Chronica Boemorum, 12th century. Below on the page there are names of seven legendary dukes, who came after Přemysl, the Ploughman.
Cosmas of Prague (Czech: Kosmas Pražský; c. 1045 – October 21, 1125) was a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia. Between 1075 and 1081, he studied in Liège. After his return to Bohemia, he became a priest and married Božetěcha, with whom he probably had a son. In 1086, Cosmas was appointed prebendary (canonicus) of Prague, a prestigious position. As prebendary he also travelled through Europe on official matters.
His magnum opus, written in Latin, is called Chronica Boëmorum ("Chronicle of Bohemians"). The Chronica is divided into three books:
The second book describes Bohemian history for the years 1038–1092. The book starts with the heroic deeds of Duke Břetislav, known as the "Bohemian Achilles", for example with his victory over Poland. The Chronica also describes the long and great reign of King Vratislav, who was known as a forceful ruler but a brave and good man. There is also a reflection on his wars in Italy; this book ends with Vratislav's death.
The third book (1092–1125) starts with a description of the time of instability and bloody civil wars after Vratislav's death between years 1092 and 1109. The Chronica ends with the reign of Vladislav between 1109 and 1125. The same year, 1125, Cosmas died.