Council of Liubech
The Council of Liubech was one of the best documented princely meetings of Ruthenia that took place in Liubech (today in Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine) in 1097. The council ended the war between the ruling Grand Prince Sviatopolk and the Prince of Chernihiv Oleh who fought for heritage of his father the Grand Prince Sviatoslav II.
The council, initiated by Vladimir II Monomakh, brought together Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich, Vasilko Rostislavich, David Svyatoslavich, Oleg Svyatoslavich, and other Rus' princes. It aimed to stop the fraternal war , to pacify the people, and to present a unified front against the Polovtsy (Cumans). It resulted in the division of Kievan Rus' among the princes, letting their immediate families inherit them. This broke a rota system (lestvichnoe pravo) that had been followed in Kievan Rus' for two centuries.
The Council assigned/confirmed the principalities as follows:
- Sviatopolk II received Kiev, Turov, Pinsk, and the title of the Grand Prince.
- Vladimir II Monomakh received Pereyaslavl, the Rostov-Suzdal lands, Smolensk, and Beloozero. His son Mstislav received Great Novgorod.
- Oleg, Davyd, and Yaroslav, both sons of Sviatoslav II of Kiev (Grand Prince of Kiev, 1073-1076), received Chernigiv, Tmutarakan, Ryazan, and Murom.
Of the remaining izgoi princes:
- David Igorevich received Volodymyr-Volynskyi.
- Volodar Rostislavich - Peremyshl.
- Vasilko Rostislavich - Terebovl.
This change effectively established a feudal system in Kievan Rus'. It stopped the struggle for Chernigiv, but was not observed perfectly. After the death of Sviatopolk in 1113, the citizens of Kiev revolted and summoned Monomakh to the throne. Nevertheless, the new dispensation allowed other principalities to consolidate their power and to develop as powerful regional centers: most notably Galicia-Volhynia and Vladimir-Suzdal.