Glossary of entomology terms

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Parts of an adult butterfly

This glossary of entomology describes terms used in the formal study of insect species by entomologists.

When present, elytra of the Staphylinidae are markedly abbreviate.
This fly in the genus Scaptomyza has clearly visible rows of para-sagittal acrostichal bristles on its thorax
the alitrunk of aculeate Hymenoptera comprises the three thoracic segments, plus the propodeum, which strictly speaking, is the first segment of the abdomen.


(adjective) Of an organ or member: markedly or unexpectedly short in proportion to the rest of the body
Body of the insect, toward the posterior of the thorax.
abdominal feet
See proleg
See Acalyptratae
thorn-like projection, typically a single-celled cuticular growth without tormogen (socket) or sensory cells.[1]
A chemical employed to kill and control mites and ticks.
feeding on mites (also refers to parasitoids of mites).
accessory gland
Any secondary gland of the glandular system.
accessory pulsatile organs (APOs)
Small muscular pumps and the veins that accompany them that pump hemolymph into the wings.
acetyl choline
Alternative spelling of "acetylcholine".
acrostichal bristles
The two rows of hairs or bristles lying one on either side of the mid-line of the thorax of a true fly.
active space
The space within which the concentration of a pheromone or other behaviorally active substance is concentrated enough to generate the required response, remembering that like light and sound pheromones become more dilute the further they radiate out from their source.
(Hymenoptera) Any member of a group of families that include the familiar stinging ants, bees, and social and hunting wasp.
Tapering to a long point.
A class of insect growth regulators.
Of pupa: the state in which the pupa does not possess movable mandibles, the opposite being decticous.
A major cell type of insects that stores fat body and reserves nutrients.
(adjective): Along the margin.
The sclerotized terminal portion of the male genital tract that is inserted into the female during insemination. Its shape is often important in separating closely related species.
Summer dormancy, entered into when conditions are unfavourable for active life i.e. it is too hot or too dry.
age polyethism
The regular changing of roles of colony members as they get older.
air sac
A dilated portion of a trachea.
alar squama
The middle of three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various flies.
alary muscles
Muscles along the dorsal diaphragm that may drive circulation.
The parthenogenetic winged morph of vividae, specialized for migration.
Winged; having wings.
A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, Endrin, Isodrin
Feeding on algae.
Name given to the thorax plus propodeum of 'wasp-waisted' aculeate Hymenoptera The term is now dated, and seldom used, but it describes the apparent "thorax" of bees, wasps, and ants, which actually incorporates the first abdominal segment, which precedes the petiole.
When individuals other than the parent assist in the caring for that parents offspring. Alloparenting takes many forms, including castes in social insects raising the offspring of reproductives, and slave ant workers feeding the larvae of the slaver species.
Refers to the state when two or more populations, such as different species, or forms of one species have essentially separate distributions. cf. sympatry, parapatric
alternating generations
When two generations are produced within a life cycle each producing individuals of only one sex, either male first and then female or vice versa.
Self-destructive. or potentially self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others.
A broad lobe at the proximal posterior margin of the wing stalk of Diptera. Also termed the axillary lobe.
The fungus cultivated by wood-boring beetles of the family Scolytidae.
Originally: The now obsolete subclass of Hexapoda that develop without clearly defined stages of metamorphosis, such as nymph, larva, pupa, adult; namely the Thysanura, Protura, Diplura, and Collembola. Also known as the Apterygota. Subsequently the others have been reclassified as separate from the Insecta, while the Thysanura have been split into the orders Archaeognatha and Zygentoma
Compound derived from carboxylic acids by replacing the hydroxyl of the -COOH by the amino group, -NH2-.
An organic compound containing nitrogen, derived from ammonia, NH3, by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by as many hydrocarbon radicals.
amino acid
Organic compounds that contain the amino (NH2) group and the carboxyl (COOH) group. Amino acids are the "building stones" of proteins.
A colorless alkaline gas, NH3, soluble in water.
Pertaining to last abdominal segment which bears the anus.
anal angle
The posterior corner of the wing (same as tornus).
anal fold
A fold in the inner margin of the hindwing.
anal valves
Exposed claspers at the end of the abdomen.
Infection with Anaplasma, a genus of Sporozoa that infests red blood cells.
anasa wilt
A wilt disease of cucurbits caused solely by the feeding of the squash bug, no parasitic microorganism involved.
(singula = Androconium) In male butterflies, specialised wing scales (often called scent scales) possessing special glands which produce a chemical attractive to females.
androconium or androconia (plural)
Specialised microscopic scales on the wings of male butterflies, believed to be scent scales for attracting the female.
Formed in ring-like segments or with ring-like markings.
Butterfly antennae shapes
Deficient in blood quantity or quality.
the lower (anterior) portion of the clypeus of insects.
The long feelers situated on the head and close to the eyes. They are however not tactile but used for detecting airborne scents and currents.
  • In Papilionoidea the antennae end in bulging tips called clubs.
  • In Hesperioidea they have hooked tips and the club is found just before the tip.
  • In some Lycaenidae like the genus Liphyra the antenna tapers gradually.
Touching with the antenna.
Bearing antennae, as in "antenniferous tubercle".
A segment of an antenna. The term antennomere is used in particular when the segments are fairly uniform, as in filiform antennae, but it also may be used in referring to segments of odd sizes, shapes and functions, such as the scape and pedicel. More specific terms may be used where there are distinct antennal regions; for example flagellomeres are the antennomeres comprising the flagellum.
in front of or after the aforementioned structure.
antenodal veins
Small cross-veins at the front of the dragonfly or damselfly wing, between the wing base and the nodus.
feeding on flowers.
An association between two or more organisms that is detrimental to one or more of them.
A substance antagonistic to the coagulation of blood.
The posterior opening of the digestive tract.
apex / apical area
The anterior corner of the wing.
apical cell
The first posterior cell in the wing of Diptera. It is the space between the third and fourth longitudinal vein beyond the anterior crossvein (R5).
feeding on aphids (and parasitoids of aphids).
Medicinal use of the honey bee or its products.
Originally an alternate name for the then recognised subclass Ametabola
A crossvein between the radius and cubitus near the base of the wing in certain insects.
1.  A small ring of color
2.  In crayfish, the hourglass pattern on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax
A pad-like median lobe between the tarsal claws.
base / basal area of wing
Region close to the point of attachment to the thorax.
basal streak (Noctuidae)
also basal dash — a typically short and broad line at the mid-basal area of the forewing of noctuid moths.See figures 4, 5
Raised area on the wing surface, circular, ovate, or elongated, which is covered with special scent scales or androconia, found in males of some species. Also called sex mark.
feeding on moss.
Distinction between clavate and capitate anatomy of insect antennae
Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with an abruptly bulkier, thicker, possibly globular distal head, the capitulum. The term capitate is not strictly distinguished from clavate, but where a distinction is desired, it is that the club of a capitate antenna is abruptly distinct from the shaft, and the head tends to be short and more or less globular. The club of a clavate antenna generally is a more or less tapered thickening, sometimes hardly distinct from the shaft.
The head of a capitate structure, such as a capitate antenna, or of a capitate haltere
a keel-like elevation (or ridge) on the body-wall of an insect.
feeding on fruits and seeds.
Markings consisting of rings connected together like a chain.
  • catenulated antennae
    Antennae with ringed appearance.
The central area surrounded by veins. It can be closed by veins or open.
  • The vein forming the boundary of the cell along the costal margin is known as the subcostal vein q.v.
  • The vein forming the lower boundary towards the dorsum is called the median vein.
  • In the case of butterflies, the cell is closed by a vein connecting the origins of veins 6 to 4 along the top of the cell which is known as discocellular vein.
cell cup
Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. Also called the posterior cubital cell and often called the anal cell. see File:Phytomyzinae wing veins-1.svg
central shade or median shade
Taxonomically important term used in moth description. It is a transverse band in the median area of the wing. See figures 4, 5
ceratophagy (Also spelled keratophagy)
feeding on cornified tissues and hair of animals.
(Anatomical feature) the structure defining the neck of the insect.
See Seta.
patch of sensory bristles.
An external spine that has a single point. Etymology: Greek chalasa, a tubercle. cf. scolus, which has multiple points.
See Seta.
Fine hairs along the edges of the wing. Etymology: Latin 'eyelash'[3]
clasper or clasp
A structure in male insects that is used to hold the female during copulation.
Clavate antenna of a beetle in the family Erotylidae. In this specimen the clavus comprises three segments
Same as clavus.
Mainly referring to antennae, but occasionally to other anatomical features such as palps: having a clubbed shape with a relatively long, slender stem, but with a bulkier, thicker distal end, the clava. The term clavate is not strictly distinguished from capitate, but in general, where a distinction is desired, the club of a capitate antenna is abruptly distinct, even globular, whereas the club of a clavate antennae is generally a more or less tapered thickening
claviform stigma
specifically, in Noctuidae (moths)- an elongate spot or mark extending from the anterior transverse anterior line through the submedian interspace, toward and sometimes to the posterior transverse line.See figures 4, 5
Same as clavus or club
1.  The thicker distal end of a clavate anatomical structure such as an antenna. Usually comprising more than one joint. Also called clava, clavola, or club
2.  The posterior of the portion of the remigium found on insect wings.
3.  The oblong sclerite at the base of the inferior margin of the hemelytron in Heteroptera.
4.  The knob at the end of the stigmal or radial veins in the wings of certain Hymenoptera.
The popular (possibly to be preferred) name for the clavus of a clavate antenna.
(Anatomical feature) a sclerite structure below the frons, circumposed by the mandibles and above the labrum.
feeding on scale insects (and parasitoids of scale insects).
Terms associated with the wings
compound eye
An eye consisting of a large number of individual photoreceptor units or ommatidia (ommatidium, singular).Figure 2 d below
connexivum or connexiva (plural)
(largely in Heteroptera and similarly dorsoventrally flattened insects) the edge of the abdomen, containing the connection between the tergite and sternite. May be visible from above in species such as many of the Reduviidae.
inhabiting feces and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
feeding on the excrements of animals.
costa / costal area
The leading edge of the wing.
costal break
Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. weakenings of the costa (one to three in number). They are flexing points for the wings during flight
costal fold
A fold in the leading edge of the forewing of Lepidoptera, containing androconia.
coronal suture
(Anatomical feature) an anterior suture line of the head between the compound eyes, below the median ocellus.
first leg segment, between body and trochanter.
Cremaster of pupa of the oak owl moth, Griposia aprilina
A general term for a structure by which an object hangs (from Greek language kremastos, meaning "hung up"); for example in entomology:
in some Lepidoptera, including most butterflies, the pupa attaches to a surface by the cremaster, a structure at the tip of the pupal abdomen. The cremaster is the homologue of the anal plate of the caterpillar. It takes various forms in different species, ranging from a simple point, to various arrangements of hooks that catch Velcro-like in a silken pad that the caterpillar spins on the surface before it enters the prepupal phase.
Adjective = scalloped. Describes the outer edge of a wing that is convex at the end of each vein and concave in between.
Noun = wedge. Particularly in mirid bugs, a wedge-shaped section of the hemelytra (forewings), located at the apex of the thick, leathery part of the wings.


Functional mandibles present in pupal state.
feeding on trees.
As for crenulate but with the projections at the end of each wing being toothlike.
feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. cf. the related Aldrin, Endrin, Isodrin
disc / discal area
The central band passing through the cell.
discoidal cell
In damselflies (Zygoptera) a basal quadrangular cell in the wing venation, which is delimited by veins MA (anterior side), MP (posterior side), MAb (distal side) and the arculus (basal side).
dorsum / dorsal area
The trailing edge or hind-margin of the wing, extending from the base to the tornus. Dorsal alternately, also refers to the back, i.e. the upper part of the body, from above.
(Anatomical feature) having exterior mouthparts, or exposed. A defining feature of insects.
(Anatomical feature) the modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and some of the true bugs (Hemiptera).
Beetle in the family Cerambycidae with conspicuous emargination of the compound eye (black) where it extends partway round the base of the antenna
(Anatomical feature) Describing a margin, such as the edge of an eye or sclerite, where the outline includes a concave section as if a part of the region had been "cut out" or displaced. It might take the form of a notch, or a rounded or possibly quadrate hollow, such as where a compound eye is distorted in fitting around the base of the antenna.
(Anatomical feature) either a bristle-like or pad-like structure between the tarsal claws of various insects, notably Diptera.
the immuno response by plasmatocytes to the presence of parasitoid egg or larvae which results in the formation of a multilayered capsule that causes the parasitoid to sufficate or starve.
A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, Aldrin, Isodrin
feeding on dead arthropods.
feeding on other insects.
(Anatomical feature) the top of the anterior structure of the head, or forehead.
(Anatomical feature) a plate or projection dorsal to the anus in certain insects, generally on abdominal segment X or XI. For example in Archaeognatha, Zygentoma and Ephemeroptera, it takes the form of a long, rearwardly directed caudal filament resembling the two cerci that flank it. In the Odonata epiprocts have various functions, both in larvae, in which they may have respiratory roles, and in adults, in which they may have reproductive roles. Not all epiprocts in all insect species are homologous. Note that the term is used in other groups than insects as well, for instance Myriapoda.
The palpi when vertical, i.e. the axis of the palpi is at right angles to the axis of the body.
Pupae with their legs and other appendages free and extended.
Larva of a species in the family Sphingidae. The large eyespots on the back have no function concerning vision at all; when threatened, the caterpillar retracts its head, leaving the spots resembling either a threat, or as a more tempting target than the vulnerable head. The stemmata are visible as an arc of about four tiny spots slightly lateral to, and above the mouthparts. They are inconspicuous and do have a visual function.
1.  Spots or other patterns resembling vertebrate eyes on the skin, such as on larvae of some Sphingidae or the wings of moths such as many Saturniidae. Such eyespots have no visual function, but act variously to misdirect or discourage attacks from predators.
2.  Simple eyes such as ocelli or stemmata
the area between the base of antennae, oral margin, eyes and cheeks (gena). See figure 3.
fascia (plural fasciae)
A color pattern with a broad band.
third leg segment, between trochanter and tibia.
an antennomere comprising part of the flagellum.
the part of the antenna distal to the pedicel composed of one or more segments, called flagellomeres.
foramen magnum
(Anatomical feature) the posterior opening of the head capsule, covered by the cervix.
(Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect closest to the head.
small, pit-like structure in the exoskeleton.
(Anatomical feature) The frontal area of an insect's head. It covers the upper part of the face above the clypeus and below and between the antennae. It supports the pharyngeal dilator muscles and usually bears an ocellus.
frontal sutures
(Anatomical feature) suture lines that meet with the coroanl sutures to form an inverted Y.


A "true" bug, order Hemiptera, with geniculate antennae
(Anatomical feature) the area below the compound eyes, the insect equivalent to human cheeks.
Elbowed. From the Latin for a bended knee, referring to an organ of a type not always expected to be kinked, but having a definite angular bend or hinge. In entomology the term typically refers to an elbowed antenna. For instance, many species of Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera have markedly geniculate antennae
a strand of silk used to prop up the pupa. Found especially in the Papilionidae.
smooth, without hairs or scales.
ventral head sclerite which supports the submentum
feeding on worms classified with helminths (including parasitoids of helminths).
the interior of the insects anatomy, including all organs and hemocyte.
hemocyte or haemolymph
a fluid in the circulatory system of insects containing nutrients, fat, water, etc.
feeding on blood.
feeding on herbaceous plants.
(Anatomical feature) the pair of wings of a four-winged insect farthest from the head.
transparent, like glass.
mode of life: living in the thin film of water on wet rocks.
A fly in the family Vermileonidae, using its hypognathous proboscis to extract nectar from florets.
having mouthparts that are ventrad of a vertically oriented head, "pointing downwards", or having an "under bit", instead of pointing backwards or forwards.
Mouthpart. A tonguelike lobe on the floor of the mouth.
a form of parasitism where the parasitoid paralyzes or leaves the host unable to continue development at oviposition.
(plural is usually imagines) The final, or adult, stage in metamorphosis.
Coreidae: adult male Anoplocnemis with incrassate posterior femur
localised thickening of a member such as an antenna or leg.
The region between adjacent veins.
irrorated or irroration
Old term used usually to indicate a sprinkling of scales interspersed among scales typically of a different color.
A synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, toxic to vertebrates. Though its phytotoxicity is low, solvents in some formulations may damage certain crops. cf. the related Dieldrin, Aldrin, Endrin
keratophagy (Also spelt ceratophagy)
feeding on cornified tissues and hair of animals.
A form of parasitoidy where the parasitoid lives inside the host while allowing it to live after oviposition.
Head of a beetle in the family Cerambycidae; showing the labrum in red, below the clypeus in blue
Mouthpart forming the lower lip. Bears the labial palps.
(Anatomical feature) the anterior structure below the clypeus covering some of the mouthparts, sometimes called the "upper lip".
Diagram of an insect leg
feeding on lichens.
lines (moth)
transverse line markings on the wings of moths, mainly Noctuidae- basal line; inner line; outer line; submarginal line.See figures 4, 5
lines of weakness
(Anatomical feature) the suture lines where the integument will split to allow for molting or autotomy.
A body area or marking roughly in the shape of a crescent.


large bristles and scales.[4]
Having long or large elytra, as long, or longer than the abdomen.
feeding on mollusks (and parasitoids of mollusks).
Mouthpart. The maxillae are paired and arranged behind the mandibles. May bear palps. See Figures 1 and 3.
a small triangular opaque region at the base of the hindwing in some dragonflies.
the middle segment of the thorax, between the prothorax and the metathorax.
small metallic-looking spots commonly found on the wings of Riodinidae.
The third and last segment of the thorax after the mesothorax.
Having short elytra, shorter than the abdomen.
feeding on myxomycetes slime molds.
Infestation of fly larvae on or in a vertebrate host.
feeding on fungus.
consuming of dead animals and their remains.
Older term for vein. adnervural refers to instance lines running adjacent and alongside the veins.
(of Odonata ) A prominent cross-vein near the center of the leading edge of a wing. Also called "node".
Appendages fused or glued to the body.
occipital suture
(Anatomical feature) the structure that defines the occiput. See Figure 1 (below).
(Anatomical feature) the region posterior to the vertex on the head. See Figure 2 (below).
ocular structure
(Anatomical feature) the structure of the head containing the ocelli.
A woodlouse shaped, flattened platyform appearance of a larva.[5]
feeding on eggs.
with receding mouthparts, or having mouthparts that slope backward or face backward.
orbicular stigma (or orbicular spot)
a marking placed between the reniform stigma and the thorax, usually circular in shape. See figures 4, 5
fleshy structure on some larvae, often discharging odorous chemicals.
the act of laying eggs.
if part of the ovipositor is visible when not in action, then the basal visible portion, typically tubular, is the oviscape. For examples, see females of many Tephritidae and Pyrgotidae (cf scape).
structure by which many insects place their eggs, sometimes by piercing or slitting the host or substrate in which she lays the eggs. The structure may be tubular and may have valves.
a stink gland or repugnatorial gland, from which an animal such as an insect or Myriapod may release a foul-smelling liquid or gas for defence
the opening of an ozadene, a stink gland or repugnatorial gland


feeding on pollen.
parasite that develops attached to or within a host organism in a relationship which ultimately kills the host.
the second segment ( antennomere) of the antenna. See figure 3.
pedipalp (or labial palpi or palpi)
comparatively large processes that originate from below the head and curve forward in front of the face that sometimes appear like a beak. lp on the figure right.
feeding on phloem.[6][7][8]
feeding on leaves.
feeding on plants.
A sclerotised region on the lateral part of an insect segment, bearing the spiracle, and separating and connecting the tergite and the sternite (compare: pulmonarium).
feeding on pollen.
Porrect mandibles of antlion larva.
of organs extended horizontally anterior to the head. In such organs the axis of the organs is parallel to the axis of the body.
the upper (proximal) portion of the clypeus of insects.
The area, or band, of the wing between the discal area and the marginal area.
in a position behind or below the aforementioned.
postoccipital suture
(Anatomical feature) the structure posterior to the occipital suture, surrounding foramen magnum or occipital magnum.
tubular feeding and sucking organ.
Directed or leaning forward, such as in bristles in particular locations of insects' heads.
Beetles in the family Carabidae, generally have prognathous heads
having mouth parts extended forward of the head, in contrast to opisthognathous and hypognathous.
fleshy leg like structures arising from the abdominal segments of caterpillars. These prolegs have crochets or curved hooks.
The first segment on the thorax anterior to the mesothorax.
pterostigma (plural pterostigmata)
The prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also, more loosely, called stigma.
The meso- and metathorax of winged insects, that carries the two pairs of wings.
pulmonarium (plural pulmonaria)
A membranous instead of a sclerotised connection or pleurite between the abdominal tergites and sternites of certain groups of insects; in such species the pulmonaria bear the spiracles. The term also refers to an abdomen in which the connection between the tergal and sternal sclerites takes the form of a pulmonarial membrane. (Compare: pleurite)
reniform stigma (or reniform spot)
an oval or kidney-shaped mark on the forewing at the disc (Lepidoptera)[9] See figure 4
A Chrysomelid larva carrying its own frass as repugnatorial protection
(generally in combination as in: "repugnatorial glands"): defensive, or "fighting back", in particular as applied to an ozadene, a gland that can release irritant, poisonous, alarming or distasteful fluids or gases when an organism is under threat. Examples of repugnatorial glands include the osmeterium of larvae of the Papilionidae, the stink glands of most Heteroptera, the ozadenes of Opiliones, the odoriferous glands of Diplopoda, and others. Some insects, such as larvae of many species of the Chrysomelidae, use their excreta in repugnatorial roles, for example covering themselves with their own frass.
feeding on rhizomes.


adapted for leaping or jumping.
feeding on dead bodies of vertebrates.
inhabiting decaying matter and consuming mycetes growing inside or cultivating them for feeding.
feeding on decaying organic matter.
the proximal segment ( antennomere) of the antenna. See Figure 3.
feeding on ground remains of plants and animals.
An external spine having multiple points. Etymology: Greek skolos, a prickle. cf. chalaza. plural: scoli
Latin term meaning "in the sense of".
The process of animals accumulating poisonous compounds from the food they are eating in order to become poisonous themselves for their predators. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid sequestration refers to the sequestration of one such class of poisonous compounds.
A stiff chitinous or sclerotised hair or bristle. Also chaeta, cheta
  • being like or having the nature of a seta or of setae
  • setose
bearing, or covered in setae.
Diminutive of seta. A small chitinous hair or bristle.
bearing, or covered in setulae.
see central shade
Respiratory openings on the thorax and abdomen that allow air to enter the trachea.
feeding on mycet spores.
stigma (plural stigmata)
Prominent cells on the forewings of some moths. Their size, shape and colour can be useful in identifying some species. Also the prominent cell, usually opaque and coloured, near the tip of each wing of the Odonata, on the anterior margin; also called pterostigma.
Patterns with thin lines.
Taxonomically important term used in Diptera identification keys. Part of the schema of wing venation. The second longitudinal wing vein, posterior to the costa. It may reach the costa, fade before the costa or join R1 before it reaches the costa. see commons:File:Neminidae_wing_veins.svg (= auxiliary vein of many authors)
subgenal suture
(Anatomical feature) suture lines below the gena.
a shared ancestral ("primitive") character state that cannot be used to demonstrate the monophyly of a group.
a shared homologous and derived character state (evolutionary novelty) that demonstrates the monophyly of a group (clade).
a form of reproduction in which the female continues to produce and to mature eggs throughout its life cycle.
tarsus (plural tarsi)
fifth (last) leg segment, the part that touches the walking surface.
The edge of the wing most distant from the body.
terminal and marginal
Along the margin.
The part of the body that lies between the head and the abdomen. It has three parts - prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax.
fourth leg segment, between femur and tarsus.
a pubescence consisting of soft, entangled hairs pressed close to the surface of the integument.
tornus / tornal area
The posterior corner of the wing.
second leg segment, between coxa and femur.
The mouthparts of Arthropoda such as insects; typically labrum, mandible, maxilla, labium.
The singular form of trophi (rarely used).
hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncinate)
hook-like, as in the mouthparts of many fly larvae. (also uncate)
unguis (plural ungues)
the claws at the tip of most insect pretarsi.
a segment or part of the abdomen in insects.
urogomphus (plural urogomphi)
paired "horns" at the posterior tip of the abdomen of larvae.
plate on the dorsal (upper) surface of an abdominal segment in insects.
One of several appendages that combine to form the ovipositor of a typical female insect.
In female Heteroptera valvifers comprise four blades, one pair on each of abdominal segments 8 and 9. They articulate with the paratergites and bear their corresponding valvulae.
One of four blades in a female Hemipteran with a laciniate type of ovipositor, that combine to form the ovipositing mechanism.
Hollow structures formed from the coupling of the upper and lower walls of the wing. They provide both rigidity and flexibility to the wing. (See also Comstock-Needham system.)
(Anatomical feature) The apex of the head, usually containing ocelli.
covered with numerous thick-set, slender projections resembling short hairs.
Insects within social colonies (bees, wasps, ants, and termites) that usually do not reproduce and instead perform most of the colony's tasks.
inhabiting wood and consuming mycetes growing in wood or cultivating them for feeding.
feeding on wood.
feeding on fungus found on other animals.
feeding on animals, and/or animal matter.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gordh, Gordon; Headrick, David, eds. (2011). A dictionary of entomology. Vol. 91. United Kingdom: Wallingford, Oxfordshire [u.a.] CABI 2011. p. 8. Bibcode:1913Natur..91S.134.. doi:10.1038/091134c0. ISBN 9781845935429. OCLC 1038886039. S2CID 3947767. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Wigney, Bev (13 March 2007). "a crayfish primer". Blog. Ontario. Retrieved 7 December 2017. the areola (the hourglass shaped lines on the crayfish's "back")
  3. ^ Mosby’s Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1994, p. 336
  4. ^ Simpson, P; Marcellini, S (2006). "The origin and evolution of stereotyped patterns of macrochaetes on the nota of cyclorraphous Diptera". Heredity. 97 (3): 148–156. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800874. PMID 16850036.
  5. ^ Glossary - Integrated Pest Management Resource Centre.
  6. ^ Atkinson, Thomas H. and Equihua, Armando. "Biology of the Scolytidae and Platypodidae". Florida Entomologist Vol. 69, No. 2 (June 1986)
  7. ^ Byers, J.A. 1995. "Host tree chemistry affecting colonization in bark beetles", in R.T. Cardé and W.J. Bell (eds.). Chemical Ecology of Insects 2. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 154–213
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control. Springer 2008. ISBN 9781402067372
  9. ^ "reniform, reniform spot". Iowa State University. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2022.

External links[edit]