Count of Flanders
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The Count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders from the 9th century. The title was held for a time by the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of Spain, until it was effectively abolished during the French Revolution after 1790 when the region was annexed to France. The title has also twice been granted to younger sons of the King of the Belgians, the most recent holder dying in 1983.
Although the early rulers, from Arnulf I onwards, were sometimes referred to as margraves or marquesses, this alternate title largely fell out of use by the 12th century. Since then the rulers of Flanders have only been referred to as Counts.
The Counts of Flanders enlarged their estate through a series of diplomatic manoeuvres. The counties of Hainaut, Namur, Béthune, Nevers, Auxerre, Rethel, Burgundy, and Artois were acquired via marriage with the respective heiresses. The County of Flanders itself suffered the same fate. By the marriage of Countess Margaret III with Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, the county and the subsidiary counties entered a personal union with the Duchy of Burgundy in 1405. The county itself ceased to exist in 1795.
The Counts of Flanders were also associated with the Duchy of Brittany prior to its union with France. Count Baldwin VII married Hawise, the daughter of Alan IV, Duke of Brittany. Later Joan, the daughter of Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, married the second son of Count Robert III. The granddaughter of Count Robert III, and the daughter of his son, Count Louis I, Joanna of Flanders married John Montfort. During his imprisonment, she fought on behalf of Montfort, alongside English allies, during the Breton War of Succession for the Ducal crown, which was won definitively by her son John V, Duke of Brittany. It was through this House of Montfort that the Duchy of Brittany was eventually joined to the throne of France.
- 1 List of Counts of Flanders
- 2 Modern Usage
- 3 Sources
List of Counts of Flanders
- Baldwin I Iron Arm (r. 860s-879), married Judith and was granted lands and honours, which would evolve into the County of Flanders.
- Baldwin II the Bald (r. 879-918), son of Baldwin I and Judith
- Arnulf I the Great (r. 918-964), son of Baldwin II, joinly with:
- Baldwin III (r. 958-962), son of Arnulf I
- Arnulf II (r. 964-988), son of Baldwin III
- Baldwin IV the Bearded (r. 988-1037), son of Arnulf II
- Baldwin V of Lille (r. 1037-1067), son of Baldwin IV
- Baldwin VI (r. 1067-1070), son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
- Arnulf III (r. 1070-1071), son of Baldwin VI, Count of Hainaut
- Robert I the Frisian (r. 1071-1093), son of Baldwin V
- Robert II (r. 1093-1111), son of Robert I
- Baldwin VII Hapkin (r. 1111-1119), son of Robert II
- Charles I the Good (r. 1119-1127), cousin of Baldwin VII, designated by him
- Theodoric (also Thierry, or Diederik) (r. 1128-1168), grandson of Robert I, recognised by Louis VI of France
- Philip I (r. 1168-1191), son of Theodoric
- Margaret I (r. 1191-1194), daughter of Theodoric,
- jointly with her husband Baldwin of Hainaut.
- Baldwin VIII (r. 1191-1194), husband of Margaret I, patrilineal great-great-grandson of Baldwin VI, also Count of Hainaut
- Baldwin IX (r. 1194-1205), son of Baldwin VIII, also Latin Emperor of Constantinople
- Joan I (r. 1205-1244), daughter of Baldwin IX, jointly with her husbands
- Margaret II (r. 1244-1278), sister of Joan, married first to Burchard IV of Avesnes and then William of Dampierre
- In 1244, the Counties of Flanders and Hainaut were claimed by Margaret II's sons, the half-brothers John I of Avesnes and William III of Dampierre in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault. In 1246, King Louis IX of France awarded Flanders to William.
- William I (r. 1247-1251), son of Margaret II and William II of Dampierre
- Guy I (r. 1251-1305), son of Margaret II and William II of Dampierre, imprisoned 1253-1256 by John I of Avesnes, also Count of Namur
- Robert III ("the Lion of Flanders") (r. 1305-1322), son of Guy
- Louis I (r. 1322-1346), grandson of Robert III
- Louis II (r. 1346-1384), son of Louis I
- Margaret III (r. 1384-1405), daughter of Louis II,
- jointly with her husband, Philip II
- John the Fearless (r. 1405-1419), son of Margaret III and Philip II of Burgundy
- Philip III the Good (r. 1419-1467), son of John
- Charles II the Bold (r. 1467-1477), son of Philip the Good
- Mary the Rich (r. 1477-1482), daughter of Charles the Bold, jointly with her husband Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
- Philip IV the Handsome (r. 1482-1506), son of Mary and Maximilian
- Charles III (r. 1506-1555), son of Philip, also Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) and King of Spain (as Charles I)
Charles V proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 eternally uniting Flanders with the other lordships of the Low Countries in a personal union. When the Habsburg empire was divided among the heirs of Charles V, the Low Countries, including Flanders, went to Philip II of Spain, of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg.
- Philip V (r. 1555-1598), son of Charles III, also King of Spain as Philip II
- Isabella Clara Eugenia (r. 1598-1621), daughter of Philip II,
- jointly with her husband Albert, Archduke of Austria)
- Philip VI (r. 1621-1665), grandson of Philip III, also King of Spain as Philip IV
- Charles IV (r. 1665-1700), son of Philip IV, also King of Spain as Charles II
- Philip VII (House of Bourbon) (r. 1700-1706), great-grandson of Philip IV
Between 1706 and 1714 Flanders was invaded by the English and the Dutch during the War of the Spanish Succession. The fief was claimed by the House of Habsburg and the House of Bourbon. In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht settled the succession and the County of Flanders went to the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg.
- Charles V (r. 1714-1740), great grandson of Philip III, also Holy Roman Emperor (elect)
- Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780), daughter of Charles IV, jointly with
- Francis I (r. 1740-1765)
- Joseph I (r. 1780-1790), son of Maria Theresa and Francis I
- Leopold (r. 1790-1792), son of Maria Theresa and Francis I
- Francis II (r. 1792-1835), son of Leopold, also Holy Roman Emperor
The title was abolished de facto after revolutionary France annexed Flanders in 1795. The Emperor Francis II relinquished his claim to the Low Countries in the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797, and the area remained part of France until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
In modern times, from 1840 onwards, the substantive title Count of Flanders has been granted to two younger sons of the Kings of the Belgians (Latin: rex Belgarum). The second of these died in 1983, since when the title has not been conferred again.
- Prince Philippe of Belgium, son of King Leopold I of the Belgians (1840–1905)
- Prince Charles of Belgium, son of King Albert I of the Belgians (1910–1983)
The title Count of Flanders is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown. It is a historical title which is only nominally and ceremonially used.
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