The Count of Monte Cristo
in collaboration with Auguste Maquet
|Original title||Le Comte de Monte-Cristo|
The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel written by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844. It is one of the author's more popular works, along with The Three Musketeers. Like many of his novels, it was expanded from plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet.
The story takes place in France, Italy, and islands in the Mediterranean during the historical events of 1815–1839: the era of the Bourbon Restoration through the reign of Louis-Philippe of France. It begins on the day that Napoleon left his first island of exile, Elba, beginning the Hundred Days period when Napoleon returned to power. The historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story centrally concerned with themes of hope, justice, vengeance, mercy, and forgiveness. It centers on a man who is wrongfully imprisoned, escapes from jail, acquires a fortune, and sets about exacting revenge on those responsible for his imprisonment.
Before he can marry his fiancée Mercédès, Edmond Dantès, first mate of the Pharaon, is falsely accused of treason, arrested, and imprisoned without trial in the Château d'If, a grim island fortress off Marseille. A fellow prisoner, Abbé Faria, correctly deduces that his jealous rival Fernand Mondego, envious crewmate Danglars, and double-dealing magistrate De Villefort turned him in. Faria inspires his escape and guides him to a fortune in treasure. As the powerful and mysterious Count of Monte Cristo (Italy), he arrives from the Orient to enter the fashionable Parisian world of the 1830s and avenge himself on the men who conspired to destroy him.
The book is considered a literary classic today. According to Luc Sante, "The Count of Monte Cristo has become a fixture of Western civilization's literature, as inescapable and immediately identifiable as Mickey Mouse, Noah's flood, and the story of Little Red Riding Hood."
Marseilles and Chateau d'If
In 1815, Edmond Dantès, a young merchant sailor returns to Marseille to marry his Catalan fiancée Mercédès. He brings in the ship Pharaon to the owner, M Morrel, as his captain Leclère died on the passage; Morrel will make Dantès the next captain. His return is the same day that Napoleon has escaped his exile on the island of Elba, unknown to Edmond Dantès, which leads to Napoleon's 100 days restored as emperor. Leclère, a supporter of the exiled Napoleon, was dying at sea and charged Dantès to deliver two objects: a package to General Bertrand (exiled with Napoleon on Elba), and a letter from Elba to an unknown man in Paris. On the eve of Dantès' wedding to Mercédès, Fernand Mondego, Mercédès' cousin and a rival for her affections, is given advice by Dantès' colleague Danglars, who is jealous of Dantès' rapid rise to captain, to send an anonymous note accusing Dantès of being a Bonapartist traitor. Caderousse, Dantès' cowardly and selfish neighbor, is drunk while the two conspirators set the trap for Dantès and stays quiet as Dantès is arrested, then sentenced. Villefort, the deputy crown prosecutor in Marseille, destroys the letter from Elba when he discovers that it is addressed to his own father, Noirtier who is a Bonapartist. If this letter came into official hands, it would destroy Villefort's ambitions and reputation as a staunch Royalist. To silence Dantès, he condemns him without trial to life imprisonment. Villefort resists all appeals by Morrel to release him, during the Hundred Days and once the king is restored to rule France.
After six years of solitary imprisonment in the Château d'If, Dantès is on the verge of suicide when he befriends the Abbé Faria ("The Mad Priest"), an Italian fellow prisoner who had dug an escape tunnel that ended up in Dantès' cell. Over the next eight years, Faria gives Dantès an extensive education in languages, culture, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, and science. Knowing himself to be close to death, Faria tells Dantès the location of a treasure on the small island of Monte Cristo, which is his own inheritance from his work for the last of the Spado family. He bequeaths it to Dantès. When Faria dies, Dantès takes his place in the burial sack, holding the knife that Faria had made. When the guards throw the sack into the sea, Dantès breaks through using the knife and swims to a nearby island. He is rescued by a smuggling ship that passes Monte Cristo. Fearing the members of the ship will find him and his treasure, he uses the excuse of hunting goats while he goes to hunt the treasure. To stay on the island (to find his treasure, not yet found), Dantès pretends he has broken ribs. Six days later, the smuggling ship comes back for him and he boards it carrying with him a few carefully hidden diamonds.
In port, Dantès trades these diamonds for a yacht and then sails to Monte Cristo again to claim the rest of his treasure. After recovering the treasure, Dantès returns to Marseille. He later purchases the island of Monte Cristo and the title of Count from the Tuscan government.
Traveling as the Abbé Busoni, Dantès meets Caderousse, now married and living in poverty, who regrets not intervening and possibly saving Dantès from prison. Caderousse tells him about the two who wrote the letter against him, about his father's death, and about Mercédès. He gives Caderousse a diamond that can be either a chance to redeem himself or a trap that will lead to his ruin.
Learning that his old employer Morrel is on the verge of bankruptcy, Dantès, as clerk of Thompson and French, buys Morrel's debts and gives Morrel three months to fulfill his obligations. At the end of the three months and with no way to repay his debts, Morrel is about to commit suicide when he learns that his debts have been mysteriously paid and that one of his lost ships has returned with a full cargo, secretly rebuilt and laden by Dantès.
Reappearing nine years later after travelling in the East to continue the education he received from Abbé Faria, as the rich Count of Monte Cristo, Dantès begins the revenge he planned during his travels. The three men responsible for his unjust imprisonment were Fernand, now Count de Morcerf and husband of Mercédès; Danglars, now a baron and a wealthy banker; and Villefort, now procureur du roi (prosecutor for the king).
The Count appears first in Rome, at the time of Carnival before Lent, where he becomes acquainted with the Baron Franz d'Épinay, and Viscount Albert de Morcerf, the son of Mercédès and Fernand. Dantès arranges for the young Morcerf to be captured by the bandit Luigi Vampa and then seemingly rescues him from Vampa's gang. Albert, feeling a debt of gratitude to the Count for his rescue, agrees to introduce the Count into Parisian society. The Count then moves to Paris and dazzles Danglars with his wealth, persuading him to extend him a credit of six million francs. The Count manipulates the bond market and quickly destroys a large portion of Danglars' fortune. The rest of it begins to rapidly disappear through mysterious bankruptcies, suspensions of payment, and more bad luck in the Stock Exchange.
Bertuccio is the Count's servant who informs the Count of past events in his life, intertwined with Villefort's life. Bertuccio's older brother was killed for being a Bonapartist, in Nîmes where Villefort rules; Bertuccio declares a vendetta on him. He tracks Villefort to a house in Auteuil, finding him on the day when Madame Danglars, then a widow, delivered their child in the house that the Count has now purchased from the father-in-law of Villefort. To cover up the affair, Villefort told Madame Danglars that the infant was stillborn, smothered the child and buried him in the garden. Bertuccio stabs Villefort after this burial. Bertuccio unearths the child and resuscitates him. Bertuccio's sister-in-law brought the child up, giving him the name "Benedetto", her blessing. Benedetto takes up a life of crime by age 11. He robs his adoptive mother (Bertuccio's sister-in-law) and kills her, then runs away. His older brother and sister-in-law now dead, Bertuccio has no family in Corsica, so he takes Abbé Busoni's advice to work for the Count.
Benedetto is sentenced to the galleys with Caderousse, who had sold the diamond, then killed both his wife and the buyer out of greed. After Benedetto and Caderousse are freed by Dantès, using the alias "Lord Wilmore," the Count induces Benedetto to take the identity of "Viscount Andrea Cavalcanti" and introduces him into Parisian society. Andrea ingratiates himself to Danglars, who betroths his daughter Eugénie to Andrea, not knowing they are half-siblings, after cancelling her engagement to Albert. Meanwhile, Caderousse blackmails Andrea, threatening to reveal his past if he does not share his new-found wealth. Cornered by "Abbé Busoni" while attempting to rob the Count's house, Caderousse begs to be given another chance. Dantès forces him to write a letter to Danglars exposing Cavalcanti as an impostor and allows Caderousse to leave the house. The moment Caderousse leaves the estate, he is stabbed by Andrea. Caderousse dictates a deathbed statement identifying his killer, and the Count reveals his true identity to Caderousse moments before he dies.
Wanting information on how Albert's father made his fortune in Greece years earlier, Danglars researches the events, and the information is published in a French newspaper while Albert and the Count are in Normandy. Albert's friend Beauchamps sends the news article to Albert who returns to Paris. His father has been tried in a court of the French aristocrats and is found guilty based on the testimony of Haydée, who reads the newspapers. Years before, Fernand had betrayed Ali Pasha of Janina to the Turks. After Ali's death, Fernand sold Ali's wife Vasiliki and his 4-year-old daughter Haydée into slavery, thus earning his fortune. While Vasiliki died shortly thereafter, Dantès purchased Haydée seven years later when she was 11 years old. Fernand has a defense against the newspaper's story but no defense against Haydée's testimony. He rides away from the court in his disgrace. Albert blames the Count for his father's downfall, as Danglars says that the Count encouraged him to do the research on the father of the man engaged to his daughter. Albert challenges him to a duel. Mercédès, having already recognized Monte Cristo as Dantès, goes to the Count, now in Paris, and begs him to spare her son. During this interview, she learns the truth of arrest and imprisonment of Dantès but still convinces the Count not to kill her son. Realizing that Edmond Dantès now intends to let Albert kill him, she reveals the truth to Albert, which causes Albert to make a public apology to the Count. Albert and Mercédès disown Fernand and leave his house. Fernand then confronts the Count of Monte Cristo, who reveals his identity as Edmond Dantès; returning home in time to see his wife and son leave, Fernand shoots himself. Albert and Mercédès renounce their titles and wealth and depart to begin new lives, starting in Marseilles, at the house where Dantès and his father once lived. Dantès told them of the 3,000 francs he had buried there, to start life once he married, before all his misfortunes. Albert enlists as a soldier.
Valentine, Villefort's daughter by his first wife, stands to inherit the fortune of her grandfather Noirtier and of her mother's parents, the Saint-Mérans, while Villefort's second wife Héloïse seeks the fortune for her son Édouard. The Count is aware of Héloïse's intentions and introduces her to the techniques of poison. Héloïse fatally poisons the Saint-Mérans, so that Valentine inherits their fortune. Valentine is briefly disinherited by Noirtier in an attempt to prevent Valentine's impending marriage with Franz d'Épinay, whom she does not love; however, the marriage is cancelled when d'Épinay learns from Noirtier that his father, whom he believed was assassinated by Bonapartists, was killed by Noirtier in a fair duel. After a failed attempt on Noirtier's life, which leaves Noirtier's servant Barrois dead, Héloïse targets Valentine so that Édouard, his other grandchild, will get the fortune. However, Valentine is the prime suspect in her father's eyes in the deaths of the Saint-Mérans and Barrois. On learning that Morrel's son Maximilien is in love with Valentine, the Count saves her by making it appear as though Héloïse's plan to poison Valentine has succeeded and that Valentine is dead. Villefort learns from Noirtier that Héloïse is the real murderer and confronts her, giving her the choice of a public execution or committing suicide.
Fleeing after Caderousse's letter exposes him and frees Danglars’ daughter from any marriage, Andrea is arrested and returned to Paris. Eugènie Danglars flees as well. Villefort prosecutes Andrea. Bertuccio visits Andrea who is in prison awaiting trial, to tell him the truth about his father. At his trial, Andrea reveals that he is Villefort's son and was rescued after Villefort buried him alive. Villefort admits his guilt and flees the court. He rushes home to stop his wife's suicide but is too late; she has poisoned her son as well. The Count confronts Villefort, revealing his true identity as Dantès, which drives Villefort insane. Dantès tries but fails to resuscitate Édouard, causing him to question if he has gone too far.
After the Count's manipulation of the bond market, Danglars is left with a destroyed reputation and 5,000,000 francs he has been holding in deposit for hospitals. The Count demands this sum to fulfil their credit agreement, and Danglars embezzles the hospital fund. He abandoned his wife, whom he blames for his losses in stock investments. She is abandoned by her partner in investing, whom she hoped to marry. Danglers flees to Italy with the Count's receipt for the cash he requested from the banker Danglars, and 50,000 francs. While leaving Rome, he is kidnapped by the Count's agent Luigi Vampa and is imprisoned. Forced to pay exorbitant prices for food and nearly starved to death, Danglars signs away his ill-gotten gains. Dantès anonymously returns the money to the hospitals, as Danglars had given their cash to the Count. Danglars finally repents his crimes, and a softened Dantès forgives him and allows him to leave with his freedom and 50,000 francs.
Resolution and return to the Orient
Maximilien Morrel, believing Valentine to be dead, contemplates suicide after her funeral. Dantès reveals his true identity and explains that he rescued Morrel's father from bankruptcy years earlier; he then tells Maximilien to reconsider his suicide, and Maximilien is saved.
On the island of Monte Cristo, Dantès presents Valentine to Maximilien and reveals the true sequence of events. Having found peace in reviewing his vengeance and deciding he has not played God, Dantès leaves the newly reunited couple part of his fortune on the island and departs for the East to find comfort and begin a new life with Haydée, who has declared her love for him. The reader is left with a final thought: "all human wisdom is contained in these two words, 'Wait and Hope'".
Edmond Dantès and his aliases
- Edmond Dantès (born 1796): A sailor with good prospects, engaged to Mercédès. After his transformation into the Count of Monte Cristo, he reveals his true name to his enemies as each revenge is completed. During the course of the novel, he falls in love with Haydée.
- The Count of Monte Cristo: The identity Dantès assumes when he emerges from prison and acquires his vast fortune. As a result, the Count of Monte Cristo is usually associated with a coldness and bitterness that comes from an existence based solely on revenge.
- Chief Clerk of the banking firm Thomson & French, an Englishman.
- Lord Wilmore: An Englishman, and the persona in which Dantès performs random acts of generosity.
- Sinbad the Sailor: The persona that Dantès assumes when he saves the Morrel family and assumes while mixing with smugglers and brigands.
- Abbé Busoni: The persona of an Italian priest with religious authority.
- Monsieur Zaccone: Dantès, in the guise of the Abbé Busoni, and again as Lord Wilmore, tells an investigator that this is the Count of Monte Cristo's true name.
- Number 34: The name given to him by the new governor of Château d'If. Finding it too tedious to learn Dantès' real name, he was called by the number of his cell.
- The Maltese Sailor: The name he was known by after his rescue by smugglers from the island of Tiboulen.
Allies of Dantès
- Abbé Faria: Italian priest and sage. Imprisoned in the Château d'If. Edmond's dearest friend and his mentor and teacher while in prison. On his deathbed, reveals to Edmond the secret treasure hidden on Monte Cristo. Partially based on the historical Abbé Faria.
- Giovanni Bertuccio: The Count of Monte Cristo's steward and very loyal servant. The Count first meets him in his role as Abbé Busoni, the confessor to Bertuccio, whose past is tied with M de Villefort. Bertuccio's sister-in-law Assunta was the adoptive mother of Benedetto.
- Luigi Vampa: Celebrated Italian bandit and fugitive.
- Peppino: Formerly a shepherd, becomes a member of Vampa's gang. The Count arranges for his public execution in Rome to be commuted, causing him to be loyal to the Count.
- Ali: Monte Cristo's mute Nubian slave.
- Baptistin: Monte Cristo's valet-de-chambre.
- Jacopo: A poor smuggler who helps Dantès survive after he escapes prison. When Jacopo proves his selfless loyalty, Dantès rewards him with his own ship and crew. (Jacopo Manfredi is a separate character, the "bankrupt of Trieste", whose financial failure contributes to the depletion of Danglars' fortune.)
- Haydée (sometimes spelled as Haidee): Monte Cristo's young, beautiful slave. She is the daughter of Ali Tebelen. Buying her, enslaved because her father was killed, is part of Dantès' plan to get revenge on Fernand. At the end, she and Monte Cristo become lovers.
- Mercédès Mondego (née Herrera): A Catalan girl, Edmond Dantès' fiancée at the beginning of the story. She later marries Fernand and they have a son named Albert. She is consumed with guilt over Edmond's disappearance and is able to recognize him when she meets him again. In the end, she returns to Marseilles, living in the house that belonged to father Dantès, given to her by Monte-Cristo himself (to allow the woman a safe and stable place to spend in quietness the rest of her days, with a little financial support: the same francs the young Dantès, before the arrest, used to keep aside in view of their wedding, in a little bag remained hidden in the house's garden for all that time), praying for Albert, who left France for Africa as a soldier to start a new and more honorable life. Left all alone, she and Edmond talked for the last time: once young and in love, they choose to take different paths, saying farewell to each other. While the Count went away to complete his plan, Mercédès decides to stay in her hometown, with only her memories left of the happiest years, waiting for Albert's return, wishing for Edmond to find peace for his wounded heart and praying on her husband's grave for his soul. She is portrayed as a compassionate, kind and caring woman who prefers to think of her beloved ones than of herself.
- Fernand Mondego: Count de Morcerf (former Catalan fisherman in the Spanish village near Marseilles), Dantès' rival and cousin of Mercédès, for whom he swore undying love and the person he eventually marries. Fernand helped frame Edmond (by sending the accusation letter) in an ultimate desperate attempt to not lose Mercédès forever. He would later achieve the high rank of general in the French army and become a peer of France in the Chambre des Pairs, keeping secret his betrayal of the Pasha Alì Tebelen, and the selling into slavery of both his daughter Haydée and her mother Vasiliki. With the money earned he bought the title of "Count de Morcerf" to bring wealth and a more pleasant life for himself and his family. Through the book he shows a deep affection and care for his wife and son. He would meet his tragic end in the last chapters, by committing suicide, in the despair of having lost Mercédès and Albert, disowned by them when they discovered his hidden crimes.
- Albert de Morcerf: Son of Mercédès and Fernand, and the Viscount de Morcerf. He is described as a very kind-hearted, joyful and carefree young man, and fond of Monte Cristo, whom he sees as a friend. After acknowledging the truth of his father's war crimes and the false accusation towards the sailor Edmond Dantès, he decides to leave his home with Mercédès and start a new life as a soldier under the name of "Herrera" (his mother's maiden name), leaving for Africa in search of fortune and to bring new honor to his family name.
- Baron Danglars: Dantès' jealous junior officer and mastermind behind his imprisonment, later a wealthy banker.
- Madame Hermine Danglars (formerly Baroness Hermine de Nargonne née de Servieux): Once a widow, she had an affair with Gérard de Villefort, a married man. They had an illegitimate son, Benedetto.
- Eugénie Danglars: Daughter of Baron Danglars and Hermine Danglars. She is free-spirited and aspires to become an independent artist.
- Gérard de Villefort: Chief deputy prosecutor who imprisons Dantès, later becoming acquaintances as Dantès enacts his revenge.
- Renée de Villefort, Renée de Saint-Méran: Gérard de Villefort's first wife, mother of Valentine.
- The Marquis and Marquise de Saint-Méran: Renée's parents.
- Valentine de Villefort: The daughter of Gérard de Villefort and his first wife, Renée. In love with Maximilien Morrel. Engaged to Baron Franz d'Épinay. She is 19 years old with chestnut hair, dark blue eyes, and "long white hands".
- Monsieur Noirtier de Villefort: The father of Gérard de Villefort and grandfather of Valentine, Édouard (and, without knowing it, Benedetto). A committed anti-royalist. He is paralysed and only able to communicate with his eyes, but retains his mental faculties and acts as protector to Valentine.
- Héloïse de Villefort: The murderous second wife of Gérard de Villefort, mother of Édouard.
- Édouard de Villefort (Edward): The only legitimate son of Villefort.
- Benedetto: The illegitimate son of de Villefort and Baroness Hermine Danglars (Hermine de Nargonne), raised by Bertuccio and his sister-in-law, Assunta, in Rogliano. Becomes "Andrea Cavalcanti" in Paris.
- Pierre Morrel: Dantès' employer, owner of Morrel & Son.
- Maximilian Morrel: Son of Pierre Morrel, an army captain who becomes a friend of Dantès. In love with Valentine de Villefort.
- Julie Herbault: Daughter of Pierre Morrel, wife of Emmanuel Herbault.
- Emmanuel Herbault: An employee of Morrel & Son, who marries Julie Morrel and succeeds to the business.
- Gaspard Caderousse: Originally a tailor and later the owner of an inn, he was a neighbour and friend of Dantès who fails to protect him at the beginning of the story. The Count first rewards Caderouusse with a valuable diamond. Caderousse then turns to serious crimes of murder, spends time in prison, and ends up being murdered by Andrea Cavalcanti.
- Madeleine Caderousse, née Radelle: Wife of Caderousse, who, according to the court, is responsible for the murder of a Jewish jeweller. She also dies in the incident.
- Louis Dantès: Edmond Dantès' father, who dies from starvation during his son's imprisonment.
- Baron Franz d'Épinay: A friend of Albert de Morcerf, first fiancé of Valentine de Villefort. Originally, Dumas wrote part of the story, including the events in Rome and the return of Albert de Morcerf and Franz d'Épinay to Paris, in the first person from Franz d'Épinay's point of view.
- Lucien Debray: Secretary to the Minister of the Interior, a friend of Albert de Morcerf, and a lover of Madame Danglars, whom he provides with inside investment information, which she then passes on to her husband.
- Beauchamp: Journalist and Chief Editor of l’Impartial, and friend of Albert de Morcerf.
- Raoul, Baron de Château-Renaud: Member of a noble family and friend of Albert de Morcerf.
- Louise d'Armilly: Eugénie Danglars' music instructor and her intimate friend.
- Monsieur de Boville: Originally an inspector of prisons, later a detective in the Paris force, and still later the Receiver-General of the charities.
- Barrois: Old, trusted servant of Monsieur de Noirtier.
- Monsieur d'Avrigny: Family doctor treating the Villefort family.
- Major (also Marquis) Bartolomeo Cavalcanti: Old man who plays the role of Prince Andrea Cavalcanti's father.
- Ali Tebelen (Ali Tepelini in some versions): An Albanian nationalist leader, Pasha of Yanina, whom Fernand Mondego betrays, leading to Ali Pasha's murder at the hands of the Turks and the seizure of his kingdom. His wife Vasiliki and daughter Haydée are sold into slavery by Fernand.
- Countess Teresa Guiccioli: Her name is not actually stated in the novel. She is referred to as "Countess G—".
The historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story primarily concerned with themes of hope, justice, vengeance, mercy, and forgiveness. It centers on a man who is wrongfully imprisoned, escapes from jail, acquires a fortune, and sets about exacting revenge on those responsible for his imprisonment.
Background to elements of the plot
A short novel titled Georges by Dumas was published in 1843, before The Count of Monte Cristo was written. This novel is of particular interest to scholars because Dumas reused many of the ideas and plot devices in The Count of Monte Cristo.
Dumas wrote that the germ of the idea of revenge as one theme in his novel The Count of Monte Cristo came from an anecdote published in a memoir of incidents in France in 1838, written by an archivist of the Paris police. The archivist was Jacques Peuchet, and the multi-volume book was called Memoirs from the Archives of the Paris Police in English. Dumas included this essay[which?] in one of the editions of his novel published in 1846.
Peuchet related the tale of a shoemaker, Pierre Picaud, living in Nîmes in 1807, who was engaged to marry a rich woman when three jealous friends falsely accused him of being a spy on behalf of England in a period of wars between France and England. Picaud was placed under a form of house arrest in the Fenestrelle Fort, where he served as a servant to a rich Italian cleric. When the cleric died, he left his fortune to Picaud, whom he had begun to treat as a son. Picaud then spent years plotting his revenge on the three men who were responsible for his misfortune. He stabbed the first with a dagger on which the words "Number One" were printed, and then he poisoned the second. The third man's son he lured into crime and his daughter into prostitution, finally stabbing the man himself. This third man, named Loupian, had married Picaud's fiancée while Picaud was under arrest.
In another of the true stories reported by Ashton-Wolfe, Peuchet describes a poisoning in a family. This story is also mentioned in the Pléiade edition of this novel, and it probably served as a model for the chapter of the murders inside the Villefort family. The introduction to the Pleiade edition mentions other sources from real life: a man named Abbé Faria existed, was imprisoned but did not die in prison; he died in 1819 and left no large legacy to anyone. As for Dantès, his fate is quite different from his model in Peuchet's book, since that model is murdered by the "Caderousse" of the plot.
The Count of Monte Cristo was originally published in the Journal des Débats in eighteen parts. Serialization ran from 28 August 1844 to 15 January 1846. The first edition in book form was published in Paris by Pétion in 18 volumes with the first two issued in 1844 and the remaining sixteen in 1845. Most of the Belgian pirated editions, the first Paris edition and many others up to the Lécrivain et Toubon illustrated edition of 1860 feature a misspelling of the title with "Christo" used instead of "Cristo". The first edition to feature the correct spelling was the L'Écho des Feuilletons illustrated edition, Paris 1846. This edition featured plates by Paul Gavarni and Tony Johannot and was said to be "revised" and "corrected", although only the chapter structure appears to have been altered with an additional chapter entitled La Maison des Allées de Meilhan having been created by splitting Le Départ into two.
The first appearance of The Count of Monte Cristo in English was the first part of a serialization by W. Francis Ainsworth in volume VII of Ainsworth's Magazine published in 1845, although this was an abridged summary of the first part of the novel only and was entitled The Prisoner of If. Ainsworth translated the remaining chapters of the novel, again in abridged form, and issued these in volumes VIII and IX of the magazine in 1845 and 1846 respectively. Another abridged serialization appeared in The London Journal between 1846 and 1847.
The first single volume translation in English was an abridged edition with woodcuts published by Geo Pierce in January 1846 entitled The Prisoner of If or The Revenge of Monte Christo.
In April 1846, volume three of the Parlour Novelist, Belfast, Ireland: Simms and M'Intyre, London: W S Orr and Company, featured the first part of an unabridged translation of the novel by Emma Hardy. The remaining two parts would be issued as the Count of Monte Christo volumes I and II in volumes 8 and 9 of the Parlour Novelist respectively.
The most common English translation is an anonymous one originally published in 1846 by Chapman and Hall. This was originally released in ten weekly installments from March 1846 with six pages of letterpress and two illustrations by M Valentin. The translation was released in book form with all twenty illustrations in two volumes in May 1846, a month after the release of the first part of the above-mentioned translation by Emma Hardy. The translation follows the revised French edition of 1846, with the correct spelling of "Cristo" and the extra chapter The House on the Allées de Meilhan.
Most English editions of the novel follow the anonymous translation. In 1889, two of the major American publishers Little Brown and T.Y. Crowell updated the translation, correcting mistakes and revising the text to reflect the original serialized version. This resulted in the removal of the chapter The House on the Allées de Meilhan, with the text restored to the end of the chapter called The Departure.
In 1955, Collins published an updated version of the anonymous translation which cut several passages, including a whole chapter entitled The Past, and renamed others. This abridgment was republished by many Collins imprints and other publishers including the Modern Library, Vintage, and the 1998 Oxford World's Classics edition (later editions restored the text). In 2008 Oxford released a revised edition with translation by David Coward. The 2009 Everyman's Library edition reprints the original anonymous English translation that first appeared in 1846, with revisions by Peter Washington and an introduction by Umberto Eco.
In 1996, Penguin Classics published a new translation by Robin Buss. Buss' translation updated the language, making the text more accessible to modern readers, and restored content that was modified in the 1846 translation because of Victorian English social restrictions (for example, references to Eugénie's lesbian traits and behavior) to reflect Dumas' original version.
In addition to the above, there have also been many abridged translations such as an 1892 edition published by F.M. Lupton, translated by Henry L. Williams (this translation was also released by M.J. Ivers in 1892 with Williams using the pseudonym of Professor William Thiese). A more recent abridgment is the translation by Lowell Bair for Bantam Classics in 1956.
Many abridged translations omit the Count's enthusiasm for hashish. When serving a hashish jam to the young Frenchman Franz d'Épinay, the Count (calling himself Sinbad the Sailor), calls it, "nothing less than the ambrosia which Hebe served at the table of Jupiter." When he arrives in Paris, the Count brandishes an emerald box in which he carries small green pills compounded of hashish and opium which he uses for sleeplessness. (Source: Chapters 31, 32, 38, 40, 53 & 77 in the 117-chapter unabridged Pocket Books edition.) Dumas was a member of the Club des Hashischins.
In June 2017, Manga Classics, an imprint of UDON Entertainment, published The Count of Monte Cristo as a faithfully adapted Manga edition of the classic novel.
The first Japanese translation by Kuroiwa Shūroku was entitled "Shigai Shiden Gankutsu-ou" (史外史伝巌窟王, "a historical story from outside history, the King of the Cavern"), and serialized from 1901 to 1902 in the Yorozu Chouhou newspaper, and released in book form in four volumes by publisher Aoki Suusandou in 1905. Though later translations use the title "Monte Cristo-haku" (モンテ・クリスト伯, the Count of Monte Cristo), the "Gankutsu-ou" title remains highly associated with the novel and is often used as an alternative. As of March 2016, all movie adaptations of the novel brought to Japan used the title "Gankutsu-ou", with the exception of the 2002 film, which has it as a subtitle (with the title itself simply being "Monte Cristo").
The novel is popular in Japan, and has spawned numerous adaptations, the most notable of which are the novels Meiji Gankutsu-ou by Taijirou Murasame and Shin Gankutsu-ou by Kaitarō Hasegawa. Its influence can also be seen in how one of the first prominent cases of miscarriage of justice in Japan, in which an innocent man was charged with murder and imprisoned for half a century, is known in Japanese as the "Yoshida Gankutsu-ou incident" (吉田岩窟王事件).
A manga adaptation of the novel, titled Monte Cristo Hakushaku (モンテ・クリスト, 伯爵) and made by Ena Moriyama, was published in November 2015.
The first translation into Chinese was published in 1907. The novel had been a personal favorite of Jiang Qing, and the 1978 translation became one of the first mass-popularized foreign novels in mainland China after end of the Cultural Revolution. Since then, there have been another 22 Chinese translations.
Reception and legacy
The original work was published in serial form in the Journal des Débats in 1844. Carlos Javier Villafane Mercado described the effect in Europe:
The effect of the serials, which held vast audiences enthralled ... is unlike any experience of reading we are likely to have known ourselves, maybe something like that of a particularly gripping television series. Day after day, at breakfast or at work or on the street, people talked of little else.
George Saintsbury stated that "Monte Cristo is said to have been at its first appearance, and for some time subsequently, the most popular book in Europe. Perhaps no novel within a given number of years had so many readers and penetrated into so many different countries." This popularity has extended into modern times as well. The book was "translated into virtually all modern languages and has never been out of print in most of them. There have been at least twenty-nine motion pictures based on it ... as well as several television series, and many movies [have] worked the name 'Monte Cristo' into their titles." The title Monte Cristo lives on in a "famous gold mine, a line of luxury Cuban cigars, a sandwich, and any number of bars and casinos—it even lurks in the name of the street-corner hustle three-card monte."
The novel has been the inspiration for many other books, from Lew Wallace's Ben-Hur (1880), then to a science fiction retelling in Alfred Bester's The Stars My Destination, and to Stephen Fry's recent The Stars' Tennis Balls (entitled Revenge in the U.S.).
Fantasy novelist Steven Brust's Khaavren Romances series have all used Dumas novels (particularly the Three Musketeers series) as their chief inspiration, recasting the plots of those novels to fit within Brust's established world of Dragaera. His 2020 novel The Baron of Magister Valley follows suit, using The Count of Monte Cristo as a starting point. Jin Yong has admitted some influence from Dumas, his favorite non-Chinese novelist. Some commentators feel that the plot of A Deadly Secret resembles The Count of Monte Cristo, except that they are based in different countries and historical periods.
The success of The Count of Monte Cristo coincides with France's Second Empire. In the novel, Dumas tells of the 1815 return of Napoleon I, and alludes to contemporary events when the governor at the Château d'If is promoted to a position at the castle of Ham.[Notes 1] The attitude of Dumas towards "bonapartisme" was conflicted. His father, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas,[Notes 2] a Haitian of mixed descent, became a successful general during the French Revolution. New racial discrimination laws were applied in 1802. The general was consequently dismissed from the army and became profoundly bitter toward Napoleon. In 1840, the body of Napoleon I was brought to France and became an object of veneration in the church of Les Invalides, renewing popular patriotic support for the Bonaparte family. As the story opens, the character Dantès is not aware of the politics, considers himself simply a good French citizen, and is caught between the conflicting loyalties of the royalist Villefort during the Restoration, and the father of Villefort, Noirtier, loyal to Napoleon, a firm bonapartist, and the bonapartist loyalty of his late captain, in a period of rapid changes of government in France.
In "Causeries" (1860), Dumas published a short paper, "État civil du Comte de Monte-Cristo", on the genesis of the Count of Monte Cristo.[Notes 3] It appears that Dumas had close contacts with members of the Bonaparte family while living in Florence in 1841. In a small boat, he sailed around the island of Monte Cristo, accompanied by a young prince, a cousin to Louis Bonaparte, who was to become Emperor Napoleon III of the French ten years later, in 1851. During this trip, he promised that cousin of Louis Bonaparte that he would write a novel with the island's name in the title. In 1841 when Dumas made his promise, Louis Bonaparte himself was imprisoned at the citadel of Ham – the place mentioned in the novel. Dumas did visit him there, although Dumas does not mention it in "Etat civil".
A chronology of The Count of Monte Cristo and Bonapartism
During the life of Thomas-Alexandre Dumas:
- 1793: Thomas-Alexandre Dumas is promoted to the rank of general in the army of the First French Republic.
- 1794: He disapproves of the revolutionary terror in Western France.
- 1795–1797: He becomes famous and fights under Napoleon.
- 1802: Black officers are dismissed from the army. The Empire re-establishes slavery.
- 1802: Birth of his son, Alexandre Dumas père.
- 1806: Thomas-Alexandre Dumas dies, still bitter about the injustice of the Empire.
During the life of Alexandre Dumas:
- 1832: The only son of Napoleon I dies.
- 1836: Alexandre Dumas is famous as a writer by this time (age 34).
- 1836: First putsch by Louis Napoleon, aged 28, fails.
- 1840: A law is passed to bring the ashes of Napoleon I to France.
- 1840: Second putsch of Louis Napoleon. He is imprisoned for life and becomes known as the candidate for the imperial succession.
- 1841: Dumas lives in Florence and becomes acquainted with King Jérôme and his son, Napoléon.
- 1841–1844: The story is conceived and written.
- 1844–1846: The story is published in parts in a Parisian magazine.
- 1846: The novel is published in full and becomes a European bestseller.
- 1846: Louis Napoleon escapes from his prison.
- 1848: French Second Republic. Louis Napoleon is elected its first president but Dumas does not vote for him.
- 1857: Dumas publishes État civil du Comte de Monte-Cristo
Selected notable adaptations
- 1908: The Count of Monte Cristo, a silent film starring Hobart Bosworth
- 1913: The Count of Monte Cristo, a silent film starring James O'Neill
- 1918: The Count of Monte Cristo, a silent-film serial starring Léon Mathot
- 1922: Monte Cristo, directed by Emmett J. Flynn
- 1929: Monte Cristo, restored silent epic directed by Henri Fescourt
- 1934: The Count of Monte Cristo, directed by Rowland V. Lee
- 1940: The Son of Monte Cristo, directed by Rowland V. Lee
- 1942: The Count of Monte Cristo (Spanish: El Conde de Montecristo), a Mexican version directed by Chano Urueta and starred by Arturo de Córdova
- 1946: The Return of Monte Cristo, directed by Henry Levin
- 1950: The Prince of Revenge (أمير الانتقام), Egyptian Movie directed by Henry Barkat, Starring Anwar Wagdi
- 1953:The Count of Monte Cristo (Spanish: El Conde de Montecristo), directed by León Klimovsky and starred by Jorge Mistral
- 1954: The Count of Monte Cristo, starring Jean Marais
- 1958: Vanjikottai Valiban (வஞ்சிக்கோட்டை வாலிபன்), Tamil film adaptation and its Hindi remake Raaj Tilak
- 1961: Le comte de Monte Cristo, starring Louis Jourdan, directed by Claude Autant-Lara
- 1964: The Crafty One (أمير الدهاء), Egyptian Movie directed by Henry Barkat, Starring Farid Shawqi
- 1968: Sous le signe de Monte Cristo, French movie starring Paul Barge, Claude Jade and Anny Duperey, directed by André Hunebelle, and set in 1947
- 1975: The Count of Monte Cristo, TV film starring Richard Chamberlain, directed by David Greene
- 1976: The Circle of Revenge (دائرة الانتقام), Egyptian Movie directed by Samir Seif, Starring Nour El-Sherif
- 1982: Padayottam, a Malayalam Film adaption set in Kerala context, directed by Jijo Punnoose starring Prem Nazir, Mammootty and Mohanlal
- 1986: Veta, Telugu film adaptation
- 1986: Legacy of Rage, a Cantonese-language Hong Kong film adaptation, starring Brandon Lee
- 1999: Forever Mine, film starring Joseph Fiennes, Ray Liotta and Gretchen Mol, loosely but clearly based upon The Count of Monte Cristo, directed/written by Paul Schrader
- 2002: The Count of Monte Cristo, directed by Kevin Reynolds and starring Jim Caviezel, Dagmara Domińczyk, Richard Harris and Guy Pearce
- TBA: David S. Goyer will direct a film adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo
- 1956: The Count of Monte Cristo, TV series based on further adventures of Edmond Dantès after the end of the novel
- 1964: The Count of Monte Cristo, BBC television serial starring Alan Badel and Natasha Parry
- 1966: Il conte di Montecristo, RAI Italian television serial directed by Edmo Fenoglio. starring Andrea Giordana
- 1973: The Count of Monte Cristo UK/Italian animated series, produced by Halas and Batchelor and RAI Italy
- 1977: The Great Vendetta (大報復), Hong Kong television serial starring Adam Cheng, in which the background of the story is changed to Southern China during the Republican Era
- 1979: Nihon Gankutsuou (日本巌窟王), Japanese television serial set in Edo period, starring Masao Kusakari
- 1979: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo (1979 miniseries), French TV series starring Jacques Weber
- 1984: La Dueña a 1984 Venezuelan telenovela with a female version of Edmond Dantès
- 1988: Uznik Zamka If (litt. The Prisoner of Castle If ), Soviet miniseries starring Viktor Avilov (Count of Monte Cristo) and Aleksei Petrenko (Abbé Faria), with music and songs of Alexander Gradsky
- 1998: The Count of Monte Cristo, television miniseries starring Gérard Depardieu
- 2006: Montecristo, Argentine telenovela starring Pablo Echarri and Paola Krum
- 2006: Vingança, telenovela directed by Rodrigo Riccó and Paulo Rosa, SIC Portugal
- 2010: Ezel, a Turkey-Turkish television series which is an adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo
- 2011: Un amore e una vendetta (English: Love and Vendetta) an Italian television series loosely based on the book
- 2011: Revenge, a television series billed as an adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo
- 2012: Antsanoty, an Armenia-Armenian television series which is an adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo
- 2013: La Patrona, a loose Mexican remake of 1984 telenovela La Dueña
- 2016: Goodbye Mr. Black, a TV series loosely based on The Count of Monte Cristo"
- 2016: Once Upon a Time's sixth season features the Count as a character, portrayed by Craig Horner. Several characters and plot elements from the story are also alluded to
- 2016: Yago, Mexican telenovela starring Iván Sánchez and Gabriela de la Garza
- 2018: The Count of Monte-Cristo: Gorgeous Revenge (モンテ・クリスト伯 -華麗なる復讐- Monte Kurisuto Haku: Karei Naru Fukushu), Japanese TV series starring Dean Fujioka
- 2018: Wes, a Sri Lankan-Sinhala television series which is an adaptation of The Count of Monte Cristo and an influence of Ezel television series
Other Appearances in Film or Television
- 1973: The Count of Monte Cristo, animated short produced by Hanna-Barbera
- 1994: Garfield and Friends episode "The Discount of Monte Cristo", a retelling of the story using the characters from U.S. Acres as the cast. Aloysius Pig, voiced by comedian Kevin Meaney, tries to cut the cost of the story, even though the characters are using their imaginations
- 2004: Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo (巌窟王 Gankutsuoo, literally The King of the Cave), Japanese animation adaptation. Produced by Gonzo, directed by Mahiro Maeda
- 2007: The first section of The Simpsons Episode, Revenge Is a Dish Best Served Three Times has an adaption for the Count of Monte Cristo but it is entitled The Count Of Monte Fatso
- 1853: A Mão do finado, Alfredo Hogan
- 1881: The Son of Monte Cristo, Jules Lermina (1839–1915). This novel was divided in the English translation into two books: The Wife of Monte Cristo and The Son of Monte Cristo). Both were published in English in New York, 1884, translated by Jacob Arbabanell (1852–1922). Lermina also penned Le Trésor de Monte-Cristo [The Treasure of Monte-Cristo] (1885)
- 1884: Edmond Dantès: The Sequel to Alexander Dumas' Celebrated Novel The Count of Monte Cristo, Edmund Flagg (1815–1890). Published in English by T.B. Peterson and Brothers in 1886 (no translator credited)
- 1884: Monte-Cristo's Daughter sequel to Alexander Dumas' great novel, the "Count of Monte-Cristo," and Conclusion of "Edmond Dantès", Edmund Flagg. Published in English by T.B. Peterson and Brothers in 1886 (no translator credited)
- 1869: The Countess of Monte Cristo, Jean Charles Du Boys (1836-1873). Published in English by T.B. Peterson and Brothers in 1871 (no translator credited)
- 1887: Monte Cristo and his wife, presumably by Jacob Ralph Abarbanell
- 1902: Countess of Monte Cristo, by Abarbanell
- 2020: The Mummy of Monte Cristo, by J Trevor Robinson. A horror-themed mashup novel.
Plays and musicals
Alexandre Dumas and Auguste Maquet wrote a set of four plays that collectively told the story of The Count of Monte Cristo: Monte Cristo Part I (1848); Monte Cristo Part II (1848); Le Comte de Morcerf (1851) and Villefort (1851). The first two plays were first performed at Dumas' own Théâtre Historique in February 1848, with the performance spread over two nights, each with a long duration (the first evening ran from 18:00 until 00:00). The play was also unsuccessfully performed at Drury Lane in London later that year where rioting erupted in protest against French companies performing in England.
The adaptation differs from the novel in many respects: several characters, such as Luigi Vampa, are excluded; whereas the novel includes many different plot threads that are brought together at the conclusion, the third and fourth plays deal only with the fate of Mondego and Villefort respectively (Danglars' fate is not featured at all); the play is the first to feature Dantès shouting "the world is mine!", an iconic line that would be used in many future adaptations.
Two English adaptations of the novel were published in 1868. The first, by Hailes Lacy, differs only slightly from Dumas' version with the main change being that Fernand Mondego is killed in a duel with the Count rather than committing suicide. Much more radical was the version by Charles Fechter, a notable French-Anglo actor. The play faithfully follows the first part of the novel, omits the Rome section and makes several sweeping changes to the third part, among the most significant being that Albert is actually the son of Dantès. The fates of the three main antagonists are also altered: Villefort, whose fate is dealt with quite early on in the play, kills himself after being foiled by the Count trying to kill Noirtier (Villefort's half brother in this version); Mondego kills himself after being confronted by Mercedes; Danglars is killed by the Count in a duel. The ending sees Dantès and Mercedes reunited and the character of Haydee is not featured at all. The play was first performed at the Adelphi in London in October 1868. The original duration was five hours, resulting in Fechter abridging the play, which, despite negative reviews, had a respectable sixteen-week run. Fechter moved to the United States in 1869 and Monte Cristo was chosen for the inaugural play at the opening of the Globe Theatre, Boston in 1870. Fechter last performed the role in 1878.
In 1883, John Stetson, manager of the Booth Theatre and The Globe Theatre, wanted to revive the play and asked James O'Neill (the father of playwright Eugene O'Neill) to perform the lead role. O'Neill, who had never seen Fechter perform, made the role his own and the play became a commercial, if not an artistic success. O'Neill made several abridgments to the play and eventually bought it from Stetson. A motion picture based on Fechter's play, with O'Neill in the title role, was released in 1913 but was not a huge success. O'Neill died in 1920, two years before a more successful motion picture, produced by Fox and partially based on Fechter's version, was released. O'Neill came to despise the role of Monte Cristo, which he performed more than 6000 times, feeling that his typecasting had prevented him from pursuing more artistically rewarding roles. This discontent later became a plot point in Eugene O'Neill's semi-autobiographical play Long Day's Journey Into Night.
In 2008, the Russian theatre of Moscow Operetta set a musical Monte-Cristo based on the book with music of Roman Ignatiev and lyrics of Yulii Kim. Six years later it won in Daegu International Musical Festival in South Korea. Original plot was slightly changed and some characters are not mentioned in the musical.
The Count of Monte Cristo is a musical based on the novel, with influences from the 2002 film adaptation of the book. The music is written by Frank Wildhorn and the lyrics and book are by Jack Murphy. It debuted in Switzerland in 2009.
- 1938: The Mercury Theatre on the Air with Orson Welles (Dantés), Ray Collins (Abbé Faria), George Coulouris (Monsieur Morrel), Edgar Barrier (de Villefort), Eustace Wyatt (Caderousse), Paul Stewart (Paul Dantés) Sidney Smith (Mondego), Richard Wilson (the Officer), Virginia Welles (Mercédès); radio broadcast 29 August 1938:345
- 1939: The Campbell Playhouse with Orson Welles (Dantés), Ray Collins (Caderousse), Everett Sloane (Abbé Faria), Frank Readick (Villefort), George Coulouris (Danglars), Edgar Barrier (Mondego), Richard Wilson (a Jailer), Agnes Moorehead (Mercédès); radio broadcast 1 October 1939:354
- 1939: Robert Montgomery on the Lux Radio Theater (radio)
- 1947–52: The Count of Monte Cristo radio program starring Carleton Young
- 1960s: Paul Daneman for Tale Spinners For Children series (LP) UAC 11044
- 1961: Louis Jourdan for Caedmon Records (LP)
- 1964: Per Edström director (radio series in Sweden)
- 1987: Andrew Sachs on BBC Radio 4 (later BBC Radio 7 and BBC Radio 4 Extra) adapted by Barry Campbell and directed by Graham Gould, with Alan Wheatley as L'Abbe Faria, Nigel Anthony as de Villefort, Geoffrey Matthews as Danglars and Melinda Walker as Mercedes
- 1989: Richard Matthews for Penguin Random House (ISBN 978-141-591-221-8)
- 2005: John Lee for Blackstone Audio
- 2010: Bill Homewood for Naxos Audiobooks (ISBN 978-962-634-134-6)
- 2012: Iain Glen on BBC Radio 4 adapted by Sebastian Baczkiewicz and directed by Jeremy Mortimer and Sasha Yevtushenko, with Richard Johnson as Faria, Jane Lapotaire as the aged Haydee, Toby Jones as Danglars, Zubin Varla as Fernand, Paul Rhys as Villefort and Josette Simon as Mercedes
- 2017: The Count of Monte Cristo musical adaption by Berry & Butler
- 1996: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo (Chinese: 基督山恩仇記; pinyin: Jīdū Shān En Chóu Jì; lit. 'Monte Christo'), an unauthorized Chinese-language Nintendo Famicom game produced by ESC Co. Ltd. (mostly known as Waixing Technology).
- 2014: Count of Monte-Cristo phone app (in English and Romanian). A puzzle game that comes with a level editor.
- 2016: In Fate/Grand Order, Edmond Dantès was available for summoning as an Avenger-class servant. Type-Moon also produced an accompanying drama CD about Monte Cristo and various people from his past including Haydée and Abbe Faria.
- The governor at the Château d'If is promoted to a position at the castle of Ham, which is the castle where Louis Napoleon was imprisoned 1840–46, on page 140 of the novel.
- Thomas Alexandre Dumas was also known as Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie.
- "État civil du Comte de Monte-Cristo" is included as an "annexe" to the novel.
- Schopp, Claude (1988). Alexandre Dumas, Genius of Life. trans. by A. J. Koch. New York, Toronto: Franklin Watts. p. 325. ISBN 0-531-15093-3.
- Sante, Luc (2004). Introduction. The Count of Monte Cristo. By Dumas, Alexandre. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. p. xxv. ISBN 978-1-59308-333-5.
- David Coward (ed), Oxford's World Classics, Dumas, Alexandre, The Count of Monte Cristo, p. xvii
- Lebeaupin, Noël. "Georges". The Alexandre Dumas père Web Site (in French). Retrieved October 10, 2020.
Solidarité avec les opprimés donc (thèmes de la justice et de la vengeance, omniprésents chez Dumas) [Solidarity with the oppressed therefore (themes of justice and vengeance, omnipresent in Dumas)]
- Dumas, Alexander (1857). "Etat civil du Comte de Monte-Cristo, chapter IX" [Civil status of the Count of Monte Cristo]. Causeries (in French). Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- Sigaux, Gilbert (1981). Introduction. Le comte de Monte-Cristo. By Dumas, Alexander (in French). Library of the Pléiade. ISBN 978-2070109791.
- Peuchet, Jacques (1838). "Le Diamant et la Vengeance: Anecdote contemporaine" [The Diamond and the Vengeance: A contemporary anecdote]. Mémoires tirés des Archives de la Police de Paris (in French). 5. Levasseur. pp. 197–228.
- Ashton-Wolfe, Harry (1931). True Stories of Immortal Crimes. E. P. Dutton & Co. pp. 16–17.
- David Coward (ed), Oxford's World Classics, Dumas, Alexandre, The Count of Monte Cristo, p. xxv
- Munro, Douglas (1978). Alexandre Dumas Père: a bibliography of works translated into English to 1910. Garland Pub. pp. 91–92.
- "The Morning Post Front Page". The Morning Post. February 26, 1846. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Dumas, Alexandre (1889). The Count of Monte Cristo. Little Brown and Company.
- Dumas, Alexandre (1889). The Count of Monte Cristo : or, The Adventures of Edmond Dantès. T.Y Crowell.
- Dumas, Alexandre (1955). The Count of Monte Cristo with an introduction by Richard Church. Collins.
- Manga Classics: The Count of Monte Cristo (2017) UDON Entertainment ISBN 978-1927925614
- Sante, Luc (2004). Introduction. The Count of Mount Cristo. By Dumas, Alexander. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics. pp. xxiv. ISBN 978-1-59308-333-5.
- Sante, Luc (2004). Introduction. The Count of Mount Cristo. By Dumas, Alexander. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics. p. 601. ISBN 978-1-59308-333-5.
- Sante, Luc (2004). Introduction. The Count of Mount Cristo. By Dumas, Alexander. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics. pp. xxiv–xxv. ISBN 978-1-59308-333-5.
- "ШЕКСПИР и "ГРАФ МОНТЕ-КРИСТО"" [SHAKESPEARE and "GRAFFE MONTE CRISTO"]. Электронная энциклопедия "Мир Шекспира" [Electronic encyclopedia "Shakespeare's World"] (in Russian).
- Wallace, Lew (1906). Lew Wallace; an Autobiography. p. 936. ISBN 1-142-04820-9.
- Bester, Alfred (1956). "The stars my destination". Pastiches Dumas (in French and English).
- Fry, Stephen (2003). "Introduction". Revenge. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0-8129-6819-0.
a straight steal, virtually identical in all but period and style to Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo
- Tilendis, Robert M. (December 23, 2014). "Steven Brust's The Khaavren Romances". Green Man Review. Retrieved August 3, 2020.[dead link]
- Eddy, Cheryl (July 1, 2020). "There Are So Many New Sci-Fi and Fantasy Books Coming Out in July". Gizmodo. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- Brust, Steven (28 July 2020). The Baron of Magister Valley. Tom Doherty Associates. ISBN 978-1-250-31146-7.
- 《金庸一百問》盧美杏 輯. ["A Hundred Questions about Jin Yong" Lu Meixing Collection]. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
《倚天屠龍記》裏謝遜說的山中老人霍山的故事和《連城訣》的故事架構，是否都出自金庸最喜歡的外國作家大仲馬的《基度山恩仇記》？（eling）金庸：山中老人那段不是，過去真的有此傳說，《連城訣》的監獄那一段有一點，但不一定是參考他的，是參考很多書的。 Are the story of Huoshan the old man in the mountain and the story structure of "Liancheng Jue" described by Xie Xun in "The Legend of Heaven and Slaying the Dragon" come from "The Enemy of Jidushan" by Jin Yong's favorite foreign writer Dumas? (Eling) Jin Yong: It’s not the old man in the mountains. There was a legend in the past. There was a little bit about the prison section of "Liancheng Jue", but it didn’t necessarily refer to him. It refers to many books.]
- Milza, Pierre (2004). Napoléon III (in French). Perrin. ISBN 978-2262026073.
- "David Goyer to Direct 'Count of Monte Cristo' Remake (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Once Upon a Time books Legend of the Seeker star — exclusive". Entertainment Weekly. July 20, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
- "THE COUNT OF MONTE-CRISTO:GREAT REVENGE - FUJI TELEVISION NETWORK, INC". FUJI TELEVISION NETWORK, INC. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- Gans, Andrew.Borchert to Star in World Premiere of Wildhorn's Count of Monte Cristo" Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine, playbill.com, February 18, 2009
- Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1992). This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "BBC Radio 4 – Classic Serial, The Count of Monte Cristo, Episode 1". BBC. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Home". The Count Of Monte Cristo. Archived from the original on 2020-08-05. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
- Maurois, André (1957). The Titans, a three-generation biography of the Dumas. Translated by Hopkins, Gerard. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. OCLC 260126.
- Salien, Jean-Marie (2000). "La subversion de l'orientalisme dans Le comte de Monte-Cristo d'Alexandre Dumas" (PDF). Études françaises (in French). 36 (1): 179–190. doi:10.7202/036178ar.
- Toesca, Catherine (2002). Les sept Monte-Cristo d'Alexandre Dumas (in French). Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. ISBN 2-7068-1613-9.
- Lenotre, G. (January–February 1919). "La conquête et le règne". Revue des Deux Mondes (in French). JSTOR 44825176. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011.
- Blaze de Bury, H. (2008) , Alexandre Dumas : sa vie, son temps, son oeuvre [Alexander Dumas: His life, his times, his work] (PDF) (in French), Les Joyeux Roger, ISBN 978-2-923523-51-4, archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011
- Maccinelli, Clara; Animato, Carlo (1991), Il Conte di Montecristo : Favola alchemica e massonica vendetta [The Count of Montecristo: Alchemical and Masonic fable of revenge] (in Italian), Rome: Edizioni Mediterranee, ISBN 88-272-0791-0
- Raynal, Cécile (2002). "Promenade médico-pharmaceutique à travers l'œuvre d'Alexandre Dumas" [Medico-pharmaceutical walk through the work of Alexandre Dumas]. Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie (in French). 90 (333): 111–146. doi:10.3406/pharm.2002.5327.
- Reiss, Tom (2013), The Black Count: Glory, Revolution, Betrayal, and the Real Count of Monte Cristo, New York: Random House USA, ISBN 978-0307382474
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- "Critical approach on The Count of Monte Cristo" by Enrique Javier González Camacho in Gibralfaro, the journal of creative writing and humanities at the University of Malaga (in Spanish)
- The Count of Monte Cristo public domain audiobook at LibriVox
- Tale Spinners for Children: The Count of Monte Cristo MP3 download
- Pierre Picaud: The "Real" Count
- "Count of Monte Cristo Paris Walking Tour" identifies locations from the novel in Paris mapped on Google Maps
- The Count of Monte Cristo at Open Library
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- The Count of Monte Cristo on Project Gutenberg