Costa Rican general election, 2002

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Costa Rican general election, 2002

← 1998 3 February 2002 (2002-02-03) (first round)
7 April 2002 (2002-04-07) (second round)
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  Defense.gov News Photo 050511-D-9880W-053 (cropped).jpg Rolando Araya cropped.jpg
Nominee Abel Pacheco Rolando Araya
Party Social Christian Unity National Liberation
Home state San José Alajuela
Popular vote 776,278 563,202
Percentage 58.0% 42.0%

Costa Rica general election 2002 - Legislative & Presidential Election Results.svg
Map on the left shows the seats won by each party by province. The map on the right shows which party won the plurality in each province in both rounds of the Presidential election.

President before election

Miguel Ángel Rodríguez
Social Christian Unity

Elected President

Abel Pacheco
Social Christian Unity

Coat of arms of Costa Rica.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Costa Rica

General elections were held in Costa Rica on 3 February 2002.[1] For the first time in the country's history, no candidate in the presidential election passed the 40% threshold.[2] This meant a second round of voting had to be held on 7 April which saw Abel Pacheco of the Social Christian Unity Party defeat the National Liberation Party's Rolando Araya Monge.[3]

Many analysts consider this election the beginning of the end of Costa Rica’s decades-long two party system.[4][5][6] For the first time in many years alternative political forces become really relevant in the Parliament and the plenary had three large party groups; PUSC (19), PLN (17) and PAC (14).[7]

While PUSC won the presidential election and the majority in Congress, PLN became the primal opposition force in Parliament. Centre-left PAC with a progressive proposal seem to had gravely affected traditional third forces at the left of the spectrum like Democratic Force that fail to win any seat on that election even when for some years was Costa Rica’s main third party.[7] Right-wing Libertarian Movement also increases its representation from one to six deputies[7] while conservative[8] Costa Rican Renewal Party won one seat as usual.[7]

Despite the close contest, voter turnout was only 68.8% on 3 February the lowest since the 1958 elections. For the second round of the presidential elections it fell to 60.2%, the lowest since 1949.[9]

Background[edit]

Before the election, the country's Supreme Electoral Tribinal attempted to make several reforms to the electoral system. These included allowing independents to run in local elections, using electronic voting machines, allowing Costa Ricans living abroad to vote, and allowing voters to choose the top two places on parliamentary lists.[2] However, the changes were rejected by the Legislative Assembly, which noted that independent candidature was incompatible with the constitution, and that electronic voting could not be guaranteed to be secure or transparent.[2]

Results[edit]

President[edit]

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Abel Pacheco Social Christian Unity Party 590,277 38.6 776,278 58.0
Rolando Araya Monge National Liberation Party 475,030 31.1 563,202 42.0
Ottón Solís Citizens' Action Party 400,681 26.2
Otto Guevara Movimiento Libertario 25,815 1.7
Justo Orozco Álvarez Costa Rican Renewal Party 16,404 1.1
Walter Muñoz Céspedes National Integration Party 6,235 0.4
Vladimir De la Cruz De Lemos Democratic Force 4,121 0.3
Walter Coto Molina Coalition Change 2000 3,970 0.2
Rolando Angulo Zeledón General Union 2,655 0.2
Daniel Reynolds Vargas Patriótico Nacional 1,680 0.1
Marvin Calvo Montoya Christian National Alliance 1,271 0.1
Pablo Angulo Casasola National Rescue Party 905 0.0
Invalid/blank votes 39,573 - 33,463 -
Total 1,569,418 100 1,372,943 100
Source: Nohlen
Popular Vote-First round
Social Christian Unity
38.6%
National Liberation
31.1%
Citizens' Action
26.2%
Libertarian Movement
1.7%
Costa Rican Renewal
1.1%
National Integration
0.4%
Other
0.9%
Popular Vote-Second round
Social Christian Unity
58%
National Liberation
42%

By province[edit]

First round

Province % PUSC % PLN % PAC % ML % PRC % PIN % FD % Other %
 San José 36.6 28.5 31.1 1.6 0.8 0.6 0.2 0.7
 Alajuela 37.8 34.1 24.7 1.4 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.6
 Cartago 35.4 31.8 28.4 1.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 1.0
 Heredia 36.1 26.8 33.2 1.6 1.1 0.4 0.2 0.7
 Puntarenas 45.0 33.8 15.8 2.5 1.7 0.2 0.3 0.9
 Limón 48.6 28.4 14.9 2.8 3.1 0.3 0.4 1.5
 Guanacaste 44.3 40.6 12.1 0.9 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.8
Total 38.6 31.1 26.2 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.3 0.9

Second round

Province PUSC % PLN %
 San José 57.7 42.3
 Alajuela 56.1 43.9
 Cartago 55.6 44.4
 Heredia 58.1 41.9
 Puntarenas 59.7 40.3
 Limón 67.0 33.0
 Guanacaste 57.1 42.9
Total 58.0 42.0

Parliament[edit]

Legislative Assembly-Popular vote
Social Christian Unity
29.8%
National Liberation
27.1%
Citizens' Action
25.3%
Libertarian Movement
9.3%
Costa Rican Renewal
3.6%
Democratic Force
2.0%
National Integration
1.7%
Other
4.8%
Legislative Assembly-Seats
Social Christian Unity
33.33%
National Liberation
29.82%
Citizens' Action
24.56%
Libertarian Movement
10.52%
Costa Rican Renewal
1.75%
ASLE14.png
Party Votes % Seats +/–
Social Christian Unity Party 453,201 29.8 19 –8
National Liberation Party 412,383 27.1 17 –6
Citizens' Action Party 409,030 25.3 14 New
Libertarian Movement 142,152 9.3 6 +5
Costa Rican Renewal Party 54,699 3.6 1 0
Democratic Force 30,172 2.0 0 –3
National Integration Party 26,084 1.7 0 –1
Coalition Change 2000 12,992 0.8 0 New
Agrarian Labour Action Party 10,890 0.7 0 –1
Workers' Independent Party 8,044 0.5 0 New
National Patriotic Party 7,123 0.5 0 New
Cartago Agrarian Union Party 6,974 0.5 0 0
Christian National Alliance Party 6,825 0.4 0 New
General Union Party 5,883 0.4 0 0
National Rescue Party 4,937 0.3 0 0
National Agrarian Party 2,595 0.2 0 New
Cartago Agrarian Force Party 1,390 0.1 0 New
National Convergence 1,348 0.1 0 New
Invalid/blank votes 47,484
Total 1,569,338 100 57 0
Registered voters/turnout 2,279,851 68.8
Source: Election Resources

By province[edit]

Province PUSC PLN PAC ML PRC FD PIN Other
% S % S % S % S % S % S % S % S
 San José 27.1 6 24.2 5 27.0 6 11.8 2 3.6 1 1.7 0 1.8 0 2.8 0
 Alajuela 30.2 4 30.5 4 20.7 2 7.5 1 2.8 0 1.3 0 1.4 0 5.4 0
 Cartago 25.7 2 25.4 2 20.8 2 7.3 1 2.0 0 3.7 0 4.5 0 10.4 0
 Heredia 27.5 1 24.3 1 27.6 2 10.7 1 3.5 0 2.3 0 1.0 0 3.0 0
 Puntarenas 37.8 2 29.8 1 12.9 1 10.0 1 4.2 0 1.8 0 0.4 0 3.2 0
 Limón 37.3 2 26.2 2 12.7 1 8.1 1 5.6 0 2.7 0 0.8 0 9.4 0
 Guanacaste 37.9 2 39.1 2 10.3 0 2.8 0 6.2 0 1.2 0 0.4 0 2.2 0
Total 29.8 19 27.1 17 22.0 14 9.3 6 3.6 1 2.0 0 1.7 0 4.6 0

Maps[edit]

President[edit]

First round

Runoff

Parliament[edit]

Source: Atlas Electoral

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p155 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
  2. ^ a b c Nohlen, p. 150.
  3. ^ "Election profile: Costa Rica". International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2011.  Check date values in: |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  4. ^ Landsford, Tom. Political Handbook of the World 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Landsford, Tom. Political Handbook of the World 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  6. ^ Greenspana, Eliot; Gill, Nicholas; O'Malley, Charlie; Gilsenan, Patrick; Perill, Jisel. [Elecciones legislativas de Costa Rica de 2002 Frommer's Central America] Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d "5 February 2002 Legislative Assembly Election Results - Costa Rica Totals". Election Resources. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  8. ^ Lopez, Jaime (July 18, 2013). "Civic Groups Move Against Gay Marriage in Costa Rica". Costa Rica Star. Retrieved 13 March 2016. 
  9. ^ Nohlen, pp. 156–157.