Temporal range: 17–0 Ma Middle Miocene – Recent
|American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)|
Main article: List of Corvus species
|c. 40 species|
Corvus is a widely distributed genus of birds in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-sized jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the common raven of the Holarctic region and thick-billed raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents except South America, and several islands. In Europe, the word "crow" is used to refer to the carrion crow or the hooded crow, while in North America, it is used for the American crow or the northwestern crow.
The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the family Corvidae. The members appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australia. The collective name for a group of crows is a 'flock' or a 'murder'.
Recent research has found some crow species capable of not only tool use, but also tool construction. Crows are now considered to be among the world's most intelligent animals with an encephalization quotient approaching that of some apes.
In medieval times, crow were thought to live abnormally long lives. They were also thought to be monogamous throughout their long lives. They were thought to predict the future, to predict rain and reveal ambushes. Crows were also thought to lead flocks of storks while they crossed the sea to Asia.
- 1 Description
- 2 Evolutionary history and systematics
- 3 North American urban corvid history
- 4 Behavior
- 5 Diet
- 6 Reproduction
- 7 Lifespan and disease
- 8 Conservation status
- 9 Problems with crows and methods of control
- 10 As a food supplement
- 11 Human interaction
- 12 Cultural depictions and folklore
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Corvus species are all black or black with little white or grey plumage. They are stout with strong bills and legs. Sexual dimorphism is limited.
Evolutionary history and systematics
The latest evidence regarding the evolution indicates descent within the Australasian family Corvidae. However, the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies, and large, predominantly black Corvus species had left Australasia and were concentrated in Asia by the time the Corvus species evolved. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized subspecies.
The type species is the common raven (Corvus corax); others named in the same work include the carrion crow (C. corone), the hooded crow (C. cornix), the rook (C. frugilegus), and the jackdaw (C. monedula). The genus was originally broader, as the magpie was designated C. pica before being moved later into a genus of its own. At least 42 extant species are now considered to be in this genus, and at least 14 extinct species have been described.
No good systematic approach to the genus exists at present. In general, the species from a geographical area are assumed to be more closely related to each other than to other lineages, but this is not necessarily correct. For example, while members of the carrion/collared/house crow complex are certainly closely related, the situation is not at all clear regarding the Australian/Melanesian species. Furthermore, as many species are similar in appearance, determining actual range and characteristics can be very difficult, such as in Australia where the five (possibly six) species are almost identical in appearance.
The fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species are not clear.
North American urban corvid history
Corvids are found in major cities across the world, and a major increase in the number of crows in urban settings has occurred since the 1900s. Historical records suggest that the population of American crows found in North America has been growing steadily since the introduction of European colonization, and spread east to west with the opening of the frontier. Crows were uncommon in the Pacific Northwest in the 1900s, except in riparian habitats. Populations in the west increased substantially from the late 1800s to mid 1900s. Crows and ravens spread along with agriculture and urbanization into the western part of North America. 
Crows gather in large communal roosts numbering between 200 and tens of thousands of individuals during nonbreeding months, particularly in the winter. These gatherings tend to happen near large food sources such as garbage dumps and shopping centers. 
Countless incidents are recorded of corvids at play. Many behaviourists see play as an essential quality in intelligent animals.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Crows and the other members of the genus make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Crows have also been observed to respond to calls of other species; presumably, this behavior is learned because it varies regionally. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "koww", usually echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "kowws" in discrete units, a long caw followed by a series of short caws (usually made when a bird takes off from a perch), an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, and more. These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species they vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerous vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings (e.g. arrival or departure of crows).
As a group, crows show remarkable examples of intelligence. Natural history books from the 18th century recount an often-repeated, but unproven anecdote of "counting crows" — specifically a crow whose ability to count to five (or four in some versions) is established through a logic trap set by a farmer. Crows and ravens often score very highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale. Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing. Crows engage in a kind of mid-air jousting, or air-"chicken" to establish pecking order. They have been found to engage in activities such as sports, tool use, the ability to hide and store food across seasons, episodic-like memory, and the ability to use individual experience in predicting the behavior of environmental conspecifics.
One species, the New Caledonian crow, has also been intensively studied recently because of its ability to manufacture and use tools in the day-to-day search for food. On 5 October 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian crows. They pluck, smooth, and bend twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs. Crows in Queensland have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad by flipping the cane toad on its back and violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, allowing the crow to access the nontoxic innards; their long beaks ensure that all of the innards can be removed.
The jackdaw and the European magpie have been found to have a nidopallium about the same relative size as the functionally equivalent neocortex in chimpanzees and humans, and significantly larger than is found in the gibbon.
Crows have demonstrated the ability to distinguish individual humans by recognizing facial features. Evidence also suggests they are one of the few nonhuman animals capable of displacement (communicating about things that are happening in a different spatial or temporal location from the here and now).
Crows are omnivorous, and their diet is very diverse. They will eat almost anything, including other birds, fruits, nuts, mollusks, earthworms, seeds, frogs, eggs, nestlings, mice, and carrion. The origin of placing scarecrows in grain fields resulted from the crow’s incessant damaging and scavenging, although crows assist farmers by eating insects otherwise attracted to their crops.
Crows reach sexual maturity around the age of 3 years for females and 5 years for males. Clutch size is approximately three to 9 eggs, and the nesting period lasts between 20 and 40 days. Crows often mate for life, and young from previous years often help nesting pairs protect a nest and feed nestlings. 
Lifespan and disease
The American crow is highly susceptible to the recently introduced North American strain of West Nile virus. American crows typically die within one week of acquiring the disease and very few survive exposure.
Two species of crow have been listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: the Hawaiian crow and the Mariana crow. The American crow, despite having its population reduced by 45% since 1999 by the West Nile virus, is considered a species of least concern.
Problems with crows and methods of control
Intelligence and social structures makes most crow species adaptable and opportunistic. Crows frequently cause damage to crops and property, strew trash, and transfer disease. In densely populated areas around the world, corvids are generally regarded as nuisance animals. Crows are protected in the U.S. under the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, but because of their perceived destructive nature, control of the species is allowed in certain areas. Because of their intelligence, control is an expensive and perplexing proposition. Methods for control include hunting, chemical immobilization, harassment and scare tactics, and trapping. Before any measure is used to confine, trap, kill, poison, immobilize, or alter the habits of any wild bird species, a person must check local, state, and federal regulations pertaining to such actions.
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (July 2014)|
In the United States, hunting is allowed under state and federal regulation. Crow hunting is considered a sport in rural areas of the U.S. because the birds are not considered a tasty traditional game species. Some cultures do treat various corvid species as a food source. Liability and possible danger to persons and property limit the use of hunting or shooting as control methods in urban areas. Crows' wariness and cunning make harvesting crows in sufficient numbers difficult.
Poisoning has been used in the past as a method of controlling crow populations, usually in urban areas or areas of large crow populations. Liability, costs associated with the chemicals, permits and manpower, threats to nontarget species such as raptors, and availability of chemicals make poisoning a less than desirable method for control.
Scare tactics have been the most widely used aversion tactic for crows in areas frequented by humans and domestic animal species. This safe method does not require constant maintenance or manpower to operate or monitor. However, corvids quickly become habituated to most tactics such as blast cannons, predator decoys, and traditional scarecrows. Greater success has been achieved by adding sound and motion to predator decoys to mimic a distressed crow being caught by a predator such as an owl or hawk. Work is currently being done which uses multiple aversion techniques in one area. The theory is that multiple techniques used together will confuse the crows, thereby lessening the probability of habituation to stimuli.
Trapping is a rarely used technique in the U.S., but is being used with success in parts of Europe and Australia. The ladder-style trap (e.g., Australian Crow Trap or Modified Australian Crow Trap) seems to be the most effective in crow-trapping techniques. Ladder traps are constructed in such a way that unintentional catch of nontarget species is avoided. If a nontarget species is caught, it can be easily released without harm to the bird. The traps are cost-efficient because they are inexpensive and simple to construct, and require little manpower to monitor. The bait used in the traps can also be specific to corvids. Carrion, grains, unshelled raw peanuts, and shiny objects in the trap are effective baits. When removing crows from a ladder trap, one living crow is left as an extremely effective decoy for other crows. Trapping is considered the most humane method for crow removal because the crows can be relocated without harm or stress. However, most wild birds in general have a knack for returning to their home ranges.
Other methods have been used with little or limited success. Lasers have been used successfully to remove large flocks of birds from roost structures in urban areas, but success in keeping crows off roosts has been short-lived. Homeowners can reduce the presence of crows by keeping trash stored in containers, feeding pets indoors, and hanging tin pie-pans or reflective gazing globes around garden areas.
As a food supplement
Crows were hunted for survival by Curonians, a Baltic tribe, when common food was exhausted and the landscape changed so that farming was not as productive during the 18th and 19th centuries. Fishermen supplemented their diet by gathering coastal bird eggs and preserving crow meat by salting and smoking it. It became a traditional food for poor folk and is documented in a poem, "The Seasons" by K. Donelaitis. After the nonhunting policy was lifted by the Prussian government in 1721–24 and alternative food supplies increased, the practice was forgotten. The tradition re-emerged after World War I; in marketplaces, butchered crows which were sought after and bought by townsfolk were common. The hunted crows were not the local, but the migrating ones; each year during the spring and autumn, crows migrated via the Curonian Spit between Finland and the rest of Europe. In 1943, the government even issued a hunting quota for such activities. Crows were usually caught by attracting them with smoked fish or grains soaked in spirits and then collecting them with nets. It was a job for the elderly or young who were unable to go to sea to fish, and it was common to catch 150 to 200 birds during a hunting day.
The common raven and carrion crow have been blamed for killing weak lambs and are often seen eating freshly dead corpses probably killed by other means. The Australian raven has been documented chasing, attacking, and seriously injuring lambs. Rooks have been blamed for eating grain in the UK and brown-necked ravens for raiding date crops in desert countries.
In Auburn, New York, 25,000 to 50,000 American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) have taken to roosting in the small city's large trees during winter since around 1993. In 2003, a controversial, organized crow hunt proved ineffective at reducing their numbers and the problem (concerns for public health and the sheer noise of so many crows) continues.
At a Technology Entertainment Design conference in March 2008, Joshua Klein presented the potential use of a vending machine for crows. He suggested the crows could be trained to pick up waste and the vending machine would be designed to give a reward in exchange for the garbage.
Crows have been shown to have the ability to visually recognize individual humans and to transmit information about "bad" humans by squawking.
Cultural depictions and folklore
In folklore, myth, and spirituality
In Ancient Greece and Rome, several myths about crows and jackdaws included:
- An ancient Greek and Roman adage, told by Erasmus runs, "The swans will sing when the jackdaws are silent," meaning that educated or wise people will speak after the foolish become quiet.
- Pliny noted how the Thessalians, Illyrians, and Lemnians cherished jackdaws for destroying grasshoppers' eggs. The Veneti are fabled to have bribed the jackdaws to spare their crops.
- Ancient Greek authors tell how a jackdaw (a passerine bird in the crow family), being a social creature, may be caught with a dish of oil into which it falls while looking at its own reflection.
- In Greek legend, princess Arne was bribed with gold by King Minos of Crete and was punished for her avarice by being transformed into an equally avaricious jackdaw, which still seeks shiny things.
In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Crow is a trickster, culture hero, and ancestral being. Legends relating to Crow have been observed in various Aboriginal language groups and cultures across Australia; these commonly include stories relating to Crow's role in the theft of fire, the origin of death, and the killing of Eagle's son.
Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. The Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms.
In the Chaldean myth, the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim releases a dove and raven to find land; however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, which does not return, and Utnapishtim concludes the raven has found land.
In Chinese mythology, the world originally had 10 suns either spiritually embodied as 10 crows and/or carried by 10 crows; when all 10 decided to rise at once, the effect was devastating to crops, so the gods sent their greatest archer Houyi, who shot down nine crows and spared only one.
In Denmark, the night raven is considered an exorcised spirit. A hole in its left wing denotes where the stake used to exorcise it was driven into the earth. He who looks through the hole will become a night raven himself.
In Hinduism, crows are thought of as carriers of information that give omens to people regarding their situations. For example, when a crow crows in front of a person's house, the resident is expected to have special visitors that day. Also, in Hindu literature, crows have great memories which they use to give information. Symbolism is associated with the crow in the Hindu faith. On a positive note, crows are often associated with worship of ancestors because they are believed to be embodying the souls of the recently deceased. However, many negative associations with crows are seen in Hinduism. Crows are believed to be connected with both the gods and goddesses, particularly the unfavorable or harmful ones such as Sani. They are often seen as dark and dangerous. Crows are also seen as being signs of bad luck or evil in some practices. Crows are also considered ancestors in Hinduism and during Śrāddha, the practice of offering food or pinda to crows is still in vogue.
In Islam, according to a narration in the Hadith, the crow is one of the five animals for which no blame is placed on the one who kills them. The Surat Al-Ma'ida describes the story of how the crow teaches son of Adam to cover dead body of his brother "Then Allah sent a crow digging up the earth so that he might show him how he should cover the dead body of his brother. He said: Woe me! do I lack the strength that I should be like this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became of those who regret.".
In Welsh mythology, the god Brân the Blessed – whose name means "crow" or "raven" — is associated with corvids and death; tradition holds that Bran's severed head is buried under the Tower of London, facing France — a possible genesis for the practice of keeping ravens in the Tower, said to protect the fortunes of Britain. In Cornish folklore, crows — magpies particularly — are associated with death and the "other world", and proscribes respectful greeting. The origin of "counting crows" as augury is British; however, the British version rather is to "count magpies" — their black and white pied colouring alluding to the realms of the living and dead.
In popular culture
- In Fritz the Cat, crows are a common character.
- In Aesop's Fables, the jackdaw embodies stupidity in one tale (by starving while waiting for figs on a fig tree to ripen), vanity in another (the jackdaw sought to become king of the birds with borrowed feathers, but was shamed when they fell off), and cunning in yet another (the crow comes up to a pitcher and knows that his beak is too short to reach the water, and if he tips it over, all the water will fall out, so the crow places pebbles in the pitcher so the water rises and he can reach it to relieve his thirst).
- The British Poet Laureate Ted Hughes combined some of the Amerindian and Celtic myths mentioned above in writing the 1970 poetry collection Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow (1970).
- In Ovid's Metamorphoses, in Greek mythology, the god Apollo became enraged when the crow exposed his lover Coronis' tryst with a mortal, his ire transmuting the crow's feathers from white to black.
- In the Story of Bhusunda, a chapter of the Yoga Vasistha, a very old sage in the form of a crow, Bhusunda, recalls a succession of epochs in the earth's history, as described in Hindu cosmology. He survived several destructions, living on a wish-fulfilling tree on Mount Meru.
- In Sons of Anarchy, the founding charter Sons of Anarchy Motorcycle Club Redwood Original (SAMCRO) is often referred to as "Sam Crow", its members as crows, and its groupies as "crow-eaters", and black crows figure largely in the show's symbolism, including the opening credits and the closing scene of the series finale.
- Corvus (heraldry)
- Eating crow
- Ischys for the Greek myth of why the crow's feathers are black
- "Murder of Crows, etc.". Word-detective.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Winkler, Robert (8 August 2002). "Crow Makes Wire Hook to Get Food". National Geographic. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- "A Murder of Crows". Nature. PBS video. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
New research indicates that crows are among the brightest animals in the world.
- "Crows as Clever as Great Apes, Study Says". National Geographic News. NG Society. 9 December 2004. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
Emery and Clayton write, "These studies have found that some corvids are not only superior in intelligence to birds of other avian species (perhaps with the exception of some parrots), but also rival many nonhuman primates."
- Barker, F. K.; Cibois, A.; Schikler, P.; Feinstein, J.; Cracraft, J. (2004). "Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (30): 11040–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401892101. PMC 503738. PMID 15263073.
- Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. (in Latin). Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 824.
- Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0.
- Marzluff, J., Bowman, R. and Donnelly, R. (2001). Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Caccamise, D., Reed, L. and Stouffer, P. (1997). Roosting Behavior and Group Territoriality in American Crows. The Auk, 114(4), 628-637.
- Bekoff, Mark & Byers, John (1998). Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative and Ecological Perspectives.
- "Selected Vocalizations of the Common Crow on JSTOR" (PDF). www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- Shanbhag, Anirudh P.; Ghosh, Ishita; Umakanth, B. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjer.2012.6.1.6184 Interspecific Behavioral Studies of House Crows (Corvus splendens protegatus) and Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus) on Mutual Foraging Sites.
- Dehaene, Stanislas (2011). The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics, Revised and Updated Edition. Oxford University Press. pp. 289–. ISBN 978-0-19-975387-1.
- Park, Keeok. Numbers Are Us. Keeok Park. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-0-9843446-3-5.
- Rincon, Paul (22 February 2005). "Science/Nature | Crows and jays top bird IQ scale". BBC News. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Bait-Fishing in Crows[unreliable source?]
- Post to Wall. "Crow tubing upon a slide (video)". Wimp.com. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Prior, H.; Schwarz, A.; Güntürkün, O. (2008). "Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLoS Biology 6 (8): e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202. PMC 2517622. PMID 18715117.
- Schmid, Randolph E. (5 October 2007) "Crows Bend Twigs Into Tools" at the Wayback Machine (archived March 31, 2012), Associated Press via Discovery Channel
- See also the video "Crow bars", from the BBC's The Life of Birds
- Katrina Bolton (15 September 2007). "Toads fall victim to crows in NT – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- "Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Rogers, Lesley J.; Kaplan, Gisela T. (2004). Comparative vertebrate cognition: are primates superior to non-primates?. New York, New York: Springer. p. 9. ISBN 0-306-47727-0.
- Nijhuis, Michelle (25 August 2008). "Friend or Foe? Crows Never Forget a Face, It Seems". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- Heinrich, B. (1988). "Winter foraging at carcasses by three sympatric corvids, with emphasis on recruitment by the raven, Corvus corax". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23 (3): 141. doi:10.1007/BF00300349.
- Heinrich, B.; Marzluff, J. M. (1991). "Do common ravens yell because they want to attract others?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28. doi:10.1007/BF00172134.
- Crow Facts. crowbusters.com
- Allaboutbirds.org, (2014). American Crow. [online] Available at: http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/american_crow/lifehistory
- Andrea K Townsend and Christopher M Barker (2014). Plastic and the Nest Entanglement of Urban and Agricultural Crows Heiss, R., Clark, A. and McGowan, K. (2009).
- Growth and nutritional state of American crow nestlings vary between urban and rural habitats. Ecological Applications, 19(4), 829-839.
- McGowan, K.J. "Frequently Asked Questions About Crows", Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Crow Believed to Be Oldest in World Dies. Associated Press via Washington Post (7 July 2006)
- "Why West Nile virus kills so many crows", Penn State Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics
- "Pacific Region Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service". Fws.gov. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Lim, H. C., N. S. Sodhi, B. W. Brook, and M. C. K. Soh (2003). "Factors determining the distribution of three invasive bird species in Singapore". Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 685–695. doi:10.1017/s0266467403006084.
- Brook, B. W.; Sodhi, N. S.; Soh, M. C. K.; Lim, H. C. (2003). "Abundance and Projected Control of Invasive House Crows in Singapore". The Journal of Wildlife Management 67 (4): 808. doi:10.2307/3802688. JSTOR 3802688.
- "National Geographic News. 2010. Crow meat comes back—boost sexual potency? Accessed. 17 Oct 2013". News.nationalgeographic.com. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Conover, M. R. (1985). "Protecting vegetables from crows using an animated crow-killing owl model". The Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 643–645. doi:10.2307/3801687.
- Johnson, R. J. "American crows" (PDF). Internet Center for Wildlife Management. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Gorenzel, W. P.; Blackwell, B. F.; Simmons, G. D.; Salmon, T. P.; Dolbeer, R. A. (2002). "Evaluation of lasers to disperse American crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, from urban night roosts". International Journal of Pest Management 48 (4): 327. doi:10.1080/09670870210151689.
- "Crow hunting". http://www.nerija.lt. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Alexander, G.; Mann, T.; Mulhearn, C. J.; Rowley, I. C. R.; Williams, D.; Winn, D. (1967). "Activities of foxes and crows in a flock of lambing ewes". Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 7 (27): 329. doi:10.1071/EA9670329.
- Goodwin D. (1983). Crows of the World. Queensland University Press, St Lucia, Qld. ISBN 0-7022-1015-3.
- "Auburn NY Crow Roost and lighting changes". Cnylinks.com. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- "The Citizen, Auburn NY". Auburnpub.com. 14 June 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Klein, Joshua (2008). "The amazing intelligence of crows". TED conference. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- Krulwich, Robert (July 27, 2009). "The Crow Paradox". Morning Edition (National Public Radio).
- Sewall, Katy (February 25, 2015). "The girl who gets gifts from birds". BBC.
- "Birds that bring gifts and do the gardening". BBC News. March 10, 2015.
- Mynors, Roger A. (Translator) (1989). Collected Works of Erasmus: Adages: Ivi1 to Ix100. University of Toronto Press. p. 314.
- de Vries, Ad (1976). Dictionary of Symbols and Imagery. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. p. 275. ISBN 0-7204-8021-3.
- Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth (1895). "Jackdaw". A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford). p. 89.
- Graves, R (1955). "Scylla and Nisus". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p. 308. ISBN 0-14-001026-2.
- Kovacs, Maureen Gallery (1989). The epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8047-1711-3.
- This mythology comes from a text in Shanhaijing, among other sources.
- Yang, Lihui (2008). Handbook of Chinese Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 95–96 and 231. ISBN 978-0-19-533263-6.
- The Atlantic Monthly 34.
- Zailer, Xenia (2013). "Dark Shades of Power: the Crow in Hindu and Tantric Religious Traditions". Religions Of South Asia: 212–229. doi:10.1558/rosa.v7i1-3.212.
- Vasudevan, Vidia (26 July 2001). "It's a crow's day". The Hindu (Chennai, India).
- Leeming, David Adams (2005). "Crows and ravens". The Oxford companion to world mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
- What Ruling on killing mice and rats. Islamqa.info. Retrieved on 19 April 2014.
- "Surat Al-Maidah 5:31". Quran.com. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Picken, Stuart D.B. (1994). Essentials of Shinto: an analytical guide to principal teachings. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-313-26431-3.
- Como, Michael (2009). Weaving and binding: immigrant gods and female immortals in ancient Japan. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8248-2957-5.
- "Common Ravens - Species Information". Avianweb.com. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "The Crow and the Pitcher". Aesop's Fables.
- Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (1998). "Coronis/Corvus". Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-57607-129-8.
- Cole, Juan R.I. Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism: The Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria.
- Burton, Maurice & Burton, Robert (2002). "Crow". The international wildlife encyclopedia, Volume 10. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7.
- Gill, B. J. (2003). "Osteometry and Systematics of the Extinct New Zealand Ravens (Aves: Corvidae: Corvus)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 43–58. doi:10.1017/S1477201903001019. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
- Goodwin, D. (1983). Crows of the World. Queensland University Press. ISBN 0-7022-1015-3.
- Heinrich, Bernd (1991). Ravens in Winter. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-73236-5.
- Heinrich, Bernd (1999). Mind of the Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-Birds. Cliff Street Books. ISBN 978-0-06-093063-9.
- Kilham, Lawrence (1991). The American Crow and the Common Raven. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-466-1.
- Madge, Steve & Burn, Hillary (1994). Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays, and magpies of the world. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-67171-9.
- Westerfield, Michael (2011). The Language of Crows: The crows.net Book of the American Crow. Ashford Press. ISBN 978-0-937992-00-5.
- Worthy, Trevor H. & Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34034-9.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Crow.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corvus.|
- Frequently Asked Questions About Crows - Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Crows (Corvidae) - Internet Bird Collection
- Crows.net: The Language and Culture of Crows
- Tool making and use by Crows - Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Oxford University
- "A Murder of Crows" - PBS documentary (2010)