Corsicans

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Corsicans
Corses  (French)
Corsi  (Corsican)
Total population
322,120 (2013)
Regions with significant populations
 Corsica
(inhabitants of Corsica)
~ 322,120 (2013)[1]
Languages
FrenchCorsicanLigurian
Religion
P christianity.svg Predominantly Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
Other FrenchItalians
Ancient tribes of Corsica

The Corsicans (French: Corses; Italian, Corsican and Ligurian: Corsi) are people from or with origins in Corsica, a Mediterranean island and a territorial collectivity of France.[2]

Origin[edit]

The island was populated since the Mesolithic (Dame de Bonifacio) and the Neolithic by people who came from Tuscany and Liguria.[3][4] An important megalithic tradition devepoled locally since the 4th millennium BC.[5] Reached, like Sardinia, by Polada culture influences in the Early Bronze Age,[6] in the 2nd millennium BC Corsica, the southern part in particular, saw the rise of the Torrean civilization, strongly linked with the Nuragic civilization.

The Corsican people are named after a people known by the Romans as Corsi. The Corsi, who gave their name to the island and dwelt also in Northeastern Sardinia (Gallura). The Corsi were formed by several tribes that dwelt in Corsica island (Ptolemy, Geography), namely the Belatones (Belatoni), Cervini, Cilebenses (Cilibensi), Cumanenses (Cumanesi), Licinini, Macrini, Opini, Subasani, Sumbri, Tarabeni, Titiani, and the Venacini.[7] In the far north-east of the island of Sardinia there were tribes that also belonged to the Corsi, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia and were composed of the Lestricones/Lestrigones (Lestriconi/Lestrigoni); Longonenses (Longonensi). These Corsi shared the island with the Tibulati, who dwelt at the extreme north of Sardinia near the ancient town of Tibula.

Further research is needed to answer the question of the origin of the ancient Corsi and that of the modern Corsican people. According to several scholars they may have been a group of tribes of the Ligures, like the Ilvates in the neighboring Ilva island (today's Elba), and spoken the old Ligurian language.[8] However, it is known that the Sardinians are genetically similar to the Corsican population.[9][10]

Later Corsica was colonized by Greeks, Etruscans, Carthaginians, Romans, Pisans and the Genoese throughout history, and it is likely that these peoples have contributed to some degree to modern Corsicans ancestry.

Population in Corsica[edit]

Population of Corsica (2011 Census)
Place of birth of residents of Corsica Percent of population
Corsica
  
56.3%
Continental France
  
28.6%
Overseas France
  
0.3%
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹
  
5.0%
Immigrants²
  
9.8%
Reference:[11]
¹Essentially Pieds-Noirs who resettled in Corsica.
²An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth.

Corsica has a population of 322,120 inhabitants (Jan. 2013 estimate).[1] At the 2011 census, 56.3% of the inhabitants of Corsica were natives of Corsica, 28.6% were natives of Continental France, 0.3% were natives of Overseas France, and 14.8% were natives of foreign countries.[11]

The majority of the foreign immigrants in Corsica come from the Maghreb (particularly Moroccans, who made up 33.5% of all immigrants in Corsica at the 2011 census), and from Southern Europe (particularly Portuguese, 22.7% of all immigrants, and Italians, 13.7%).[12]

The Corsican diaspora[edit]

During 19th century and the first part of 20th century, Corsican emigration was very important. Large numbers of Corsicans left the island for the French mainland or foreign countries. During 19th century, the favorite destinations of migrants were the French colonies and South America (for more details, see Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico and Corsican immigration to Venezuela). Then, between the 1920s and the 1950s, the major destination became the French mainland (primarily Marseille, today considered as the "first Corsican city of the world" with a number around 200,000). Causes of this emigration are various; poverty is the main reason (the French laws for restriction of exportations, the Second Industrial Revolution and the agricultural crisis have occasioned a lot of damages to the Corsican economy). Later, those massive departures have been accentuated by damages of the First World War on the Island. Today, the Corsican diaspora in the world is estimated to be around 1.5 million (they are probably 800,000 in mainland France).[citation needed]

Immigration[edit]

Place of birth of residents of Corsica
(at the 1982, 1990, 1999, and 2011 censuses)
Census Born in Corsica Born in
Continental France
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹
Immigrants2
2011 56.3% 28.6% 0.3% 5.0% 9.8%
from the Maghreb3 from Southern Europe4 from the rest of the world
4.3% 3.8% 1.7%
1999 59.5% 24.8% 0.3% 5.5% 10.0%
from the Maghreb3 from Southern Europe4 from the rest of the world
5.3% 3.3% 1.4%
1990 62.0% 21.3% 0.2% 6.0% 10.5%
1982 61.6% 20.4% 0.2% 6.0% 11.8%
¹Essentially Pieds-Noirs who resettled in Corsica after the independence of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, many of whom had Corsican ancestry.
2An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
3Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria
4Portugal, Italy, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar, Monaco
Source: INSEE[11][12][13]

Culture[edit]

Languages[edit]

Alongside French (Français), the official language throughout France, Corsican (Corsu) is the most widely spoken language on the island: it is a Romance language pertaining to the Italo-Dalmatian branch and akin to medieval Tuscan. Corsican was long the vernacular language besides Italian (Italiano), which retained official status in Corsica until 1859. Since then, it has been replaced by French due to the annexation of the island by France in 1768. Over the next two centuries, the use of French grew to the extent that, by the Liberation in 1945, all islanders had a working knowledge of French. The twentieth century saw a wholesale language shift, with islanders changing their language practices to the extent that there were no monolingual Corsican speakers left by the 1960s. By 1990, an estimated 50% of islanders had some degree of proficiency in Corsican, and a small minority, perhaps 10%, used Corsican as a first language.[14] Fewer and fewer people speak also a Ligurian dialect in what have long been a language island, Bonifacio: it is locally known by the name of bunifazzin.[15]

Number of Corsican speakers[edit]

The January 2007 estimated population of the island was 281,000, while the figure for the March 1999 census, when most of the studies – though not the linguistic survey work referenced in this article – were performed, was about 261,000 (see under Corsica). Only a fraction of the population at either time spoke Corsican with any fluency. The 2001 population of 341,000 speakers on the island given by Ethnologue[16] exceeds either census and thus may be considered questionable,[original research?] like its estimate of 402,000 speakers worldwide.

The use of Corsican over French has been declining. In 1980 about 70% of the population "had some command of the Corsican language."[17] In 1990 out of a total population of about 254,000 the percentage had declined to 50%, with only 10% using it as a first language.[14] The language appeared to be in serious decline when the French government reversed its non-supportive stand and began some strong measures to save it. Whether these measures will succeed remains to be seen. No recent statistics on Corsican are available.

UNESCO classifies the Corsican language as a potentially endangered language, as it has "a large number of children speakers" but is "without an official or prestigious status."[18] The classification does not state that the language is currently endangered, only that it is potentially so. In fact it is being vigorously affirmed[by whom?]. Often acting according to the current long-standing sentiment unknown Corsicans cross out French roadway signs and paint in the Corsican names. The Corsican language is a key vehicle for Corsican culture, which is notably rich in proverbs and in polyphonic song.

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Cuisine of Corsica
Corsican cuisine.

From the mountains to the plains and sea, many ingredients play a role. Game such as wild boar (Cignale, Singhjari) is popular, and in old times mouflon (muvra) were consumed. There also is seafood and river fish such as trout. Delicatessen such as figatellu, coppa, ham (prizuttu), lonzu are made from Corsican pork (porcu nustrale). Cheeses like Brocciu, casgiu merzu (the Corsican version of the Sardinian casu marzu), casgiu veghju are made from goat or sheep milk. Chestnuts are the main ingredient in the making of pulenta. A variety of alcoholic drinks also exist, ranging from aquavita (brandy), red and white Corsican wines (Vinu Corsu), muscat (plain or sparkling), and the famous "cap corse" produced by Mattei.

Notable Corsicans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013" (in French). Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  2. ^ Corsicans - World Directory of Minorities
  3. ^ Laurent-Jacques Costa, Corse préhistorique, Éditions Errance, Paris, 2004 p.215 – 216
  4. ^ Gabriel Camps, Préhistoire d'une île. Les origines de la Corse, 1988
  5. ^ Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4 : Europe. Springer. pp. 157, 169. ISBN 0-306-46255-9. 
  6. ^ Paolo Melis, I rapporti fra la Sardegna settentrionale e la Corsica nell’antica età del Bronzo
  7. ^ Xavier Poli in La Corse dans l'Antiquité et dans le Haut Moyen Âge Librairie Albert Fontemoing Paris 1907
  8. ^ Attilio Mastino-Corsica e Sardegna in età antica
  9. ^ G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003
  10. ^ Corsican Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries
  11. ^ a b c INSEE. "Fichier Données harmonisées des recensements de la population de 1968 à 2011" (in French). Retrieved 2014-10-25. 
  12. ^ a b INSEE. "IMG1B – Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance" (in French). Retrieved 2014-10-25. 
  13. ^ INSEE. "D_FD_IMG2 – Base France par départements – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  14. ^ a b "Corsican in France". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13.  To access the data, click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican in France, then scroll to Geographical and language background.
  15. ^ Enciclopedia Treccani - Dialetti liguri
  16. ^ "Corsican". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  17. ^ "Corsican language use survey". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13.  To find this statement and the supporting data click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican language use survey and look under INTRODUCTION.
  18. ^ Salminen, Tapani (1993–1999). "UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe:". Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  19. ^ http://www.hoganlovells.com/files/Publication/3187a458-e309-4006-bcd6-4d9ecda0f992/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/79d844ce-8e6a-4d07-88db-556832393c8e/PARLIB01-%231243417-v1-World_Trademark_Review_Daily_301112.PDF
  20. ^ http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324328204578571780929535480
  21. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaAW1m2G77I
  • Smith, William (1872). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: J. Murray. pp. pages 689–692. Downloadable Google Books.

External links[edit]