Corporate statism

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Corporate statism, state corporatism, or simply corporatism is a political culture and a form of corporatism - closely related to fascism - whose adherents hold that the corporate group which forms the basis of society is the state. The state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group. Such interest groups thus attain public status, and they participate in national policymaking. As a result, the state has great control over the groups, and groups have great control over their members.[1]

As with other political cultures, societies have existed historically which exemplified corporate statism, for instance as propounded by Othmar Spann (1878-1950) in Austria and implemented by Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) in Italy (1922-1943) and by António de Oliveira Salazar's Estado Novo in Portugal (1933-1974).[2]

Corporate statism most commonly manifests itself as a ruling party acting as a mediator between the workers, capitalists and other prominent state interests by institutionally incorporating them into the ruling mechanism. Corporatist systems were most prevalent in the mid-20th Century in Europe and later elsewhere in developing countries. According to this[which?] critique, interests, both social and economic, are so diverse that a state cannot possibly mediate between them effectively through incorporating them.[citation needed] Social conflicts go beyond incorporated dichotomies of labor and capital to include innumerable groups. Furthermore, globalization presents challenges, both social and economic, that a corporate state cannot sufficiently address because these problems transcend state borders and approaches.[citation needed] Corporate statism therefore differs from Corporate nationalism in that it is a social mode of organization rather than economic nationalism operating through private business corporations.

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  1. ^ Abrahamian; DeBardeleben; DeSipio; Grindle; Kew and Lewis; Ross. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. p. 474.
  2. ^ Badie, Bertrand; Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Morlino, Leonardo, eds. (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications. ISBN 9781483305394. Retrieved 9 September 2020. [...] fascist Italy [...] developed a state structure known as the corporate state with the ruling party acting as a mediator between 'corporations' making up the body of the nation. Similar designs were quite popular elsewhere in the 1930s. The most prominent examples were Estado Novo in Portugal (1932-1968) and Brazil (1937-1945), the Austrian Standestaat (1933-1938), and authoritarian experiments in Estonia, Romania, and some other countries of East and East-Central Europe.