Kosmos 133

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Kosmos 133
Operator Soviet space program
COSPAR ID 1966-107A
Mission duration 2 days, 1 hour, 19 minutes
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Soyuz 7K-OK No.2
Spacecraft type Soyuz 7K-OK
Manufacturer OKB-2
Launch mass 6450 kg
Start of mission
Launch date 11:02:00 UTC, 28 November 1966
Launch site Baikonur Cosmodrome
End of mission
Landing date 10:21 UTC, 30 November 1966
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 171 km
Apogee 223 km
Inclination 51.9°
Period 88.4 minutes

Kosmos 133 (Russian: Космос 133, meaning "Cosmos 133"; COSPAR ID: 1966-107A), was the first unmanned test flight of the Soyuz spacecraft, and first mission of the Soyuz programme, as part of the Soviet space programme.

Launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard the maiden flight of the Soyuz carrier rocket, Kosmos 133 was planned "all up" test, to include an automated docking with a second Soyuz (Soyuz 7K-OK No.1), which was scheduled for launch the day after Kosmos 133. Problems found during ground testing of the second spacecraft resulted in its launch being delayed, and it was destroyed when its carrier rocket exploded on its launch pad following a scrubbed launch attempt in December.

Before this, the attitude control system of Kosmos 133 malfunctioned, resulting in rapid consumption of orientation fuel, leaving it spinning at 2 rpm. After large efforts by ground control and 5 attempts at retrofire over two days, the craft was finally coming down for a landing. Due to the inaccuracy of the reentry burn, it was determined that the capsule would land in China. The self-destruct command was given and the satellite exploded 30 November 1966 at 10:21 GMT.

The fireball passed over west Japan and was recorded by photos and a sketch. Kōichirō Tomita identified that it was the Kosmos 133 spacecraft.