May 2002 cover featuring Katrina Kaif
(as The Cosmopolitan, a literary magazine)|
1965 (as a women's magazine)
(other countries also available)
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women, which was formerly titled The Cosmopolitan. The magazine was first published and distributed in 1886 in the United States as a family magazine; it was later transformed into a literary magazine and eventually became a women's magazine (since 1965). Often referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles discussing: relationships, sex, health, careers, self-improvement, celebrities, fashion, and beauty. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions including: Croatia, Greece, Romania, Estonia, UK, Norway, Australia, Spain, Sweden, Malaysia, Singapore, The Middle East Region, Latin America Region, Hungary, Finland, Netherlands, South Africa, France, Portugal, Armenia and Russia and is printed in 35 languages, and is distributed in more than 110 countries.
- 1 History
- 2 Today
- 3 Awards and features
- 4 Politics
- 5 Criticism
- 6 Editor in chief (American edition)
- 7 References
- 8 External links
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Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan.
Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers that his publication was a "first-class family magazine", adding, "There will be a department devoted exclusively to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, and the care and management of children, etc. There was also a department for the younger members of the family."
Cosmopolitan's circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, Schlicht & Field were no longer in business. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889. That same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to his magazine.
Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E. D. Walker, formerly with Harper's Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations, serials and book reviews. It became a leading market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Willa Cather, and Edith Wharton. The magazine's circulation climbed to 75,000 by 1892.
In 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan. No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study." When 20,000 immediately signed up, Walker could not fund the school and students were then asked to contribute 20 dollars a year. Also in 1897, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon (1900). Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy article about the Boer War.
In 1905, William Randolph Hearst purchased the magazine for US$400,000 (equivalent to $10,895,000 in 2017) and brought in journalist Charles Edward Russell, who contributed a series of investigative articles, including "The Growth of Caste in America" (March 1907), "At the Throat of the Republic" (December 1907 – March 1908) and "What Are You Going to Do About It?" (July 1910 – January 1911), and "Colorado – New Tricks in an Old Game" (December 1910).
Other contributors during this period included O. Henry, A. J. Cronin, Alfred Henry Lewis, Bruno Lessing, Sinclair Lewis, O. O. McIntyre, David Graham Phillips, George Bernard Shaw, Upton Sinclair, and Ida Tarbell. Jack London's novella, "The Red One", was published in the October 1918 issue (two years after London's death), and a constant presence from 1910–18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the "scientific detective". Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, and James Montgomery Flagg.
Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions (also known as Cosmopolitan Pictures), a film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923, then Hollywood until 1938, for the purpose of making films from stories published in the magazine.
Cosmopolitan magazine was officially titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952, but was simply referred to as Cosmopolitan. In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day and renamed it Hearst's Magazine in April 1912. In June 1914 it was shortened to Hearst's and was ultimately titled Hearst's International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925. But while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points, over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and then to a barely legible twelve points. After Hearst died in 1951, the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952.
With a circulation of 1,700,000 in the 1930s, Cosmopolitan had an advertising income of $5,000,000. Emphasizing fiction in the 1940s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,000,000.
The magazine began to run less fiction during the 1950s. Circulation dropped to slightly over a million by 1955, a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television. The Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market, general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences.
Helen Gurley Brown arrives
Cosmo was widely known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became chief editor in 1965. Helen Gurley Brown changed the entire trajectory of the magazine during her time as editor. Brown remodeled and re-invented it as a magazine for modern single career women. Completely transforming the old bland Cosmopolitan magazine into a racy, contentious and well known, successful magazine. As the editor for 32 years, Brown spent this time using the magazine as an outlet to erase stigma around unmarried women not only having sex, but also enjoying it. Known as a "devout feminist", Brown was often attacked by critics due to her paradoxical views on women and sex. She believed that women were allowed to enjoy sex without shame in all cases. She died in 2012 at the age of 90. Her vision is still evident in the current design of Cosmopolitan Magazine. The magazine eventually adopted a cover format consisting of a usually young female model (in recent years, an actress, singer, or another prominent female celebrity), typically in a low cut dress, bikini, or some other revealing outfit.
The magazine set itself apart by frankly discussing sexuality from the point of view that women could and should enjoy sex without guilt. The first issue under Helen Gurley Brown, July 1965, featured an article on the birth control pill, which had gone on the market exactly five years earlier.
This was not Brown's first publication dealing with sexually liberated women. Her 1962 advice book, Sex and the Single Girl, had been a bestseller. Fan mail begging for Brown's advice on many subjects concerning women's behavior, sexual encounters, health, and beauty flooded her after the book was released. Brown sent the message that a woman should have men complement her life, not take it over. Enjoying sex without shame was also a message she incorporated in both publications.
In Brown's early years as editor, the magazine received heavy criticism. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included copies of Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines. Cosmopolitan also ran a near-nude centerfold of actor Burt Reynolds in April 1972, causing great controversy and attracting much attention.
In April 1978, a single edition of Cosmopolitan Man was published as a trial, targeted to appeal to men. Its cover featured Jack Nicholson and Aurore Clément. It was published twice in 1989 as a supplement to Cosmopolitan. Hearst abandoned this project after the company purchased Esquire.
The magazine, and in particular its cover stories, have become increasingly sexually explicit in tone, and covers have models wearing revealing clothes. Kroger, the largest grocery chain in the United States, used to cover up Cosmopolitan at checkout stands because of complaints about sexually inappropriate headlines. The UK edition of Cosmopolitan, which began in 1972, was the first Cosmopolitan magazine to be branched out to another country. It was well known for sexual explicitness, with strong sexual language, male nudity, and coverage of such subjects as rape. In 1999, CosmoGIRL!, a spinoff magazine targeting a teenage female audience, was created for international readership. It shut down in December 2008.
The magazine currently features topics including sex, relationships, beauty, fashion, and health.
There are 64 worldwide editions of Cosmopolitan, and the magazine is published in 35 languages, with distribution in more than 100 countries making Cosmopolitan the largest-selling young women's magazine in the world. Some international editions are published in partnerships, such as licenses or joint ventures, with established publishing houses in each local market.
Cosmopolitan has since the sixties been a women's magazine discussing such topics as sex, health, fitness, and fashion. Cosmopolitan also has a section called "Ask Him Anything" where a male writer answers readers' questions about men and dating.
Over 3,000,000 people are subscribed to Cosmopolitan. currently.
Awards and features
Fun, Fearless Male of the Year
For over a decade, the February issue has featured this award. In 2011, Russell Brand received the magazine's Fun Fearless Male of the Year Award, joining Kellan Lutz and Paul Wesley (2010), John Mayer (2008), Nick Lachey (2007), Patrick Dempsey (2006), Josh Duhamel (2005), Matthew Perry (2004), and Jon Bon Jovi (2003).
Fun, Fearless Female of the Year
Nicole Scherzinger received the 2012 Fun, Fearless Female of the Year honor, a title that had been previously awarded to Kayla Itsines (2015), Mila Kunis (2011), Anna Faris (2010), Ali Larter (2009), Katherine Heigl (2008), Eva Mendes (2007), Beyoncé (2006), Ashlee Simpson (2005), Alicia Silverstone (2004), Sandra Bullock (2003), Britney Spears (2002), Debra Messing (2001), Jennifer Love Hewitt (2000), Shania Twain (1999), and Ashley Judd (1998)
Bachelor of the Year
Cosmopolitan's November issue features the hottest bachelors from all 50 states. Pictures and profiles of all the Bachelors are posted on www.cosmopolitan.com, where readers view and vote for their favorite, narrowing it down to six finalists. A team of Cosmopolitan editors then selects the Bachelor of the Year, who is announced at an annual party and media event in New York. The 50 bachelors generally appear on programs such as The Today Show.
Past winners include:
- Chris Van Vliet 2011
- Ryan "Mickey" McLean 2010
- Brad Ludden 2008
- Brian Watkins 2007
- Matt Wood 2006
Practice Safe Sun
In the May 2006 issue of Cosmopolitan, the magazine launched the Practice Safe Sun campaign, an initiative aimed at fighting skin cancer by asking readers to stop all forms of tanning other than tanning from a bottle. In conjunction with the campaign, Cosmo's editor-in-chief, Kate White, approached Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney (D-NY), known for her support of women's health issues, with concerns that women weren't fully aware of the dangers of indoor tanning and the effectiveness of the current warning labels. After careful review, the Congresswoman agreed that it was necessary to recommend that the FDA take a closer look. She and Representative Ginny Brown-Waite (R-FL) introduced the Tanning Accountability and Notification Act (TAN Act – H.R. 4767) on February 16, 2006. President Bush signed the act in September 2007, and the new federal law requires the FDA to scrutinize the warning labels on tanning beds and issue a report by September 2008.
Cosmo Blog Awards
Cosmopolitan UK launched the Cosmo Blog Awards in 2010. The awards attracted more than 15,000 entries and winning and highly commended blogs were voted for in several categories including beauty, fashion, lifestyle, and celebrity. The 2011 awards launched in August 2011 and nominations are open until 31 August 2011. All UK-based bloggers and blogs written by British blogges abroad with a British perspective can be entered.
Cosmopolitan, The Fragrance
In May 2015, Cosmopolitan UK announced they were launching their first ever fragrance. This is considered a first in the magazine industry. Named 'Cosmopolitan, The Fragrance', the perfume takes on the notion of their much-loved phrase 'Fun, Fearless Female' and was set to launch in September.
Cosmopolitan played a role in passing the Seventeenth Amendment to the US Constitution, which allowed for the popular election of Senators. In 1906, William Randolph Hearst hired David Graham Phillips to write a series of articles entitled "The Treason of the Senate." These articles, which were largely sensationalized, helped galvanize public support for this cause.
In September 2014, Cosmopolitan began endorsing political candidates. The endorsements are based on "established criteria" agreed upon by the magazine's editors. Specifically, Cosmopolitan will only endorse candidates that support equal pay laws, legal abortion, free contraceptives, gun control, and oppose voter identification laws. Amy Odell, editor of Cosmopolitan.com, has stated that under no circumstances will the magazine endorse a political candidate that is pro-life: "We’re not going to endorse someone who is pro-life because that’s not in our readers’ best interest.” According to Joanna Coles, the magazine's Editor-in-Chief, the endorsements of Cosmopolitan will focus on "candidates in swing states or candidates who are strongly in favor of issues like contraception coverage or gun control." In the 2014 U.S. elections, Cosmopolitan officially endorsed twelve Democratic candidates. However, only two of them won their respective political campaigns.
In its January 1988 issue, Cosmopolitan ran a feature claiming that women had almost no reason to worry about contracting HIV long after the best available medical science indicated otherwise. The piece claimed that unprotected sex with an HIV-positive man did not put women at risk of infection and went on to state that "most heterosexuals are not at risk" and that it was impossible to transmit HIV in the missionary position. This article angered many knowledgeable people, including AIDS and gay rights activists. The protests organised in response to the article's publication were turned into a 30-minute documentary titled "Doctors, Liars and Women: AIDS Activists Say NO to Cosmo" by two members of ACTUP, a New York City based collective of HIV/AIDS activists.
While considered a magazine for adult women, Cosmopolitan has been accused of subtly targeting children. Former model Nicole Weider accused the magazine of using slang "which is used by young people not adults" and using (then) underage celebrities, such as Demi Lovato and Selena Gomez, as well as other celebrities popular with teens such as Ashley Greene and Dakota Fanning, in an attempt to gain the attention of underage girls.
Victoria Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph Hearst (founder of Cosmopolitan's parent company) and sister of Patty Hearst, has lent her support to a campaign which seeks to classify Cosmopolitan as harmful under the guidelines of "Material Harmful to Minors" laws. Hearst, the founder of an evangelical Colorado church called Praise Him Ministries, states that "the magazine promotes a lifestyle that can be dangerous to women’s emotional and physical well being. It should never be sold to anyone under 18". Donald Clark, the secretary of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), has also shown interest in the matter.
Cosmopolitan was criticized by Katie Yoder of the Campaign Life Coalition for its September 2014 decision to exclude pro-life candidates in its endorsements, stating "Yes, Cosmo deeply cares about 'all young women.' Minus those pro-life women voters, women candidates – and unborn females, of course."
In 2018, Walmart announced to remove Cosmopolitan magazine from checkout lines after the news released by National Center on sexual exploitation labeling the magazine as “sexually explicit material”.
Editor in chief (American edition)
- Frank P. Smith (1886–1888)
- E. D. Walker (1888)
- John Brisben Walker (1889–1905)
- Bailey Millard (1905–1907)
- S. S. Chamberlain (1907–1908)
- C. P. Narcross (1908–1913)
- Sewell Haggard (1914)
- Edgar Grant Sisson (1914–1917)
- Douglas Z. Doty (1917–1918)
- Ray Long (1918–1931)
- Harry Payne Burton (1931–1942)
- Frances Whiting (1942–1945)
- Arthur Gordon (1946–1948)
- Herbert R. Mayes (1948–1951)
- John J. O'Connell (1951–1959)
- Robert Atherton (1959–1965)
- Helen Gurley Brown (1965–1997)
- Bonnie Fuller (1997–1998)
- Kate White (1998–2012)
- Joanna Coles (2012–2016)
- Michele Promaulayko (2016–present)
- "eCirc for Consumer Magazines". Audit Bureau of Circulations. June 30, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- "The Hottest Cosmo Covers You've Never Seen". Cosmopolitan. June 30, 2011.
- "Cosmopolitan: "Fun, Fearless, Female"". hearst.com. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- Tassin, Algernon (December 1915). "The Magazine In America, Part X: The End Of The Century". The Bookman: an Illustrated Magazine of Literature and Life. Dodd, Mead and Co. XLII (4): 396–412. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- Marks, Jason (1993). Around the World in 72 Days: The race between Pulitzer's Nellie Bly and Cosmopolitan's Elizabeth Bisland. Gemittarius Press. ISBN 978-0-9633696-2-8.
- Ruiz,Michelle (September 2013). "Remembering Cosmo's Legendary Literary All-Stars". Cosmopolitan.com. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- Henry, O. "Dream". Read Book Online website. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Fiction of Jack London". Jacklondons.net. p. 31. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- "On This Day: November 23, 1916: OBITUARY – Jack London Dies Suddenly On Ranch". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Landers, James (2010). The Improbable First Century of Cosmopolitan Magazine. University of Missouri Press. pp. 169–213. ISBN 9780826272331.
- "Cosmopolitan | magazine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
- Jaramillo, Juliana (August 12, 2014). "A Brief History of Cosmo Covers".
- Benjamin, Jennifer (September 2009). "How Cosmo Changed the World". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
- Fox, Margalit (August 13, 2012). "Helen Gurley Brown, Who Gave 'Single Girl' a Life in Full, Dies at 90". New York Times.
- Grinberg, Emanuella (August 19, 2012). "Helen Gurley Brown's Complicated Feminist Legacy". CNN.
- "Cosmopolitan Celebrates 40 Years as the World's Favorite Women's Magazine". www.businesswire.com.
- Marks, Lara (2001). Sexual Chemistry: A History of the Contraceptive Pill. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08943-0.
- Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel (1998). On the Pill: A Social History of Oral Contraceptives, 1950–1970. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5876-3.
- Ouellette, Laurie. "Inventing the Cosmo Girl: Class Identity and Girl-Style American Dreams". Media, Culture & Society 21 (1999): 361. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
- Scanlon, Jennifer. "Sensationalist Literature or Expert Advice?". Feminist Media Studies 9:1 (2009): 12. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- Gianoulis, Tina (2002). "Cosmopolitan." Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th-Century America. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Gale Virtual Reference Library. pp. 867–868.[dead link]
- Greenfieldboyce, Nell (September 5, 2008). "Pageant Protest Sparked Bra-Burning Myth". NPR. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
- Julie Willett (11 May 2010). The American Beauty Industry Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-313-35949-1. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Men's magazines: an A to Z" Archived 2007-11-21 at the Wayback Machine., Magforum.com, accessed November 6, 2006
- New York Daily News – The Ticker, New York Daily News.[dead link]
- Brian Watkins – Cosmo Bachelor of the Year 2007 – Cosmopolitan.com Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "2011 Cosmo Bachelor of The Year – Interview with Chris Van Vliet". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- "Ryan Mickey McLean Interview – Ohio Bachelor Ryan McLean Quotes". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- Cosmo to Promote 'Safe Skin' | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Cosmo to Promote 'Safe Skin' | Mediaweek | Professional Journal archives from". AllBusiness.com. 2006-04-10. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- "American Academy Of Dermatology Association Commends President Bush For Signing Tanning Accountability And Notification (TAN) Act".
- "Cosmo Blog Awards". Cosmopolitan UK. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011.
- "The Home of Cosmopolitan, The Fragrance". Cosmo Fragrance. Archived from the original on 2015-08-27. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
- "Cosmopolitan launches Cosmopolitan The Fragrance – Hearst UKHearst UK". Hearst.co.uk. 2015-05-26. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
- "U.S. Senate: Landmark Legislation: The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-30.
- Gold, Hadas (4 September 2014). "The new Cosmo: Love, sex, politics?". Politico. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Ashe Schow. > "The 8 biggest losers of the war on women". Washington Examiner.[permanent dead link]
- "AIDS in New York: A Biography – New York Magazine". Newyorkmetro.com. 2006-06-05. Archived from the original on 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2011-11-16.
- "Editorials & Opinion – Cosmo's Deadly Advice To Women About Aids – Seattle Times Newspaper". community.seattletimes.nwsource.com.
- Rossi (1998-06-01). "Cosmo Confessions". Retrieved 2016-07-30.
- "ACT UP/NY Chronology 1988". www.actupny.org.
- http://www.jeancarlomusto.com/doctorsliars&women.html Archived 2016-08-21 at the Wayback Machine.
- Carlomusto, Jean (17 December 2012). "Doctors, Liars and Women:AIDS Activists Say No To Cosmo" – via Vimeo.
- McKay, Hollie (September 6, 2012). "Victoria Hearst says her family's Cosmopolitan magazine "pornographic", joins campaign to get it brown bagged". Fox News.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20140101101557/http://praisehimministries.org/index.htm. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Missing or empty
- Yoder, Katie (4 September 2014). "Cosmo Mag set to endorse candidates, says pro-life is a 'deal breaker'". LifeSiteNews.com. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lam, Katherine (2018-03-27). "Walmart to remove Cosmopolitan magazine from checkout lines". Fox News. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
- DAVID CARR and CHRISTINE HAUGHNEY (4 September 2012). "New Editor at Cosmopolitan: Joanna Coles Replaces Kate White". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
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