Cosmic crystallography

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Cosmic crystallography is a technique used in physics and astronomy to determine the possible topology of the universe (e.g. a torus, 3-sphere, etc.). Astronomers observe sources of high redshift and look for repeating patterns that may indicate the connection of edges.[citation needed]

Pair separation histograms[edit]

Cosmic crystallographers use cosmic separation histograms to infer characteristics of the universe. Large spikes are expected to appear if the universe is not simply connected.