)
2020-04-14
131,336(+3.3%) 9,764(+5.5%)
2020-04-15
135,214(+3%) 10,219(+4.7%)
2020-04-16
138,744(+2.6%) 10,633(+4.1%)
2020-04-17
142,329(+2.6%) 11,018(+3.6%)
2020-04-18
144,501(+1.5%) 11,408(+3.5%)
2020-04-19
146,847(+1.6%) 11,807(+3.5%)
2020-04-20
150,639(+2.6%) 12,171(+3.1%)
2020-04-21
153,702(+2%) 12,494(+2.7%)
2020-04-22
157,150(+2.2%) 12,806(+2.5%)
2020-04-23
159,991(+1.8%) 13,137(+2.6%)
2020-04-24
162,526(+1.6%) 13,451(+2.4%)
2020-04-25
164,122(+1%) 13,715(+2%)
2020-04-26
165,125(+0.6%) 13,961(+1.8%)
2020-04-27
167,413(+1.4%) 14,231(+1.9%)
2020-04-28
170,140(+1.6%) 14,460(+1.6%)
2020-04-29
172,481(+1.4%) 14,700(+1.7%)
2020-04-30
174,503(+1.2%) 14,925(+1.5%)
2020-05-01
176,390(+1.1%) 15,135(+1.4%)
2020-05-02
177,448(+0.6%) 15,325(+1.3%)
2020-05-03
178,235(+0.4%) 15,502(+1.2%)
2020-05-04
179,787(+0.9%) 15,661(+1%)
2020-05-05
181,299(+0.8%) 15,812(+1%)
2020-05-06
182,697(+0.8%) 15,964(+1%)
2020-05-07
183,934(+0.7%) 16,106(+0.9%)
2020-05-08
185,016(+0.6%) 16,237(+0.8%)
2020-05-09
185,674(+0.4%) 16,336(+0.6%)
2020-05-10
186,131(+0.2%) 16,439(+0.6%)
2020-05-11
187,362(+0.7%) 16,543(+0.6%)
2020-05-12
188,647(+0.7%) 16,634(+0.6%)
2020-05-13
189,982(+0.7%) 16,717(+0.5%)
2020-05-14
191,095(+0.6%) 16,787(+0.4%)
2020-05-15
191,970(+0.5%) 16,874(+0.5%)
2020-05-16
192,457(+0.3%) 16,957(+0.5%)
2020-05-17
192,816(+0.2%) 17,034(+0.5%)
2020-05-18
193,712(+0.5%) 17,093(+0.3%)
2020-05-19
194,716(+0.5%) 17,148(+0.3%)
2020-05-20
195,793(+0.6%) 17,228(+0.5%)
2020-05-21
196,862(+0.5%) 17,273(+0.3%)
2020-05-22
197,901(+0.5%) 17,338(+0.4%)
2020-05-23
198,357(+0.2%) 17,398(+0.3%)
2020-05-24
198,825(+0.2%) 17,447(+0.3%)
2020-05-25
199,292(+0.2%) 17,495(+0.3%)
2020-05-26
200,346(+0.5%) 17,533(+0.2%)
2020-05-27
201,090(+0.4%) 17,581(+0.3%)
2020-05-28
201,736(+0.3%) 17,619(+0.2%)
2020-05-29
202,384(+0.3%) 17,662(+0.2%)
2020-05-30
202,733(+0.2%) 17,716(+0.3%)
2020-05-31
202,963(+0.1%) 17,755(+0.2%)
2020-06-01
203,650(+0.3%) 17,790(+0.2%)
2020-06-02
204,224(+0.3%) 17,828(+0.2%)
2020-06-03
204,740(+0.3%) 17,871(+0.2%)
2020-06-04
205,264(+0.3%) 17,904(+0.2%)
2020-06-05
205,668(+0.2%) 17,932(+0.2%)
2020-06-06
205,914(+0.1%) 17,967(+0.2%)
2020-06-07
206,112(+0.1%) 17,992(+0.1%)
2020-06-08
206,563(+0.2%) 18,031(+0.2%)
2020-06-09
206,984(+0.2%) 18,064(+0.2%)
2020-06-10
207,349(+0.2%) 18,095(+0.2%)
2020-06-11
207,715(+0.2%) 18,116(+0.1%)
2020-06-12
208,125(+0.2%) 18,140(+0.1%)
2020-06-13
208,322(+0.1%) 18,155(+0.1%)
2020-06-14
208,503(+0.1%) 18,179(+0.1%)
2020-06-15
208,885(+0.2%) 18,199(+0.1%)
2020-06-16
209,305(+0.2%) 18,217(+0.1%)
2020-06-17
209,662(+0.2%) 18,237(+0.1%)
2020-06-18
210,040(+0.2%) 18,254(+0.1%)
2020-06-19
210,403(+0.2%) 18,270(+0.1%)
2020-06-20
210,607(+0.1%) 18,288(+0.1%)
2020-06-21
210,779(+0.1%) 18,316(+0.2%)
2020-06-22
211,177(+0.2%) 18,341(+0.1%)
2020-06-23
211,560(+0.2%) 18,368(+0.1%)
2020-06-24
211,941(+0.2%) 18,393(+0.1%)
2020-06-25
212,240(+0.1%) 18,412(+0.1%)
2020-06-26
212,554(+0.1%) 18,432(+0.1%)
2020-06-27
212,761(+0.1%) 18,453(+0.1%)
2020-06-28
212,964(+0.1%) 18,472(+0.1%)
2020-06-29
213,402(+0.2%) 18,495(+0.1%)
2020-06-30
213,844(+0.2%) 18,517(+0.1%)
2020-07-01
214,241(+0.2%) 18,529(+0.1%)
2020-07-02
214,658(+0.2%) 18,552(+0.1%)
2020-07-03
214,896(+0.1%) 18,572(+0.1%)
2020-07-04
215,016(+0.1%) 18,586(+0.1%)
2020-07-05
215,170(+0.1%) 18,601(+0.1%)
2020-07-06
215,604(+0.2%) 18,617(+0.1%)
2020-07-07
216,064(+0.2%) 18,630(+0.1%)
2020-07-08
216,501(+0.2%) 18,650(+0.1%)
2020-07-09
216,893(+0.2%) 18,660(+0.1%)
2020-07-10
217,203(+0.1%) 18,670(+0.1%)
2020-07-11
217,461(+0.1%) 18,683(+0.1%)
2020-07-12
217,686(+0.1%) 18,694(+0.1%)
2020-07-13
218,171(+0.2%) 18,711(+0.1%)
2020-07-14
218,572(+0.2%) 18,721(+0.1%)
2020-07-15
219,011(+0.2%) 18,734(+0.1%)
2020-07-16
219,429(+0.2%) 18,742(0%)
2020-07-17
219,847(+0.2%) 18,755(+0.1%)
2020-07-18
220,065(+0.1%) 18,764(0%)
2020-07-19
220,241(+0.1%) 18,771(0%)
2020-07-20
220,645(+0.2%) 18,782(+0.1%)
2020-07-21
220,984(+0.2%) 18,793(+0.1%)
2020-07-22
221,314(+0.1%) 18,801(0%)
2020-07-23
221,624(+0.1%) 18,810(0%)
2020-07-24
221,925(+0.1%) 18,816(0%)
2020-07-25
222,078(+0.1%) 18,827(+0.1%)
2020-07-26
222,218(+0.1%) 18,835(0%)
2020-07-27
222,533(+0.1%) 18,840(0%)
2020-07-28
222,846(+0.1%) 18,852(+0.1%)
2020-07-29
223,135(+0.1%) 18,857(0%)
2020-07-30
223,406(+0.1%) 18,861(0%)
2020-07-31
223,670(+0.1%) 18,865(0%)
2020-08-01
223,859(+0.1%) 18,873(0%)
2020-08-02
223,996(+0.1%) 18,875(0%)
2020-08-03
224,344(+0.2%) 18,878(0%)
2020-08-04
224,531(+0.1%) 18,884(0%)
2020-08-05
224,832(+0.1%) 18,892(0%)
2020-08-06
225,126(+0.1%) 18,898(0%)
2020-08-07
225,387(+0.1%) 18,902(0%)
2020-08-08
225,548(+0.1%) 18,908(0%)
2020-08-09
225,681(+0.1%) 18,911(0%)
2020-08-10
225,992(+0.1%) 18,917(0%)
2020-08-11
226,257(+0.1%) 18,923(0%)
2020-08-12
226,577(+0.1%) 18,924(0%)
2020-08-13
226,854(+0.1%) 18,927(0%)
2020-08-14
227,132(+0.1%) 18,930(0%)
2020-08-15
227,283(+0.1%) 18,937(0%)
2020-08-16
227,423(+0.1%) 18,942(0%)
2020-08-17
227,753(+0.1%) 18,948(0%)
2020-08-18
228,036(+0.1%) 18,950(0%)
2020-08-19
228,293(+0.1%) 18,952(0%)
2020-08-20
228,520(+0.1%) 18,959(0%)
2020-08-21
228,772(+0.1%) 18,962(0%)
2020-08-22
228,909(+0.1%) 18,968(0%)
2020-08-23
229,059(+0.1%) 18,972(0%)
2020-08-24
229,358(+0.1%) 18,980(0%)
2020-08-25
229,641(+0.1%) 18,985(0%)
2020-08-26
229,954(+0.1%) 18,991(0%)
2020-08-27
230,229(+0.1%) 18,992(0%)
2020-08-28
230,513(+0.1%) 18,998(0%)
2020-08-29
230,641(+0.1%) 19,002(0%)
2020-08-30
230,824(+0.1%) 19,010(0%)
2020-08-31
231,137(+0.1%) 19,013(0%)
2020-09-01
231,433(+0.1%) 19,018(0%)
2020-09-02
231,707(+0.1%) 19,025(0%)
2020-09-03
231,982(+0.1%) 19,031(0%)
2020-09-04
232,211(+0.1%) 19,036(0%)
2020-09-05
232,369(+0.1%) 19,039(0%)
2020-09-06
232,577(+0.1%) 19,046(0%)
2020-09-07
232,795(+0.1%) 19,049(0%)
2020-09-08
233,188(+0.2%) 19,051(0%)
2020-09-09
233,541(+0.2%) 19,053(0%)
2020-09-10
233,863(+0.1%) 19,057(0%)
2020-09-11
234,177(+0.1%) 19,062(0%)
2020-09-12
234,379(+0.1%) 19,068(0%)
2020-09-13
234,637(+0.1%) 19,071(0%)
2020-09-14
235,072(+0.2%) 19,076(0%)
2020-09-15
235,412(+0.1%) 19,079(0%)
2020-09-16
235,781(+0.2%) 19,086(0%)
2020-09-17
236,136(+0.2%) 19,091(0%)
2020-09-18
236,425(+0.1%) 19,095(0%)
2020-09-19
236,585(+0.1%) 19,100(0%)
2020-09-20
236,743(+0.1%) 19,105(0%)
2020-09-21
237,258(+0.2%) 19,108(0%)
2020-09-22
237,665(+0.2%) 19,111(0%)
2020-09-23
238,198(+0.2%) 19,115(0%)
2020-09-24
238,666(+0.2%) 19,118(0%)
2020-09-25
239,120(+0.2%) 19,122(0%)
2020-09-26
239,400(+0.1%) 19,128(0%)
2020-09-27
239,782(+0.2%) 19,130(0%)
2020-09-28
240,217(+0.2%) 19,134(0%)
2020-09-29
240,905(+0.3%) 19,142(0%)
2020-09-30
241,493(+0.2%) 19,149(0%)
2020-10-01
242,110(+0.3%) 19,154(0%)
2020-10-02
242,705(+0.2%) 19,158(0%)
2020-10-03
242,981(+0.1%) 19,163(0%)
2020-10-04
243,318(+0.1%) 19,170(0%)
2020-10-05
244,170(+0.4%) 19,172(0%)
2020-10-06
244,736(+0.2%) 19,175(0%)
2020-10-07
245,278(+0.2%) 19,179(0%)
2020-10-08
245,798(+0.2%) 19,185(0%)
2020-10-09
246,324(+0.2%) 19,188(0%)
2020-10-10
246,634(+0.1%) 19,192(0%)
2020-10-11
246,914(+0.1%) 19,200(0%)
2020-10-12
247,428(+0.2%) 19,207(0%)
2020-10-13
248,013(+0.2%) 19,210(0%)
2020-10-14
248,590(+0.2%) 19,216(0%)
2020-10-15
249,190(+0.2%) 19,225(0%)
2020-10-16
249,689(+0.2%) 19,231(0%)
2020-10-17
250,054(+0.1%) 19,237(0%)
2020-10-18
250,466(+0.2%) 19,241(0%)
2020-10-19
251,091(+0.2%) 19,248(0%)
2020-10-20
251,694(+0.2%) 19,254(0%)
2020-10-21
252,348(+0.3%) 19,259(0%)
2020-10-22
253,101(+0.3%) 19,262(0%)
2020-10-23
253,698(+0.2%) 19,266(0%)
2020-10-24
254,081(+0.2%) 19,267(0%)
2020-10-25
254,444(+0.1%) 19,277(+0.1%)
2020-10-26
255,132(+0.3%) 19,281(0%)
2020-10-27
255,864(+0.3%) 19,289(0%)
2020-10-28
256,636(+0.3%) 19,293(0%)
2020-10-29
257,249(+0.2%) 19,297(0%)
2020-10-30
257,891(+0.2%) 19,308(+0.1%)
2020-10-31
258,293(+0.2%) 19,312(0%)
2020-11-01
258,782(+0.2%) 19,325(+0.1%)
2020-11-02
259,727(+0.4%) 19,335(+0.1%)
2020-11-03
260,604(+0.3%) 19,348(+0.1%)
2020-11-04
261,681(+0.4%) 19,357(0%)
2020-11-05
262,785(+0.4%) 19,367(+0.1%)
2020-11-06
263,787(+0.4%) 19,377(+0.1%)
2020-11-07
264,585(+0.3%) 19,391(+0.1%)
2020-11-08
265,346(+0.3%) 19,400(0%)
2020-11-09
266,857(+0.6%) 19,404(0%)
2020-11-10
268,365(+0.6%) 19,411(0%)
2020-11-11
269,801(+0.5%) 19,420(0%)
2020-11-12
271,209(+0.5%) 19,434(+0.1%)
2020-11-13
272,627(+0.5%) 19,440(0%)
2020-11-14
273,574(+0.3%) 19,450(+0.1%)
2020-11-15
274,390(+0.3%) 19,462(+0.1%)
2020-11-16
275,979(+0.6%) 19,471(0%)
2020-11-17
277,316(+0.5%) 19,480(0%)
2020-11-18
278,598(+0.5%) 19,487(0%)
2020-11-19
279,767(+0.4%) 19,490(0%)
2020-11-20
280,598(+0.3%) 19,494(0%)
Cases: The number of cases confirmed in New York City.

Deaths: Includes only people who had a positive COVID-19 laboratory test

Sources: nyc.gov[261]

Graphs[edit]

Adapted from nyc.gov.[4] Note that the cases are by date of diagnosis, and deaths are by date of death. Due to delays in reporting, historical counts may be subject to change and recent data may be incomplete.

Cases over time[edit]

See or edit raw graph data.


See or edit raw graph data.


All-cause deaths[edit]

Weekly all-cause deaths in New York City Excess Deaths Associated with COVID-19:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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