Corruption in Bangladesh
|Corruption by country|
|Oceania and the Pacific|
Corruption in Bangladesh has been a continuing problem. According to all major ranking institutions, Bangladesh routinely finds itself among the most corrupt countries in the world. From 2001 until 2005, Bangladesh was ranked the most corrupt country in the world by Transparency International according to Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Although, the status started to improve after 2006, the country is still found at the bottom of the list. The latest ranking published in 2015 placed the country at 139th among 168 countries in the world, with a CPI of 25 in 100. The public sectors conducted by the Government are the most corrupted sectors of the country. Anti Corruption Commission was formed through an act in 2004, but is considered to be largely ineffective in investigating and preventing corruption.
Corruption by sector
Bribery, rent-seeking and inappropriate use of government funds, excessive lobbying, long time delays in service performance, pilferage, irresponsible conduct from the government officials, bureaucratic intemperance have made public sector departments the most corrupt sectors of Bangladesh. Public sectors in Bangladesh include police departments, fire departments, water supply, electricity, gas supply, education, waste disposal, health, transportation, administration etc.
A 2012 Survey by Transparency International Bangladesh showed that 40.2% of the people fell victim to the irregularities and corruptions in public hospitals. Doctors, nurses and other professionals working in government-run public hospitals have long been accused of demanding bribes for services which are supposed to be provided free of cost. The survey also alleged that the recruitment, transfer and promotion process of personnel in this sector is also corrupted. Although the allegations were rejected by the Government Health Ministry. The survey reported that there is lack of regulation from the government in the private health care sector. The medical practitioners in these sector earn money by driving up health care costs and commission agreements with diagnostic centers. According to patients, even in emergency needs, they were unable to access services unless a bribe is paid first.
Companies have been reported to be subjected to expensive and useless license and permit requirements. Business owners do not obey proper safety codes of the buildings and workplaces. As a result, several large accidents occurred and killed hundreds. Politicians are involved in giving contracts to foreign companies by taking bribes or kickbacks in closed-door negotiations.
In public universities and colleges the student wings of ruling political parties dominate the campuses and residential halls through crime and violence to gain various unauthorized facilities. They control the residential halls to manage seats in favour of their party members and loyal pupils. They eat and buy for free from restaurants and shops inside their campus. They extort and grab tenders to earn illicit money. They take money from job seekers and put pressure on university administrations to appoint them. In government colleges they take money from freshmen candidates and put pressure on teachers and officials to get acceptance for them. Some of them often involves in robbery and rape.
Law enforcement agencies
In 2002, Transparency International Bangladesh revealed that Bangladesh Police is one of the most corrupt public institutions in Bangladesh. In 2013, they again published the same kind of assessment. Asian Human Rights Commission revealed that people of Bangladesh pay more to police than to the government. Police force benefits from political patronage and culture of impunity. Police is involved in blackmailing, extortion, torture, rape, and killing. Law enforcement agencies like Rapid Action Battalion are involved in extrajudicial killing, murder, abduction, and rampant human rights abuse.
Traffic is heavy and chaotic in urban areas, specially in big cities. Streets are extremely congested and the usual traffic and safety rules are not applied or obeyed. Most drivers are untrained, unlicensed and uninsured. Over the years, road accidents have risen to a disastrous level. Bangladesh Jatri Kalyan Samity, assessed that 8,589 people had died in road accidents across the country in 2014. 5,000 people died in road accidents in 2015. According to World Bank statistics, annual fatality rate from road accidents is found to be 85.6 fatalities per 10,000 vehicles. Chaos in the street is usually caused by reckless driving and jaywalking which leads to fatal accidents. Police, Ministers, Lawmakers, VIPs have the tendency to break traffic laws by driving on the reverse sides of the roads.
Effect of corruption
|This section requires expansion. (May 2016)|
GDP growth has not been able to achieve its desired pace. For instance, in 2005, Vietnam had a GDP of USD 57.63 billion and Bangladesh had a GDP of USD 60.27 billion. In 2013, the GDP of Bangladesh has become USD 149.99 billion, whereas the GDP of Vietnam has become USD 171.39 billion.
Data from the World Bank shows that the countries like Singapore, Chile, Peru and Vietnam had similar GDPs, around USD 20 billion, around the 1985s. But, with the span of last thirty years all of them surpassed Bangladesh.
Monitoring of corruption
Anti Corruption Commission
Anti Corruption Commission Bangladesh, often abbreviated ACC, was formed through an act promulgated on 23 February 2004 that came into force on 9 May 2004. The Commission filed two notable cases against former and present prime minister of Bangladesh in 2008. A case was filed against Khaleda Zia regarding graft at the Zia Charitable Trust and Zia Orphanage Trust. Another case was against Sheikh Hasina and eight others for awarding gas exploration and extraction deal to Niko Resources through corruption and abuse of power.
The Anti-Corruption Commission of Bangladesh is crippled by the 2013 amendment of the Anti Corruption Commission Act which makes it necessary for the commission to obtain permission from the government to investigate or file any charge against government bureaucrats or politicians. The commission is often criticised for being ineffective and a wastage of resources.
Transparency International Bangladesh
Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) is an independent, non-government, non-partisan and non-profit organization which is a fully accredited national chapter of Berlin-based Transparency International in Bangladesh. TIB undertakes research and surveys to investigate the magnitude and impact of corruption and suggest necessary moves for establishing a transparent system of governance, politics and business.
CPI of Bangladesh
|2001||91 (0.4) most corrupt||71(2.7)||79(2.3)|
|2002||102 (1.2) most corrupt||72(2.7)||77(2.6)|
|2003||133 (1.3) most corrupt||83(2.8)||92(2.5)|
|2004||145 (1.5) most corrupt||90(2.8)||129(2.1)|
|2005||158 (1.7) most corrupt||88(2.9)||144(2.1)|
|2006||156 (2.0) 8th most corrupt||70(3.3)||142(2.2)|
|2007||162 (2.0) 7th most corrupt||72(3.5)||138(2.4)|
|2014||145(2.5) 14th most corrupt||85(3.8)||126(2.9)|
|2015||166 (11) 2nd most corrupt||138 (25) 13th most corrupt||27(65)||76(38)||147(22)||130(27)||117 (30)||83(37)|
- "Business Corruption in Bangladesh". Business Anti-corruption Portal. Business Anti-corruption Portal. December 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- e.V., Transparency International. "Research – CPI – Corruption Perceptions Index 2001". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
- Nation, The New. "TI finds no change in curruption level". The New Nation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Corruption as bad as before in Bangladesh, says Transparency International". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Bangladesh's CPI 2015 score is same as 2014, slips one position from bottom: TIB calls for challenging impunity and bring the corrupt to justice". www.ti-bangladesh.org. Transparency International Bangladesh. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- e.V., Transparency International. "Transparency International – The Global Anti-Corruption Coalition". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2016-04-28.
- Zafarullah, Habib; Siddiquee, Noore Alam (2001-12-01). "Dissecting Public Sector Corruption in Bangladesh: Issues and Problems of Control". Public Organization Review. 1 (4): 465–486. doi:10.1023/A:1013740000213. ISSN 1566-7170.
- "ACC largely ineffective". The Daily Star. 2014-05-21. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Anti Corruption Commission and Political Government: An Evaluation of Awami League Regime (2009-2012) | Government and Politics, JU". govpoliju.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- Khan, Mohammad Mohabbat (July 2003). "State of Governance in Bangladesh". The Round Table. Taylor & Francis. 92 (370): 391–405. doi:10.1080/0035853032000111116. ISSN 0035-8533.
- "Public Services in Bangladesh". bangladesh.com. Retrieved 2016-05-25.Template:Unreliable sourced
- Azad, Abid (7 November 2014). "TIB: Health sector sickened with bribery and corruption". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
- A.M. Badrudduza (12 February 2013), Activists are calling for stronger action to address rising levels of corruption in Bangladesh's troubled public health care system, irinnews.org
- Abid Azad (7 November 2014), TIB: Health sector sickened with bribery and corruption, Dhaka Tribune
- e.V., Transparency International. "In Bangladesh, corruption kills hundreds - Transparency International". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- "Bangladesh: The Blowback of Corruption". PBS.org. WGBH Educational Foundation. August 21, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- "World Bank Statement on Padma Bridge". The World Bank. The World Bank. June 29, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Anam, Tahmima (2014-11-23). "Dhaka's Unruly Campus Partisans". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Student politics and its ugly side". news.asiaone.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Violent student politics wreck Bangladesh campus life". www.dawn.com. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "JnU, Kabi Nazrul College Chhatra League activists clash over extortion of money from students". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
- "Political Parties and Political Violence". Refworld. Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada. May 1, 1994. Retrieved April 28, 2015 – via UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
- "Admission trade nets Tk 1cr in 3 colleges". The Daily Star. 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
- "Chhatra League vs. Chhatra League". Prothom Alo. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
- "BCL men fight over 'admission trade'". The Daily Star. 2010-01-28. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
- "Muggers in action in city". The Daily Star. 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Dhaka University expels student on charge of mugging a man". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- e.V., Transparency International. "Press release - Police, then judiciary most corrupt public institutions in South Asia, reveals TI survey". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Political parties, cops most corrupt". The Daily Star. 2013-07-09. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "BANGLADESH: People pay more to the police than to their government — Asian Human Rights Commission". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Corruption in Bangladesh". www.business-anti-corruption.com. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Police officer 'tried to blackmail Bangladesh Bank official' threatening Yaba taint". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Police extort money from Bangladeshi expatriate | Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "BANGLADESH: Police attack, torture, and kill villagers to facilitate land grab — Asian Human Rights Commission". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Bangladesh police man charged in alleged gang rape of police woman". GlobalPost. 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- Diplomat, Zachary Keck, The. "Bangladesh Police Kill Protestors, Charge Families With Murders". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Bangladesh: Disband Death Squad". Human Rights Watch. 2014-07-21. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "BANGLADESH: Chains of Corruption Strangle Nation — Asian Human Rights Commission". Asian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "RAB reveals how Narayanganj seven murders were written". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "NARAYANGANJ 7 MURDERS: 35 including Noor Hossain, 25 RAB men indicted - New Age". New Age. 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Crossfire". Human Rights Watch. 2011-05-10. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- Shay, Christopher (2011-06-19). "Has Bangladesh's Elite Police Force Gone Too Far?". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Bangladesh police 'death squad' under fire". www.sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
- "Traffic congestion remains a perennial problem in the capital city, causing waste of hundreds of hours in the streets. How to address the terrible problem? - New Age". New Age. 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Traffic congestion eats Ctg people's heart out | Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Traffic congestion a regular feature on Rajshahi roads". The Daily Star. 1999-01-12. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Traffic congestion intensifies in Khulna". Traffic congestion intensifies in Khulna | theindependentbd.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- Hobbes, Michael (2014-07-03). "Welcome to the Traffic Capital of the World". New Republic. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "What traffic rules? | Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Traffic rule enforcement can make a difference - New Age". New Age. 2015-07-14. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Untrained drivers rule routes". The Daily Star. 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Reckless driving, fake licence major causes - New Age". New Age. 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- Rahman, Tashmina (2012-01-03). "Road Accidents in Bangladesh: An Alarming Issue". End Poverty in South Asia. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- Kelly, Annie (2012-12-10). "Traffic tragedies threaten to overwhelm Bangladesh's emergency wards | Annie Kelly". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Study: Road accidents killed one per hour in 2014 | Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "'5,000' people died in road accidents in 2015: Nischa". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Transport - Road Safety". web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Chaos in the street, caused by both reckless driving and jaywalking, often leads to fatal accidents. How to stop it? - New Age". New Age. 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Traffic accidents : Are the drivers solely to blame?". Traffic accidents : Are the drivers solely to blame? | theindependentbd.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Pedestrians often cross city roads through unauthorised points, avoiding nearby footbridges. How to solve the problem? - New Age". New Age. 2014-11-09. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Police and VIPs break traffic rules". The Daily Star. 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "Lawmakers break traffic laws most often in Bangladesh, says road transport minister Obaidul Quader". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- "People obey law, influentials break". The Daily Star. 2014-09-01. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
- ,. "GDP Comparison". World Bank. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Pulok, Mohammad Habibullah (15 September 2010). "The Impact of Corruption on Economic Development of Bangladesh:Evidence on the Basis of an Extended Solow Model" (PDF). Munich Personal RePEc Archive. Stockholm University. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Supreme Court Correspondent. "Khaleda Zia petitions High Court for fresh plaintiff testimonies". bdnews24.com. bdnews24.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Tran, Mark; agencies (2007-09-03). "Former Bangladeshi leader held on corruption charges". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- "Niko corruption case against Hasina shifted to special court". The Daily Star. 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- Iftekhar Zaman, Executive Director of Transparency International Bangladesh (14 November 2013), Anti-corruption Commission (Amendment) Bill Unconstitutional, discriminatory, self-defeating, retrieved 7 May 2016
- Syeda Naushin Parnini (2011). "Governance Reforms and Anti-Corruption Commission in Bangladesh". Governance and Corruption. The Romanian Journal of Political Science. 11 (1).
- "Vision & Mission - Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB)". www.ti-bangladesh.org. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- e.V., Transparency International. "Research – CPI – Overview". www.transparency.org. Retrieved 2016-04-28.