Corruption in Lithuania
|Corruption by country|
According to the Corruption Perceptions Index 2019, Lithuania ranks 35th out of 180 countries in the world and 15th out of 28 European Union countries. Freedom in the World 2020 report by Freedom House notes that corruption remains an issue in Lithuania, but gives high score for the main related areas: strong and effective safeguards against official corruption (3 out of 4), government openness and transparency (3 out of 4), independent judiciary (3 out of 4).
European Research Centre for Anti-Corruption and State-Building (ERCAS) notes that while Lithuania has a comprehensive anti-corruption legal base established, the law enforcement institutions are weak. In the Public Integrity Index 2019, published by the centre, Lithuania ranks 30th out of 117 countries.
According to the Flash Eurobarometer 482: Businesses' attitudes towards corruption in the EU, published by the European Commission, only 15% of business executives noted corruption as a problem when doing business. Lithuanian Map of Corruption 2019 report, published by STT, notes that the percentage of businesses that paid a bribe has been gradually decreasing over the last decades, with only 9% of business paying it in the last 5 years and 5% in the last 12 months.
According to the Global Corruption Barometer of the European Union in 2021 (GCB EU 2021), 48% of Lithuanians think that the government is doing badly in fighting corruption while 42% think it's doing well, nearly matching the EU average of 49% and 43% respectively.
According to the GCB EU 2021 report, people consider that the most corrupt institutions or individuals are: members of parliament (33%), business executives (27%), local government representatives and mayors (21%), judges and magistrates (21%). The report notes the most common cases of bribery in the last 12 months by service: healthcare institutions (19%), identity documents (6%) and police (4%).
Lithuanian Map of Corruption 2019 report, published by STT, provides an overview based on the surveys of population, company executives and public servants. According to the survey of people, the most common forms of corruption are: nepotism, political patronage and bribery. The most common cases of curruption were perceived to be in: healthcare institutions, courts, the parliament, municipalities and political parties.
According to a Baltijos tyrimai poll in 2019, police was trusted by 69% of people, Constitutional Court of Lithuania by 62%, STT by 55%. However, only 39% of people trusted the prosecutors and 33% trusted courts. A survey conducted by Vilmorus in 2020 shown that most corrupt areas perceived by the respondents were: healthcare (47%), courts (37%) and the parliament (30%). The same survey notes that Lithuanians regard corruption as the fourth most acute problem in the country. Only 3% of the people surveyed admitted giving a bribe in the previous year.
|Corruption Perceptions Index 2020||35th||180|
|ERCAS Public Integrity Index 2019||30th||117|
Special Investigation Service (abbreviated as STT, Lithuanian: Specialiųjų tyrimų tarnyba) is the main law enforcement institution in Lithuania to combat corruption. Other law enforcement institutions also play a major role in combating the corruption. In particular, Financial Crime Investigation Service (abbreviated as FNTT, Lithuanian: Finansinių nusikaltimų tyrimo tarnyba) investigates money laundering and major financial fraud activities. National Audit Office of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Valstybės kontrolė) is the supreme audit institution which also supervises the lawfulness and effectiveness of management and use of state funds and resources.
In 2019, the Law on Protection of Whistleblowers entered force, providing legal protection as well as remunerations and other measures for those who report corruption or other infringements. Lobbying in Lithuania is regulated by the Lobbying Act 2001. According to the EU Members' Research Service report from 2016, Lithuania is one of the few EU countries which has the code of conduct and a mandatory register for the lobbyists.
Anti-corruption conventions and organizations
Lithuania participates in:
- The Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) (founding state; 1 May 1999)
- UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (ratified on 9 May 2002)
- Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ratified on 8 March 2002)
- Council of Europe Civil Law Convention on Corruption (ratified on 17 January 2003)
- United Nations Convention against Corruption (ratified on 21 December 2006)
- International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA) (ratified on 22 March 2013)
- OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (ratified on 16 May 2017)
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019" (PDF). Transparency International. January 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Lithuania scores 1 point more, ranks 3 places higher in Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". "Transparency International" Lithuanian Chapter. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Lithuania: Freedom in the World 2020 Country Report". Freedom House. Archived from the original on 5 June 2021.
- "A Diagnosis of Corruption in Lithuania – ERCAS – European Research Centre for Anti-Corruption and State-Building". 19 October 2017. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Index of Public Integrity". European Research Centre for Anti-Corruption and State-Building. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Flash Eurobarometer 482: Businesses' attitudes towards corruption in the EU". Eurobarometer. December 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Švedkauskienė, Margarita. "The Lithuanian Map of Corruption: Businesses' Attitudes and Experience". STT. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- Global Corruption Barometer, European Union 2021, Citizens' Views and Experiences of Corruption (PDF), Transparency International, June 2021, retrieved 26 August 2021
- "Pokyčiai visuomenės požiūryje į institucijas: pasitikėjimas bankais augo, Vyriausybe ir STT – krito". LRT. 22 June 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Corruption on decline in Lithuania, survey suggests". LRT. 17 January 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "About the area of activity". National Audit Office of Lithuania. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Republic of Lithuania - Law on Protection of Whistleblowers" (PDF). Prosecutor General's Office of the Republic of Lithuania. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Republic of Lithuania - Law on Lobbying Activities". Office of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. 27 June 2000. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Regulation of lobbying across the EU" (PDF). European Parliament. December 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "20th General Activity Report (2019) of the Group of States against Corruption". European Public Prosecutor’s Office. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime". United Nations. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 191". Council of Europe. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 174". Council of Europe. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Signature and Ratification Status". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 11 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
- "Parties and Signatories". International Anti-Corruption Academy. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.