Corruption in Bangladesh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Corruption in Bangladesh has been a continuing problem with the country being ranked as the most corrupt country for the year 2005 in the list published by Transparency International.

The country's ranking on the same list for the years 2011[1] and 2012[2] is 120th and 144th respectively, where a country ranked with a higher number is perceived as more corrupt.

Contents

History[edit]

The corruption of Bangladesh can be traced back to the history of the Bengal and the Bengali population. During the course of thousands of years, inhabitants of Bengal experienced a plethora of religious, ruling, cultural, political changes, turmoils, and, repressions.

As is visible in most countries those were under colonial rule: Bengal also became a testing ground for various thoughts and philosophies and systems. Neither of those went in favor of the common people. Those were used by rulers, or, more powerful neighbors to control the resources and the population of Bengal. They severely affected unity and originality, and, contributed to the division and polarization of the thoughts, philosophies, and, the way of living of Bengali people.

For Bangladesh, the situation became aggravated during the modern times. With the partition of India, the Hindu dominated western part of the Bengal, became the part of India, and, thus found some sort of unity under the umbrella of Indian nationalism which mostly stands on the grounds of religion. On the other hand, Bangladesh first became the part of Pakistan and experienced severe inequality and repression and thus the unity under religious umbrella fell through. After the independence, Bangladesh experienced a series of corrupt, autocratic and military rulers who ruled the country on the basis of their personal agenda, platforms of thoughts and conceptions which were not governed by the interests of the country and the people. These regimes affected the qualitative backbone of the government, administration, and, politics. This trend still continues.

Causes of corruption[edit]

Cases of corruption are basically rooted deep in the political culture of Bangladesh and also due to the mass psychology under this type of political rule.

Vintage Legal System[edit]

Criminal and Civil laws of Bangladesh are, as are so many other subcontinent countries' legal systems, based on that of the previous colonial power, Great Britain. To cope with constant change in the socio-economic aspects of the life of the people in the region, almost all countries established law commissions. Probably, the most active of them is Indian Law Commission which boasts with the formation of twenty commissions after the partition. Bangladesh is one of the most inconsistent countries in the subcontinent to have active Law Commissions. The law commissions were not formed regularly, the reports submitted by the commission did not receive enough attention by the governments and consequently the country runs on a frail legal system which is characterized by delay in the trial and hearing, faulty investigation, wrong verdicts and so on.

Flawed Democratic System[edit]

Bangladesh is a Unitary State which runs on a Parliamentary Democracy. The parliament is Unicameral. There are no provinces or federal subjects. When a political party wins a majority in the parliament, there is nothing to bar them from passing legislation that only benefits the party itself. Most national decisions are taken unilaterally and outside of the parliament by the ruling party and the opposition is mostly never paid heed to. As a result, the opposition regularly keeps them absent from the parliament or walks out from the parliamentary debate.

The President is a figurehead who is selected by the ruling party from the pool of their politicians, usually most senior or retired. Although every bill passed by the parliament need president's consent to become a law, if the parliament keeps sending the bill to the president for ratification more than two times and president still refuses to sign, it automatically becomes a law.

Absence of Separation of Power[edit]

Many of the accountability and policy making governmental institutions, such as, Court System, Election Commission, Anti-Corruption Commission, Human Rights Commission, public universities, and, regulation of the state media is controlled by the political party in power. The ruling party generally dismisses the heads of those institutions as soon as they assume the office, and, appoint new heads from their loyal associations.

Members of parliament (MP) interfere with, influence, or, control the public administration, law enforcement agencies, and, local government in administrative matters and matters related to law and order. One of the most controversial topics is, handling of public money by the lawmakers related to development (construction and repairing of roads and highways, or, other public establishments like stadium, embankment, dams, and so on) and rehabilitation (flood, or, other natural disasters) works and projects. Another major issue is, influencing, or, seizing various government tenders to grab the contract for themselves, or, people loyal to them.

National Politics[edit]

The purpose of national politics in Bangladesh seems to be purely aimed at personal gain. Politicians invest much money to win the elections and target then manage the operation of government during their tenure to recoup the expenditure. Most of the Bangladeshi politicians are retired bureaucrats, military officials and businessmen. Businessmen enter politics to control their business territory and to achieve favor from the political parties. Alternatively, when politicians see the favorable condition, they start a business.

Politicians always put their political agenda in front of the national agenda and in some cases national agenda never make it to the decision tables. Cabinet members spend a substantial amount of time in party politics, their own businesses and negotiating with the lobbyists. They even use national resources to aid in their personal or, party interest.

Political parties in Bangladesh are governed by hereditary bloodline. Every major political party of Bangladesh elects party-chairman from the pool of family members of the founder or previous major leader of the party, like, wife, or, daughter, or, son.

There have been proposals to dissolve the student wings of the political parties at the national level and every political party unanimously disagreed with the proposal. There have also been proposals and requests to put a national ban on politically motivated ‘Hartal’s, or, Strikes, and, major political parties disagreed on that matter, too.

Student Politics[edit]

Student politics of Bangladesh is reactive, confrontational and violent. Student organizations act as the armament of the political parties they are part of. So every now and then there are affrays and commotions. Over the years, political clashes and factional feuds in the educational institutes killed many, seriously hampering academic atmosphere. To check those hitches, universities have no options but go to lengthy and unexpected closures. So classes are not completed on time and there are session jams.

The student wings of ruling parties dominate the campuses and residential halls through crime and violence to enjoy various unauthorized facilities. They control the residential halls to manage seats in favor of their party members and loyal pupils. They eat and buy for free from the restaurants and shops nearby. They extort and grab tenders to earn illicit money. They take money from the freshmen candidates and put pressures on teachers to get an acceptance for them. They take money from the job seekers and put pressures on university administrations to appoint them.[3]

Crippled Administration[edit]

The recruitment process of governmental officials is strictly controlled by the party in power so that they can recruit personnel who are only loyal to them. The public servants entrusted with the ruling party get regular promotions and other facilities while the others do not.

Members of any civil organization or department are affiliated with the political parties and act accordingly. Every government organization or institution is polarized into ruling and opposition parties.

There is a strong culture of adulation, lobbying, and idol worshipping among the public and private institutions. These elements govern the employees' promotion, benefit and achievement considerations, and, the chain-of-command.

Crises of Role Model and Visionary[edit]

Various countries in the world have some public figures that are revered by all, irrespective of political parties and people of all classes and religions. Decisions, activities, and, roles played by them, in the interest of the nation and country, are acclaimed by the people of the country and/or other countries around the world. They were mostly free from controversies, or, at least, controversies became irrelevant as compared to their achievements, even from the eyes of people who opposed them. For instance, Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore, Mahatma Gandhi of India, Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of Turkey, Nelson Mandela of South Africa, and, so on. These people worked as reformers, visionaries, intellectual guides and philosophers of the people of their countries for the generations to come.

Bangladesh never had undisputed leaders. All of the national or public figures of Bangladesh are connected to some kind of controversy in some way. Some are connected to corruption and some are attributed to controversial decisions and acts that seriously hampered the nation’s interest or honor. As a result, people of Bangladesh do not have any role model, or, visionary to follow. Each political party enforces their own leaders to be the only undisputed leader of the country. But, citizens remain deeply divided and this has been a common topic of debate and controversy for decades.

Deep Political Division in the Society and Culture[edit]

There are political wings in all political parties in Bangladesh for every type of professions. For example, doctors, university-teachers, religious clerics, artists, laborers, all have political wings. It is not clear that whether these political wings were formed by people from those professions themselves, or, were encouraged by the political parties to do so.

They all act as the armament for those political parties during various decisive events, public demonstrations, or, political conflicts.

Virtually Non-existent Civic Society[edit]

There is no functional civic society system in existence in Bangladesh. Intellectuals, academics/educators, physicians, journalists, cultural figures, civil servants, all are polarized, and, in most of cases, involved in party-politics.

They do so to achieve favors from political parties in power. For example, if an intellectual becomes an admirer of a specific party, he would find national respects from a political party in power. In case of an academic/educator, he may become the head of an institution, or, at least, a person powerful enough to be consulted by heads. In case of a physician, he may become a head of a health institute. Cultural figures may find some appropriate positions or advantages from a political party. For example, becoming head of a governmental cultural institutes. Civil servants generally become members of cabinets.

In some cases, people join poles to avoid embarrassments. For example, suppose in an institution, all employees are divided into two political poles. If somebody does not join any of those poles, either he may become enemies of both of the poles, or, may fail to achieve due advantages.

Mass Characteristics[edit]

A popular pastime of common people is to gossip, which incorporates huge curiosity over life and activities of other people around and usually ends up with breach of privacy.

Workplace bullying and harassment is pervasive.

Public opinions are generally driven by media and propaganda which is reflected in the national elections where the election result is predominantly governed by mass media and the bloodlines of political leaders.

Mass population has no practice of pedestrian and driving etiquette. Some common examples are, to drive along the reverse lanes on the roads, not using zebra crossings, not using overpasses, crossing streets by abrupt running, and, so on.[4]

Obeying laws and rules are generally seen as private matters. For example, professional seniors, politicians, public figures and bureaucrats have a general tendency of bending laws or rules. In many ways, bending of rules is considered as a matter of prestige. [5]

Corruption by Sector[edit]

Politics[edit]

ADB lost much money due to corruption in Dhaka WASA, DWSSDP In different projects. ADB and Dwasa management needs to focus on the corruptions happening with different projects specially in the function of purchasing. Just to refer that in the procurement of regular valve purchasing under DWSSDP, package ICB 04.5 total 07 bidders submitted their bids, out of the seven only One Chinese company is going to be awarded whose price is almost 10-20% higher than some European companies, many potential bidders from Turkey, Denmark, Italy, etc. had been directly technically forced to be disqualified without asking for any Clarifications. PMU and TEC asked clarification from 03 bidders. It Is informed that in two stages clarification have been asked which PMU can not ask as it is material deviation as per ITB. The evaluation process is partial and presettled.Even the Chinese company which is going to be awarded has submitted one clarification after the mentioned deadline. PMU arranged and received the clarification from that specific bidder after the deadline showing the mentioned date in the opening of clarification.There is an unexpected corruption is going to be held in this procurement. Only one bidder is technically responsivefor its financial offer which has been manipulated by PMU concerned of procurement experts of DMC in favor of the Chinese company with largerprice.PMU and DMC concerned are involved in this corruption which costing ADB not less than 150,000 USD.

Nepotism[edit]

Government[edit]

Bureaucracy[edit]

The curious case of Valery A Taylor.[6]

Land and property[edit]

Companies report that they are subjected to costly and unnecessary licence and permit requirements, while e-governance is not yet developed in Bangladesh. Face-to-face encounters with public officials are therefore inevitable and facilitate the solicitation of bribes.

Tendering processes and awarding contracts[edit]

Reports of corruption in the awarding of public and private tenders are frequent. Collusion between political leaders and bureaucrats in public contracting occurs in favour of particular bidders.

Claimed trends[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

Income tax department[edit]

Business[edit]

ADB is losing much money due to corruption in Dhaka WASA, DWSSDP with different projects. ADB and Dwasa management needs to focus on the corruption happening with different projects, specially purchasing. Just to refer that in the procurement of regular valve purchasing under DWSSDP,package ICB 04.5 total 07 bidders submitted their bids, out of the seven only One Chinese company is going to be awarded whose price is almost 10-20% higher than some European companies, many potential bidders from turkey, Denmark, Italy etc. had been directly technically forced to be disqualified without asking for any Clarifications. PMU and TEC asked clarification from 03 bidders. It Is informed that in two stages clarification have been asked which PMU can not ask as it is material deviation as per ITB. The evaluation process is partial and presettled.Even the Chinese company which is going to be awarded has submitted one clarification after the mentioned deadline. PMU arranged and received the clarification from that specific bidder after the deadline showing the mentioned date in the opening of clarification.There is an unexpected corruption is going to be held in this procurement. Only one bidder is technically responsivefor its financial offer which has been manipulated by PMU concerned of procurement experts of DMC in favor of the Chinese company with largerprice.PMU and DMC concerned are involved in this corruption which costing ADB not less than 150,000 USD.

Black Money in Abroad[edit]

The political corruption is a known matter at Bangladesh.[7]

Judiciary[edit]

Armed forces[edit]

Health Sector[edit]

Quality of Treatment[edit]

Drug Industry[edit]

Public Hospitals[edit]

Private Hospitals[edit]

Diagnostic Centers[edit]

Over the years, private medical diagnostic centres have mushroomed around the country. Most of them do not maintain Governmental health rules. There are many diagnostic centers situated in the residential areas and most of them do not care about the possibility of exposure of radiation from the medical equipments. There are lack of trained professionals and ethical practices. They maintain contracts with prominent doctors and hospitals so that, they can have a consistent and guaranteed flow of patients. There are many cases such that, the patient doesn't need a medical investigation, but, the doctor prescribes him for a medical checkup to fulfil his obligation toward the diagnostic center.

Education Sector[edit]

Agricultural Sector[edit]

Food[edit]

Food Industry[edit]

Banking Sector[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Public Transportation[edit]

Private Transportation[edit]

Media[edit]

Newspaper[edit]

Television Channels[edit]

Public Infrastructure[edit]

Intellectual Property Rights[edit]


Effects of corruption[edit]

Misery of Citizens[edit]

National Braindrain[edit]

Most of the students with high academic achievements tend to get out of the country and try to never come back. This is evident in the student directory of various universities of Bangladesh.

Economic Growth[edit]

GDP growth has not been able to achieve its desired pace. For instance, in 2005, Vietnam had a GDP of USD 57.63 billion, and, Bangladesh had a GDP of USD 60.27 billion. In 2013, the GDP of Bangladesh has become USD 149.99 billion, whereas, the GDP of Vietnam has become USD 171.39 billion.

Data from the World Bank shows that the countries like Singapore, Chile, Peru and Vietnam had similar GDPs, around USD 20 billion, around the 1985s. But, with the span of last thirty years all of them well surpassed Bangladesh.[8]

Foreign Investment[edit]

The Foreign Investment in Bangladesh has recently cut down by 60% because of political conflict and unstable economy.

External Debt[edit]

External debt of Bangladesh has grown steadily from USD 16.50 billion to USD 25.22 billion from 2000 to 2012.[9]

Infrastructure[edit]

Tourism[edit]

World Bank data shows that Bangladesh attracts lower number of tourists even than that of some war-torn countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar, and, Sri Lanka. [10]

Crime[edit]

Public Health[edit]

Proliforation of Diabetes[edit]

Outflux of Patients[edit]

Anti Corruption Efforts[edit]

There has not been seen any prominent anticorruption effort from the government and public organizations.

Anti-Corruption Laws[edit]

Anti Corruption Commission[edit]

Anti Corruption Commission Bangladesh (Bengali: দুর্নীতি দমন কমিশন) often abbreviated: ACC (Bengali: দুদক) was formed through an act promulgated on 23 February 2004 that into force on 9 May 2004. Although initially, it could not make the desired impact, but immediately following its reconstitution in February 2007, the ACC began working with renewed vigor and impetus duly acceding to the United Nations' convention against corruption that was adopted by the General Assembly away back on 31 October 2003.

The Anti-Corruption Commission of Bangladesh is crippled by the 2013 amendment of the Anti Corruption Commission Act: 2013 changes in the act makes it necessary for the commission obtain the permission from the government to investigate or file any charge against government bureaucrats or politicians.

Right to Information Act[edit]

Transparency International Bangladesh[edit]

Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) is a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption in Bangladesh. It has elaborate research and advocacy programmes for policy change and institutional reform for creating conditions for reducing corruption and promoting good governance in Bangladesh.

References[edit]

  1. ^ * "Corruption Perceptions Index 2011". Transparency International. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  2. ^ * "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012". Transparency International. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Political Parties and Political Violence". http://www.refworld.org/. Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada. May 1, 1994. Retrieved April 28, 2015. 
  4. ^ Akhter, Shahin. "Reckless riding increases motorcycle accidents". Archived from the original on 10 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  5. ^ Rumman, Syed. "Bangladeshi Ministers breaking the law". Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  6. ^ Mortoza, Golam. "A British born Humanitarian becomes; Prey to Vultures of the Society.". Retrieved 29 April 2015. 
  7. ^ * "Bangladesh Corruption Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  8. ^ ,. "GDP Comparison". Worldbank. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  9. ^ "Bangladesh External Debt". http://databank.worldbank.org/. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  10. ^ "Bangladesh Tourism Data". http://databank.worldbank.org/. Retrieved 22 April 2015.