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Scientific classification
Corticata or Bikonta

Lankester 1878, emend. Cavalier-Smith 2002


Corticata ("one with a cortex"), in the classification of eukaryotes (living organisms with a cell nucleus), is a clade suggested by Cavalier-Smith[1] to encompass the eukaryote supergroups of the following two groups:

Cavalier-Smith currently includes Rhizaria as well, resulting in an equivalency to Diaphoretickes.[3][4][5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2002). "The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 2): 297–354. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-2-297. PMID 11931142.
  2. ^ Cavalier‐Smith, T. (2009). "Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 56 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x. PMID 19340985.
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2010). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology Letters. 6 (3): 342–345. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. PMC 2880060. PMID 20031978.
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Snell, Elizabeth A.; Berney, Cédric; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Lewis, Rhodri (2014). "Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 81: 71–85. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.012. PMID 25152275.
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri (December 2015). "Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 93: 331–362. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.004. PMID 26234272. The clade comprising Chromista and Plantae was originally called photokaryotes (Cavalier-Smith, 1999) but following a criticism that this misleadingly implied a common photosynthetic ancestry of both groups (which would be untrue if they are sisters as most evidence indicates, but true if chromists were nested within Plantae as a few trees have suggested) it was changed to corticates because both kingdoms have cortical alveoli in one or more phyla (Cavalier-Smith, 2003a; see also 2003b; Cavalier-Smith and Chao, 2003a). However Adl et al. (2012) introduced an entirely unnecessary, and less euphonious third synonym with no intuitive meaning – Diaphoretickes, which is destabilising and should not be used. To stabilise nomenclature we now formally establish superkingdom Corticata to embrace kingdoms Plantae and Chromista (i.e. to mean the same as the vernacular term ’corticates’ so either can be used as is appropriate).