Corruption in Kenya

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Corruption in the post-colonial government of Kenya has a history which spans the era of the founding president Jomo Kenyatta, toDaniel arap Moi's KANU, Mwai Kibaki's PNU government and the current Uhuru Kenyatta's Jubilee Party government. In the Corruption Perceptions Index 2012 Kenya is ranked 139th out of 176 countries for corruption, tied with Azerbaijan, Nepal, Nigeria, and Pakistan (least corrupt countries are at the top of the list).[1]

Most bribes paid by urban residents in Kenya are fairly small but large ones are also taken – bribes worth over 50,000 Kenyan shillings (€600, US$700) account for 41% of the total value. There is also corruption on a larger scale with each of the last two regimes being criticised for their involvement.[1]

Despite market reforms, several business surveys reveal that business corruption is still widespread and that companies frequently encounter demands for bribes and informal payments to 'get things done' in Kenya, a trend that has contributed to an increased cost of doing business in Kenya. The public procurement sector in Kenya suffers widespread corruption and is the leading form of graft in the public service and always at the center of all major corruption scandals. The use of agents to facilitate business operations and transactions in Kenya is widespread and poses a risk for companies, particularly at the market entry and business start-up stage.[2]

Despite positive developments, the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (KACC) was disbanded and replaced by the newly instated Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission(EACC) on 5 September 2011. Observers describe the new agency as superficial.[3]

It is observed that in Kenya bribery and nepotism as most prevalent forms of corruption according to surveys carried out.[4]

On 22 July 2019, Kenya's finance Minister Henry Rotich became the county's first sitting Minister to be arrested for corruption.[5] This followed an order by the Director of Public Prosecution (DPP) Nordin Haji for the arrest and prosecution of Mr Rotich and his Principal Secretary (PS) Kamau Thugge among other top government officials over the multibillion-shilling Arror and Kimwarer dams scandal.[6]

In 2017, the US government cut heath funding to Kenya over wide spread corruption in the Ministry of Health.[7] USAID suspended $21M funding for activities carried out by a number of the Ministry’s departments over corruption and weak accounting procedures.[8]

Before 1990[edit]

  • The first corruption incident in Kenya is widely regarded as the Ngei maize scandal of 1965.[9] Paul Ngei, an independence hero and at the time the Minister for Marketing and Cooperatives, was involved in a maize scandal that caused a national maize shortage.[10] The Commission of Maize Inquiry, the first of its kind in independent Kenya, found that Ngei's wife, Emma was getting preferential treatment for her business, Emma Stores (Uhuru Millers of Kangundo) through which she bought maize directly from farmers, which was illegal at the time.
  • Between 1986 and 1991 the construction of the Turkwel Hydroelectric Power Station was riddled with claims of corruption. The dam was eventually built at three times the estimated cost, twice the allocated amount and producing energy significantly below capacity.[11]

1990–1999[edit]

  • The longest-running scandal is the Goldenberg scandal,[12] where the Kenyan government subsidized exports of gold, paying exporters in Kenyan Shillings (Sh) 35% over their foreign currency earnings. In this case, the gold was smuggled from Congo. The Goldenberg scandal cost Kenya the equivalent of more than 10% of the country's annual GDP.
  • A Sh360 million helicopter servicing contract in South Africa.[13] Military officers had argued that the contract was too extravagant and servicing the helicopters could be done locally. Kenya Air Force (KAF) went ahead to spend Sh108 million as a down payment for servicing the Puma helicopters, whose tail number is logged as 418 at Denel Aviation, a South African firm.

2000–2009[edit]

"In 2003, because of the corruption and misuse of the arms under their custody, 600 KPRs (Kenya Police Reserves) were disarmed in Tana River, and in most urban areas of Kenya, they were disbanded as of 18 April 2004. Among the reasons given was that officers had become a threat to the national security instead of defending it. In some areas, the officers commanding police divisions did not know the number of men they had, even though they were issued with firearms, ammunition and walkie-talkies."[14]

  • In 2003, the military was split over plans to buy new Czech fighter jets.[13] The plan to buy the jet fighters would have cost taxpayers Sh12.3 billion.
  • A Sh4.1 billion Navy ship deal.[13] A Navy project was given to Euromarine, a company associated with Anura Pereira, the tender awarded in a process that has been criticised as irregular. The tender was worth Sh4.1 billion. Military analysts say a similar vessel could have been built for Sh1.8 billion.[15]
  • Chamanlal Kamani had been involved in a supply contract, as Kamsons Motors.[16] Kampsons tendered for the supply of Mahindra Jeeps to the Police Department in the mid 1990s for close to Sh1 million (US$13,000) each, at a time when showrooms would have charged customers a sixth of the price. Moreover, the vehicles were being bought for a government department and were therefore imported duty-free. Few of the more than 1,000 units that were imported over several years are in service today.
  • The Kamanis were also involved in a deal to build a CID forensic laboratory. On 7 June 2004 an amount of $4.7 million was wired back. The payment was a refund against the money paid for the Criminal Investigations Department forensic laboratory.[17] Another euro 5.2 million was paid back in respect of the E-cop project, which involved computerisation of the police force and the installation of spy cameras in Nairobi by Infotalent Systems Private Limited.[17]
  • The Prisons department lost $3 million after contracting Hallmark International, a company associated with Deepak Kamani of Kamsons Motors, for the supply of 30 boilers.[16] Only half of the boilers were delivered – from India and not the United States as had been agreed.
  • The construction of Nexus, a secret military communication centre in Karen, Nairobi.[13] The Government spent Sh2.6 billion (US$36.9 million) to construct the complex. Three years later, military personnel have not moved into the centre. A phantom company, Nedermar BV Technologies, which is said to have its headquarters in the Netherlands, implemented the secret project situated along Karen South Road. Nedermar is linked to businessman Anura Pereira. However, Pereira has denied this. The tendering process for the Nexus project was circumvented as DoD's Departmental Tender Committee. Funding for the project was made through the Ministry of Transport and Communications. The complex is currently headed by Colonel Philip Kameru. Nexus was first meant to be an ammunition dumpsite before it was turned into a military communication and operations centre. Construction continued without any site visits by either the DoD staff or Ministry of Public Works officials. The Nexus project was implemented during the tenure of General Joseph Kibwana.
  • In 2005 plans to buy a sophisticated £20 million passport equipment system from France,[18][19] as government wanted to replace its passport printing system, created conditions for corruption scandal. The transaction was originally quoted at 6 million euros from François Charles Oberthur of Paris (a supplier of Visa and MasterCards) but was awarded to a British firm, the Anglo-Leasing and Finance Company Limited, at 30 million euros, who would have sub-contracted the same French firm to do the work. Despite the lack of competitive tendering Anglo Leasing was paid a "commitment fee" of more than £600,000. Anglo Leasing's agent is a Liverpool-based firm, Saagar Associates, owned by a woman whose family has enjoyed close links with senior officials in the Moi regime. Company records show Saagar Associates is owned by Mrs Sudha Ruparell, a 47-year-old Kenyan woman. Ruparell is the daughter of Chamanlal Kamani, the multimillionaire patriarch of a business family that enjoyed close links with senior officials in the Moi regime. Anglo Leasing made a repayment of euro 956,700 through a telegraphic transfer from Schroeder & Co Bank AG, Switzerland on 17 May 2004.[17]
  • The local chapter of Transparency International and the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR), a government body released a report in February 2006, stating that between January 2003 and September 2004, the National Rainbow Coalition government spent about $12-million on cars that were mostly for the personal use of senior government officials.[20] The vehicles included 57 Mercedes-Benz, as well as Land Cruisers, Mitsubishi Pajeros, Range Rovers, Nissan Terranos and Nissan Patrols. The $12-million substantially exceeded what the government spent over the 2003/04 financial year on controlling malaria – "the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya", says the report.
  • In late February 2006, the newspaper The Standard ran a story claiming that president Mwai Kibaki and senior opposition figure Kalonzo Musyoka had been holding secret meetings. On 2 March at 1:00 am local time (2200 UTC on the 1st), masked gunmen carrying AK-47s raided multiple editorial offices of The Standard, and of its television station KTN. They kicked and beat staff members, forcibly took computers and transmission equipment, burned all the copies of the 2 March edition of the newspaper, and damaged the presses. At KTN, they shut down the power, putting the station off the air. Initially, the Kenyan information minister claimed no knowledge of the raid, but it has since revealed that Kenyan police were responsible. The Ministry of the Internal Security later stated that the incident was to safeguard state security. "If you rattle a snake you must be prepared to be bitten by it," John Michuki said. Three journalists at The Standard, arrested after the critical story was printed, are still being held without charge.[21][22] The story now also features the bizarre case of two Armenian businessmen, mocked in the press for their taste for heavy gold chains, watches and rings, referred to as Mercenaries, who the opposition says led the raid and had shady dealings with Kibaki's government.[23][24][25]
  • In November 2006, the government was accused of failing to act on a banking fraud scam worth $1.5bn involving money laundering and tax evasion, reported by whistle-blowers as early as 2004. Investigators believe sums worth 10% of Kenya's national income are involved. A recent auditor's report says the scale of the operations "threatens the stability of the Kenyan economy".[26]
  • In November 2006, British Foreign Office minister Kim Howells warned, that corruption in Kenya is increasing the UK's exposure to drug trafficking and terrorism. "People can be bought, right from the person who works at the docks in Mombasa up to the government. (...) This weakness has been recognised by drug-traffickers and probably by terrorists too." Said Howells for the BBC.[27]
  • On 31 August 2007, The Guardian newspaper featured on its front page a story about more than GBP 1 billion transferred out of Kenya by the family and associates of former Kenyan leader Daniel arap Moi. The Guardian sourced the information from the WikiLeaks article The looting of Kenya under President Moi and its analysis of a leaked investigative document ("the Kroll report") prepared for the Kibaki government in 2004 to try to recover money stolen during Moi's rule.[28]
  • On 2007-09-06 parliament passed the Statute Law (Miscellaneous Amendments) Bill, restricting investigations by the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission to offences committed prior to May 2003, excluding the Goldenberg and Anglo-Leasing scandals and other major cases. The move was condemned by anti-corruption campaigners; Mwalimu Mati, former chief executive of the Transparency International Kenya Chapter, declared that "grand corruption has swallowed the government and parliament that Kenyans elected to fight it in 2002".[29] In response to public outrage generated by the move, President Kibaki announced that he would veto the bill.
  • In September 2007, WikiLeaks released documents exposing a 500 million Kenyan shilling payroll fraud at Egerton University] and subsequent cover up, now the subject of ongoing legal dispute in the High Court.[30]
  • On 28 September 2007, WikiLeaks released 28 investigative documents] exposing a US$1.5 billion money laundering fraud by Charterhouse Bank Ltd, which was widely re-reported.[31]
  • In June 2008, the Grand Regency Scandal broke, wherein the Central Bank of Kenya is alleged to have secretly sold a luxury hotel in Nairobi to an unidentified group of Libyan investors for more than 4 billion Kenyan Shillings (approx US$60 million) below the appraised market value. Finance Minister Amos Kimunya negotiated the sale, and was censured in a near-unanimous motion by the Kenyan Parliament, though he vehemently denies the charges. This follows on the heels of the Safaricom IPO, overseen by Kimunya, which has been alternatively praised and questioned for possible corruption in the execution of the sale. Safaricom is the largest mobile phone service provider in Kenya, having operated with a near-government monopoly for many years. The government of Kenya sold its 50% stake in Safaricom in the IPO.
  • In January 2009, a scandal became public over the sale of imported maize.
  • The 2009 Triton Oil Scandal regarding the unauthorised releasing of oil by Kenya Pipeline Company (KPC) without informing financiers became public in January 2009.

2010–present[edit]

  • In October 2012, allegations surfaced that top Foreign Affairs Ministry officials ignored land offered by Japan that could have saved the country loss of Sh1.1 billion.[32] The scandal led to the resignation of the then Foreign Affairs Minister Moses Wetangula.
  • In October 2010, the Department of Defence uncovered a bribery scandal involving senior Kenya Defence Force Officers in the corrupt Sh1.6 billion purchase of armoured personnel carriers from South African company OTT Technologies (Pty) Ltd. Minister of Defence Yusuf Haji retired several high-ranking officers in January 2011[33] accused of taking bribes by OTT Technologies (Pty) Ltd, and the matter was referred for further investigation to Parliament.[34] The September 2012 Report on Military Modernization Programmes by the Departmental Committee on Defence and Foreign Relations found that the irregular procurement of the PUMA M26 armoured carriers had violated multiple sections of the Public Procurement Act 2005, that OTT Technologies (Pty) Ltd's business partners in Kenya had been identified by the US Government as being involved in international crime and drugs smuggling, and recommended that OTT Technologies (Pty) Ltd be barred from doing any business with the Government of Kenya in the future.[35] In 2014, the same company was accused by the government of Mozambique of irregular tax and export control activities in the transport of similar armoured carriers through Mozambique for onward trafficking into Africa.[36]
  • Mega corruption scandals hit Kenya in 2018. The country lost over Sh13 billion to graft deals in key state departments such as the National Youth Service, Kenya Pipeline Company, National Cereals and Produce Board, National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) and shoddy land transactions at the Ministry of Lands.[37]
  • In February 2019, The Ministry of Lands headed by lands CS Farida Karoney, could not account for the loss of 20 billion Tax Payers money.[38] The details regarding this saga was delivered by the Country's Auditor General Edward Ouko.[38] This report indicated a lot of discrepancies and inaccuracies in the ministry's 30 June 2018 financial Statement.[38]
  • In July 2019, the Director of Public Prosecution, Nordin Haji uncovered a mega-graft Scandal on the procurement of 2 dams.[39] The graft case led to the Publics of Kenya losing 19 billion. The scandal involved high profile people in the government such as the then CS of treasury Henry Rotich and 28 others.[39] The allocated budget of Sh19,714,366,991 that was lost through graft was meant to construct 2 dams, Arwor and Kimwarer Dams in Elgeyo Marakwet Counties.[40]
  • On 6 December 2019, Nairobi Governor Mike Mbuvi Sonko was arrested on multiple corruption charges[41]

COVID-19 Funds[edit]

In August 2020, Activists in Kenya embarked on countrywide protests to demand full accountability of all the COVID-19 funds from the government, following media reports of misappropriation of the funds.[42] Narc party leader and human rights defender, Martha Karua, was the first leader to come out publicly call on the President Kenyatta's government to provide full disclosure and accountability of the Covid-19 funds and equipment from all sources including loans, grants, donations and in-kind support both locally and internationally.

The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission has been investigating an alleged procurement scandal at the Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA.[43]

Anti-Corruption Initiatives[edit]

Despite corruption being rampant in Kenya, the country has had an anti-corruption legislation dating back to 1956; The Prevention of Corruption Act (Cap. 65)''. which was in operation from August 1956 to May 2003 when the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act, No 3 became operational.[44]

The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission has also provided a framework for reporting cases of graft in the Government and the public Sector. The reports can be reported in person, via phone call or email at the EACC headquarters or any of the commission's regional offices across the counties or at the Huduma Center. Whistle blowers can also file reports anonymously.

Since 2003, EACC has secured 293 convictions in Court and recovered assets worth Sh 26.65 billion, acquired from corruption.

Wealth Declaration for Civil Servants[edit]

In an effort to curb corruption and promote ethics and integrity in the public service, all senior civil servants in Kenya are required to declare their wealth. The wealth declaration for public officials is backed by the The Public Officer Ethics ACT, 2003 , which sets out one-year jail term or one million fine for those who fail to submit a declaration or clarification.

The declarations are meant to detect and prevent corrupt practices, evaluate potential conflicts of interest, promote transparency and accountability and increase public confidence in government. The wealth declaration forms have helped EACC nab corrupt public officers especially in the graft-ridden police service.[45]

In 2015 President Uhuru Kenyatta, in a bold move to tame the massive corruption that has tainted his first term in office, asked all public officials, who had adversely been named in a graft report handed to him by the EACC, to step aside and pave way for investigations.[46] The officials named in the report consisted of members of the Public Accounts Committee in Parliament, MPs, heads of parastatals and various principal secretaries. Then Lands cabinet secretary Charity Ngilu was among the leaders mentioned in the report, who steeped down following President Kenyatta's directive.[47] Secretary to the Cabinet Francis Kimemia, Labour minister Kazungu Kambi, Transport and infrastructure CS Eng Michael Kamau, Transport PS Nduva Muli and Energy and Petroleum CS Davis Chirchir also resigned.

Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP)[edit]

The office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, whose core functions include prosecution of those charged by the police and other investigative agencies with criminal offences, has also helped in the war against graft. The current DPP Noordin Haji has particularly introduced a new vigour in the fight against corruption since he assumed the office in 2018.

Senior government officials including sitting Ministers, Governors, Principal Secretaries and MPs, linked to corruption scandals, have been arrested and prosecuted on the DPP's orders.

Some of the Governors who have been charged with misappropriation of Public funds include; Migori Governor Zachary Okoth Obado Nairobi governor Mike Sonko, Kiambu governor Ferdinard Waititu, Samburu Governor Moses Kasaine and Tharaka Nithi Governor Muthomi Njuki. In 2019 Noordin Haji also ordered the arrest and prosecution of Former Treasury Cabinet Secretary Henry Rotich, who became Kenya's first sitting Minister to be arrested for corruption.[48]

In July 2020, Haji's office issued new rules for prosecutors on preferring charges against suspects in corruption and other criminal cases.[49] The new rules outline the thresholds that prosecutors must check to see if the potential case either passes the evidence test, the public interest test, or both and only pursue cases with realistic prospects of conviction.

Activists[edit]

The Civil society in Kenya has been at the fore front of fighting graft in the country. Re-known activists like Boniface Mwangi, Wanjeri Nderu and Okiya Omtatah have always put the government on the spot over corruption and often lead anti-corruption protests[50] to demand for accountability.

The Kenya Police has often been condemned by citizens and Human Rights groups for meting out excessive force on protesters and infringing on their rights.

Strong Institutions[edit]

According to the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission, Kenya is losing an estimated Kshs 608.0 bn (7.8% of Kenya’s GDP) to corruption annually. Reduced corruption is therefore crucial for the country's development. Sustainable Development Goal 16 advocates for justice and strong institutions as essential elements to every democratic society. Targets 16.3 and 16.5 aim to Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all, and substantially reduce corruption and bribery. The Sustainable Development Goals are consistent with Kenya’s primary development blueprint, the Kenya Vision 2030, and President Uhuru Kenyatta's Big 4 Development Agenda.

Security contracts[edit]

Listed in Githongo's dossier[51] are a number of companies that won security-related contracts :-

Payee Purpose Amount (millions) Signatories Date signed
Anglo Leasing Forensic LAB – CID US$54.56 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
16 August 2001
Silverson Establishment Security Vehicles USD 90 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
16 August 2001
Apex Finance Police Security USD 30 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
9 February 2002
LBA Systems Security-MET USD 35 PS-Treasury 7 June 2002
Apex Finance Police Security USD 31.8 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
14 June 2002
Universal Satspace Satellite Services USD 28.11 PS-Treasury
PS-Transport
11 July 2002
First Mechantile Police Security USD 11.8 PS-Treasury
PS-Transport
11 July 2002
Apex Finance Corp Police Security USD 12.8 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
12 July 2002
LBA Systems Prison security USD 29.7 PS-Treasury 19 November 2002
Nedemar Security USD 36.9 PS-Treasury
PS-Transport
19 November 2002
Midland Bank Police security USD 49.65 PS-Treasury 29 May 2003
Naviga Capital Oceanographic vessel EUR 26.6 PS-Treasury 15 July 2003
Empressa Oceanographic vessel EUR 15 PS-Treasury 15 July 2003
Euromarine Oceanographic vessel EUR 10.4 PS-Treasury 15 July 2003
Infotalent Police security EUR 59.7 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
19 November 2003
Apex Finance Corp Police security EUR 40 PS-Treasury
PS-Internal Security OP
17 December 2003
Ciaria Systems Inc Design, maintain satellite NSIS USD 44.56 PS Treasury
Director NSIS
20 January 2004

Anti-corruption authorities[edit]

The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC) was established after Kenya's President Mwai Kibaki signed the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Act on 29 August 2011. The EACC replaced the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (KACC).[52]

Previously, the Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (KACC) was established in April 2003 to replace the Kenya Anti-Corruption Authority, after Parliament enacted new legislation.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Transparency International Kenya, Frequently Asked Questions Archived 19 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 1 March 2006.
  2. ^ "Keny Corruption Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Kenya Corruptiony Profile". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  4. ^ OMBATI, CYRUS. "Bribery, nepotism most prevalent form of corruption in Counties- survey". The Standard. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Kenya's finance minister, top officials arrested for corruption". Al Jazeera. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  6. ^ "How Ksh. 21 Billion vanished in Arror, Kimwarer dams scandal". Citizentv.co.ke. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  7. ^ "US CUTS HEALTH FUNDING OVER CORRUPTION | KenyaForum". Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  8. ^ Murumba, Stellar (26 October 2016). "Revealed: Taxpayers lose Sh5bn in NYS-style Afya House theft". Business Daily. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  9. ^ Standard, The. "Maize scandals a sign of immaturity". The Standard. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Ngei suspended over maize scam". Daily Nation. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  11. ^ http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/resource/turning-blind-eye#index-02-03-01-00
  12. ^ Forensic accountants trace Goldenburg transaction (Corpwatch)
  13. ^ a b c d New scandal hangs over Sh2.6b secret Army complex[permanent dead link] (East African Standard)
  14. ^ Kennedy Agade Mkutu (January 2007). "Small Arms and Light Weapons Among Pastoral Groups in the Kenya–Uganda Border Area". African Affairs. 106 (422): 47–70. doi:10.1093/afraf/adl002.
  15. ^ "Kenya's Corruption Scandals". Samwagik™. 8 March 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  16. ^ a b Kenya Graft Watchdog Set to Charge More Suspects
  17. ^ a b c When bogus firms wired back Sh1bn Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine (Daily Nation)
  18. ^ report on the Anglo Leasing scandal (Guardian)
  19. ^ It's time to tell the Kenyan people the truth about the anglo-leasing corruption scandal Archived 15 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine (Transparency International)
  20. ^ Vehicle Saga Shows Parliament Has Few Budgetary Teeth Archived 7 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine (Inter Press Service News Agency)
  21. ^ BBC: Kenya admits armed raids on paper
  22. ^ Reuters: Leading media house shut down by armed men
  23. ^ IOL Kibaki in trouble as parliament re-opens
  24. ^ "Revealed: All about Arturs". The Standard. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2008.[dead link]
  25. ^ "Artur brothers were drug traffickers who enjoyed state security: Report". Daily Nation. 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
  26. ^ Bank scam threatens Kenya economy BBC
  27. ^ Kenya corruption 'threatening UK' BBC
  28. ^ Xan Rice (31 August 2007). "The looting of Kenya". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  29. ^ "Uproar over move on economic crimes". The Standard. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2007.[dead link]
  30. ^ "Open Letter to the Kenyan Youth". African Perspectives. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  31. ^ The looting of Kenya under President Moi, WikiLeaks, 30 August 2007. Retrieved on 13 April 2019.
  32. ^ http://www.nation.co.ke/News/Shame%20of%20graft%20that%20is%20the%20Tokyo%20embassy%20report%20/-/1056/1033292/-/10xk82kz/-/index.html
  33. ^ 25 October 2010: DoD Uncovers Tender Corruption
  34. ^ 19 January 2011: Min/Def retires KDF officers Involved in APC Corruption
  35. ^ 19 April 2011: Launch of Parliamentary Committee to investigate APC Bribery
  36. ^ Company that Mounted Armored Vehicles to the United Nations Operates Illegally in Mozambique (Portuguese)
  37. ^ Obura, Fredrick. "2018, the year of big eating: NYS scandal". The Standard. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  38. ^ a b c "Ministry's Sh20bn can't be tracked". The Star. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  39. ^ a b Ogemba, Paul. "Public lost Sh19 billion in the dams scandal". The Standard. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  40. ^ "Kenya's corruption crackdown: New era, or political theatre?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  41. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif (6 December 2019). "Nairobi's Gold-Loving Governor Is Arrested on Corruption Charges". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  42. ^ "Coronavirus in Kenya: Fearing 'money heists' amid pandemic". BBC News. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  43. ^ "Kemsa scandal to shock nation, EACC boss says". People Daily. 24 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  44. ^ "Kenya Law: Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission". kenyalaw.org. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  45. ^ "Kenya Police tops corruption list". Nation. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  46. ^ "Uhuru faces up to corruption with step-aside order". Business Daily. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Lands CS Charity Ngilu steps aside over graft allegations". Citizentv.co.ke. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  48. ^ "Government Minister Arrested on Corruption Charges". The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. 68 (46): 3–6. 14 November 2016. doi:10.21557/dsp.48036145. ISSN 2159-3612.
  49. ^ "Haji's office issues new rules for prosecutors on preferring charges". Nation. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  50. ^ Odula, Tom. "Kenyan police teargas anti-corruption protesters in Nairobi". Washington Post. Associated Press. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  51. ^ Githongo's dossier
  52. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]