Counterproductive work behavior
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is employee behavior that goes against the legitimate interests of an organization. These behaviors can harm organizations or people in organizations including employees and clients, customers, or patients. It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors. For instance, an employee who is high on trait anger (tendency to experience anger) is more likely to respond to a stressful incident at work (being treated rudely by a supervisor) with CWB.
Some researchers use the CWB term to subsume related constructs that are distinct. Workplace deviance is behavior at work that violates norms for appropriate behavior. Retaliation consists of harmful behaviors done by employees to get back at someone who has treated them unfairly. Workplace revenge are behaviors by employees intended to hurt another person who has done something harmful to them. Workplace aggression consists of harmful acts that harm others in organizations.
- 1 Dimensional models
- 2 Dimensions
- 3 Notable behavior exclusions
- 4 Organizational citizenship behavior
- 5 Current research topics and trends
- 6 Correlates, predictors, moderators and mediators
- 7 Peer reporting
- 8 Managing strategies
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Several typologies of CWB exist.
- production deviance, involving behaviors like leaving early, intentionally working slowly, or taking long breaks;
- property deviance, involving sabotage of equipment, theft of property, and taking kickbacks;
- political deviance, involving showing favoritism, revenge, gossiping, or blaming others;
- personal aggression, involving harassment, verbal abuse, and endangerment
A five dimension typology of CWB
- abuse against others
- production deviance
An 11-dimension typology of CWB
- theft of property
- destruction of property
- misuse of information
- misuse of time and resources
- unsafe behavior
- poor attendance
- poor quality of work
- alcohol use
- drug use
- inappropriate verbal action
- inappropriate physical action
A two-dimensional model of CWBs distinguished by organizational versus person target has gained considerable acceptance. Additional dimensions have been proposed for research purposes, including a legal v. illegal dimension, a hostile v. instrumental aggression dimension, and a task-related v. a non-task-related dimension. CWBs that violate criminal law may have different antecedents than milder forms of CWBs. Similarly, instrumental aggression (i.e., aggression with a deliberate goal in mind) may have different antecedents than those CWBs caused by anger.
Absenteeism is typically measured by time lost (number of days absent) measures and frequency (number of absence episodes) measures. It is weakly linked to affective predictors such as job satisfaction and commitment. Absences fit into two types of categories. Excused absences are those due to personal or family illness; unexcused absences include an employee who does not come to work in order to do another preferred activity or neglects to call in to a supervisor. Absence can be linked to job dissatisfaction. Major determinants of employee absence include employee affect, demographic characteristics, organizational absence culture, and organization absence policies. Absence due to non-work obligations is related to external features of a job with respect to dissatisfaction with role conflict, role ambiguity, and feelings of tension. Absences due to stress and illness are related to internal and external features of the job, fatigue and gender. Research has found that women are more likely to be absent than men, and that the absence-control policies and culture of an organization will predict absenteeism.
Abuse against others
Physical acts of aggression by members of an organization, committed in organizational settings are considered as workplace violence. While most researchers examine overall workplace aggression, there is a line of research that separates workplace aggression according to its targets, whether interpersonal or organizational. In this model of workplace aggression, trait anger and interpersonal conflict have been found to be significant predictors of interpersonal aggression, while interpersonal conflict, situational constraints, and organizational constraints have been found to be predictors of organizational aggression. Other factors significantly linked to aggression are sex and trait anger, with men and individuals with higher levels of trait anger showing more aggressive behaviors.
Workplace bullying consists of progressive and systematic mistreatment of one employee by another. It may include verbal abuse, gossiping, social exclusion, or the spreading of rumors. The terms "bullying" and "mobbing" are sometimes used interchangeably, but "bullying" is more often used to refer to lower levels of antisocial behavior that do not include workgroup participation. The costs of bullying include losses in productivity, higher absenteeism, higher turnover rates, and legal fees when the victims of bullying sue the organization. Reported incidence of bullying is ambiguous with rates being reported from under 3% to over 37% depending on the method used to gather incidence statistics. The strongest factor predicting bullying behavior seems to be exposure to incidents of bullying. This suggests that bullying is a cascading problem that needs to be curtailed in its earliest stages. In addition to exposure to incidents of bullying, being male also seems to increase the likelihood that one will engage in bullying behavior. It is proposed that the human resources function can provide guidance in the mitigation of bullying behavior by taking an active role in identifying and stopping the behaviors.
Cyber loafing can be defined as surfing the web in any form of non-job- related tasks performed by the employee. Cyber loafing has emerged as more and more people use computers at work. One survey showed that 64% of US workers use the internet for personal tasks at work. It has been suggested that cyber-loafing is responsible for a 30–40% decrease in employee productivity and was estimated to have cost US business $5.3 billion in 1999.
Workplace incivility is disrespectful and rude behavior in violation of workplace norms for respect." The effects of incivility include increased competitiveness, increases in sadistic behavior, and inattentiveness. A study of cyber incivility showed that higher levels of incivility are associated with lower job satisfaction, lower organizational commitment, and higher turnover rates. Two factors that seem to be associated with becoming a victim of incivility are low levels of agreeableness and high levels of neuroticism. The affective events theory suggests that individuals who experience more incidents of incivility may be more sensitive to these behaviors and therefore more likely to report them.
Lateness is described as arriving at work later or leaving earlier than required. Problems associated with lateness include compromised organizational efficiency. Tardy and late employees responsible for critical tasks can negatively affect organizational production. Other workers may experience psychological effects of the tardy employee including morale and motivational problems as they attempt to "pick up the slack." Other employees may begin to imitate the example set by the behavior of tardy employees. Lateness costs US business more than $3 billion annually.
Production deviance is ineffective job performance that is done on purpose, such as doing tasks incorrectly or withholding of effort. Such behaviors can be seen in disciplinary actions and safety violations.
Employee sabotage are behaviors that can "damage or disrupt the organization's production, damaging property, the destruction of relationships, or the harming of employees or customers." Research has shown that often acts of sabotage or acts of retaliation are motivated by perceptions of organizational injustice and performed with the intention of causing harm to the target.
Service sabotage originated from counter-productive behavior literature. Lloyd C. Harris and Emmanuel Ogbonna from Cardiff University drew from employee deviance and dysfunctional behaviors studies to conceptualize service sabotage as a disturbing phenomenon in the work place. Service sabotage refer to organizational member behaviors that are intentionally designed negatively to affect service. Empirical evidence suggested that more than 90% employees accept that service sabotage is an everyday occurrence in their organization.
Sexual harassment is defined as "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical contact when (a) submission to the conduct by the employee is either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment, (b) submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as a basis for employment decisions affecting the individual and/or (c) such conduct [that] has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with work performance, or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment." (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1980)
Substance abuse by employees at work is a problem that can have an effect on work attendance, performance, and safety and can lead to other injuries outside of work and health problems.
Employee theft is defined as employees taking things not belonging to them from an organization. Employee theft is estimated to account for billions of dollars of loss globally each year, with employees accounting for more theft than customers. This may include large embezzlements or the pilfering of pencils and paperclips, but the losses in the aggregate are substantial. At least one study suggests that 45% of companies experience financial fraud, with average losses of $1.7 million. Factors such as Conscientiousness have been shown to be negatively related to theft behaviors. Many organizations use integrity tests during the initial screening process for new employees in an effort to eliminate those considered most likely to commit theft. Causes of employee theft include characteristics of the individual and environmental conditions such as frustrating and unfair working conditions.
Turnover is when employees leave the organization, either voluntarily (quitting) or involuntarily (being fired or laid off). Research on voluntary employee job turnover has attempted to understand the causes of individual decisions to leave an organization. It has been found that lower performance, lack of reward contingencies for performance, and better external job opportunities are the main causes. Other variables related to turnover are conditions in the external job market and the availability of other job opportunities, and length of employee tenure. Turnover can be optimal as when a poorly performing employee decides to leave an organization, or dysfunctional when the high turnover rates increase the costs associated with recruitment and training of new employees, or if good employees consistently decide to leave. Avoidable turnover is when the organization could have prevented it and unavoidable turnover is when the employee's decision to leave could not be prevented.
Employee withdrawal consists of behaviors such as absence, lateness, and ultimately job turnover. Absence and lateness has attracted research as they disrupt organizational production, deliveries and services. Unsatisfied employees withdraw in order to avoid work tasks or pain, and remove themselves from their jobs. Withdrawal behavior may be explained as employee retaliation against inequity in the work setting. Withdrawal may also be part of a progressive model and relate to job dissatisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.
Notable behavior exclusions
CWBs are "active and volitional acts engaged in by individuals, as opposed to accidental or unintentional actions." CWBs, therefore do not include acts that lack volition, such as the inability to successfully complete a task. Nor do CWBs include involvement in an accident, although purposeful avoidance of the safety rules that may have led to the accident would represent a CWB.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2002) estimates the cost of accidents to organizations to be $145 million annually. Most research on this topic has attempted to evaluate characteristics of the workplace environment that lead to accidents and determination of ways to avoid accidents. There has also been some research on the characteristics of accident-prone employees that has found they are typically younger, more distractible, and less socially adjusted than other employees. Recent research has shown that an organization's safety climate has been associated with lower accident involvement, compliance with safety procedures, and increased proactive safety behaviors.
Another set of behaviors that do not fit easily into the accepted definition of CWBs, are those described as unethical pro-organizational behaviors (UPBs). UPBs represent illegitimate means intended to further the legitimate interests of an organization. UPBs are not necessarily intended to harm the organization, although the UPBs may result in adverse consequences to the organization, such as a loss of trust and goodwill, or in criminal charges against the organization. In law enforcement, UPBs are exhibited in a form of misconduct called noble cause corruption. Noble cause corruption occurs when a police officer violates the law or ethical rules in order to reduce crime or the fear of crime. An example of this is testilying, in which a police officer commits perjury to obtain the conviction of a defendant. UPBs have not received the same attention from researchers that CWBs have received.
Organizational citizenship behavior
Counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which consists of behaviors that help organizations but go beyond required tasks, have been studied together and are generally found to be related in that individuals who do one are unlikely to do the other.
Current research topics and trends
By definition, counterproductive work behaviors are voluntary acts that are detrimental to an organization. They have important implications for the well-being of an organization. Theft alone is estimated to cause worldwide losses in the billions of dollars each year. These estimated losses do not include losses from other sources, nor do they consider the fact that many losses attributable to CWBs go undetected.
The consequences of CWBs and their persistence in the workplace have led to increased attention being given to the study of such behaviors. Current trends in industrial organizational psychology suggest a continuing increase in the study of CWBs. Research into CWBs appears to fall into three broad categories: (1) classification of CWBs; (2) predicting counterproductive behaviors; and (3) furthering the theoretical framework of CWBs.
A review of peer reviewed journals following this article shows the broad interest in CWBs. A brief list of noted journals includes The International Journal of Selection and Assessment, The Journal of Applied Psychology, Computers in Human Behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, Occupational Health Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, Military Justice, Criminal Justice Ethics, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, and International Journal of Nursing Studies. The variety of journals reporting in the area of CWBs reflects the breadth of the topic and the global interest in studying these behaviors.
Researchers use many sources in attempting to measure CWBs. These include potentially subjective measures such as self-reports, peer reports, and supervisor reports. More objective methods for assessing CWBs include disciplinary records, absentee records, and job performance statistics. Each of these methods present potential problems in the measurement of CWBs. For example, self-reports always have the potential for bias with individuals trying to cast themselves in a good light. Self-reports may also cause problems for researchers when they measure what an incumbent 'can-do' and what an incumbent 'will-do.' Peer and supervisor reports can suffer from personal bias, but they also suffer from lack of knowledge of the private behaviors of the job incumbent whose behavior is being studied. Archival records suffer from lack of information about the private behaviors of incumbents, providing instead information about instances where incumbents are caught engaging in CWBs. Some researchers have proposed a differential detection hypothesis which predicts that there will be discrepancies between reports of detected CWBs and other reports of CWBs.
The lack of accurate measures for CWBs jeopardizes the ability of researchers to find the relationships between CWB and other factors they are evaluating. The primary criticism of research in CWBs has been that too much of the research relies on a single-source method of measurement relying primarily on self-reports of counterproductive work behavior. Several studies have therefore attempted to compare self-reports with other forms of evidence about CWBs. These studies seek to determine whether different forms of evidence converge, or effectively measure the same behaviors. Convergence has been established between self-reports and peer and supervisor reports for interpersonal CWBs but not organizational CWBs. This finding is significant because it promotes the ability of researchers to use multiple sources of evidence in evaluating CWBs.
Correlates, predictors, moderators and mediators
Affect or emotion at work, especially the experience of negative emotions like anger or anxiety, predict the likelihood of counterproductive work behaviors occurring. Affective personality traits, the tendency for individuals to experience emotions, can also predict CWB. For example, employees with high negative affectivity, the tendency to experience negative emotions, typically display more counterproductive work behaviors than those with positive affectivity, the tendency to experience positive emotions.
Age appears to be an important factor in predicting CWBs. While age does not appear to be strongly related to core task performance, creativity, or performance in training, it does appear to be positively related to organizational citizenship behaviors and negatively related to CWBs. Older employees seem to exhibit less aggression, tardiness, substance abuse, and voluntary absenteeism (although sickness related absenteeism is somewhat higher than younger employees). Some researchers argue that the lower rate of CWBs may be due to better self-regulation and self-control.
Research into the relationship between cognitive ability and CWBs is contradictory. When CWBs are operationalized as disciplinary records of detected CWBs, a strong negative relationship between cognitive ability has been found. This relationship did not hold, however, when cognitive ability was operationalized as educational attainment. A longitudinal study of adolescents through young adulthood found that, among those individuals who exhibited conduct disorders as youths, high levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of CWBs, a positive relationship. Other research has found that general mental ability is largely unrelated to self-reports of CWBs including theft (although a weak link to incidents of lateness was detected). In the same study, grade point average showed a stronger relationship to CWBs. Contradictions in the findings may be explained in the differential effects between measures of cognitive ability and self-reported versus detected incidents of CWBs.
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to identify and manage emotional information in oneself and others and focus energy on required behaviors. The factors making up EI include:
- appraisal and expression of emotion in self
- appraisal and recognition of emotions in others
- regulation of emotions, and
- use of emotions.
To the extent that EI includes the ability to manage emotions, it can be expected that it will have an influence on CWBs similar to that found for self-control. Research in this area is limited, however, one study looking for the moderating effects of EI on the relationships between distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice failed to find a significant moderating effect in any of these relationships.
Interpersonal conflict in the workplace can also lead to counterproductive work behaviors. Interpersonal conflict with the supervisor can lead to counterproductive work behaviors such as defiance, undermining, and colluding with coworkers to engage in deviant behavior. Interpersonal conflict with peers can lead to counterproductive work behaviors such as harassment, bullying, and physical altercations.
Organizational constraints, the extent to which conditions at work interfere with job tasks, has been shown to relate to CWB so that jobs with high constraints have employees who engage in CWB. Not only do constraints lead to CWB, but CWB can lead to constraints. Employees who engage in CWB can find that constraints increase over time.
Organizational justice or fairness perceptions have been shown to influence the display of counterproductive work behaviors. Distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice have all been shown to include both counterproductive work behaviors aimed at individuals, such as political deviance and personal aggression; and counterproductive work behaviors aimed at the organization, such as production slowdown and property deviance.
Overall perceptions of unfairness may particularly elicit interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors such as political deviance and personal aggressions. Interpersonal justice and informational justice may also predict counterproductive work behaviors aimed at the supervisor, such as neglecting to follow supervisory instructions, acting rudely toward one's supervisor, spreading unconfirmed rumors about a supervisor, intentionally doing something to get one's supervisor in trouble, and encouraging coworkers to get back at one's supervisor.
Personality is a predictor of an employee's proclivity toward counterproductive work behaviors. With regard to the Big Five personality traits: conscientiousness, agreeableness, extroversion and openness to experience all predict counterproductive behaviors. When an employee is low in conscientiousness, counterproductive work behaviors related to the organization are more likely to occur. Employees who are low in agreeableness will exhibit counterproductive work behaviors related to interpersonal deviant behaviors. Furthermore, in terms of greater specificity, for employees low in conscientiousness, sabotage and withdrawal are more likely to occur. For employees low in extraversion, theft is likely to occur. Finally, for employees high in openness to experience, production deviance is likely to occur.
According to Boddy, because of abusive supervision by corporate psychopaths, large amounts of anti-corporate feeling will be generated among the employees of the organisations that corporate psychopaths work in. This should result in high levels of counterproductive behaviour as employees give vent to their anger with the corporation, which they perceive to be acting through its corporate psychopathic managers in a way that is eminently unfair to them.
Self-control has been evaluated as a significant explanation of CWBs. Like, conscientiousness, self-control, or internal control, is seen as a stable individual difference that tends to inhibit deviant behaviors. The identification of self-control as a factor in deviant behaviors flows from work in criminology, where self-control is seen as the strength of one's ability to avoid short-term gain for long-term costs. Using multiple regression analysis, one study compared the effects of 25 characteristics (including self-control, justicial factors, equity factors, positive affect, levels of autonomy, and a variety of other individual characteristics) on CWBs. The study showed that self-control was the best predictor of CWBs and that most of the other factors had negligible predictive value. Cognitive ability and age were among the remaining factors that showed some effect. These additional findings are consistent with research that tends to show older employees exercise a greater level of self-control.
One line of research in CWBs looks not at the instigators of CWBs, but the victims' provocative target behavior, or the behaviors of the victims of CWBs, which are seen as potential mediating factors in the frequency and intensity of CWBs originated against them. This line of research suggests that low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness, and high levels of neuroticism, in the victims of CWBs may lead to more incidents of CWBs, like incivility. The affective events theory has been used to explain that some individuals report being the victim of incivility more often because they are more sensitive to it than other workers.
Normative behavior within organizations tends to discourage workers from reporting the observed CWBs of their peers, although this tendency can be reduced when a group is punished for the CWBs of individual members. There are three factors that seem to be most influential on peer reporting of CWBs: the emotional closeness between the person exhibiting the CWBs and the person observing the CWBs; the severity of the misconduct observed, and the presence of witness. Peers are more likely to report the CWBs of colleagues when the conduct is severe, or when there are other witnesses present, and less likely to report CWBs when they are emotionally close to the person committing the CWBs. A key problem in the use of peer reports of CWBs instead of self-reports of CWBs is that peer reports only capture observed behaviors and are not able to identify CWBs committed secretly.
A substantial body of research has demonstrated that stable characteristics of individuals are associated with the likelihood of CWBs. Some examples of stable characteristics that have been demonstrated to have relationships with CWBs include conscientiousness and agreeability, motivation avoidance, cognitive ability, and self-control. To the extent that these stable conditions predict CWBs, reduction of CWBs in an organization can begin at the recruitment and selection phase of new employees.
Integrity screening is one common form of screening used by organizations as is cognitive ability screening. Personality testing is also common in screening out individuals who may have a higher incidence of CWBs. Work samples have been found to be a more effective screening tool than integrity testing alone, but integrity testing and cognitive testing together are even better screening tools. While the use of screening instruments may be an imperfect decision-making tool, the question often facing the recruitment officer is not whether the instrument is perfect, but whether, relative to other available screening tools, the screening tool is functional.
However, organizations must do more than screen employees in order to successfully manage CWBs. Substantial research has demonstrated that CWBs arise out of situational factors that occur in the day-to-day operations of an organization, including organizational constraints, lack of rewards, illegitimate tasks, interpersonal conflicts, and lack of organizational justice. Research has shown that individuals who are treated unfairly are more likely to engage in CWBs. One major step that organizations can take to reduce the impetus for CWBs is therefore to enhance organizational justice. Maintaining communications and feedback, allowing participation of employees, and supervisory training are other suggestions for mitigating CWBs. Organizations must also pay close attention to employees for signs and sources of interpersonal conflicts so that they can be identified and tended to as necessary.
Combating CWBs comes with some costs, including the costs of selection, monitoring, and implementing preventive measures to reduce triggers for CWBs. Before undertaking costly measures to reduce CWBs, it may be worthwhile for an organization to identify the costs of CWBs. If the cost-benefit analysis does not show a savings, then the organization must decide whether the battle against CWBs is worth fighting. There is at least one set of researchers that suggest that production deviance (withholding effort) and withdrawal can be a benefit to employees by allowing them to relieve tension in certain circumstances.
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- Umphress, E. E.; Bingham, J. B.; Mitchell, M. S. (2010). "Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior". Journal of Applied Psychology. 95 (4): 769–780. doi:10.1037/a0019214. PMID 20604596.
- Johnson, T. A.; Cox, R. W. (2005). "Police ethics: Organizational implications". Public Integrity. 7 (1): 67–79.
- Cunningham, L. (1999). "Taking on testilying: The prosecutor's response to in-court police deception". Criminal Justice Ethics. 18: 26–37. doi:10.1080/0731129x.1999.9992064. hdl:10601/485.
- Sackett, P. R. (2002). "The structure of counterproductive work behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 10 (1–2): 5–11. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00189.
- Bowling, N. A.; Eschleman, K. J. (2010). "Employee personality as a moderator of the relationships between work stressors and counterproductive work behavior". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 15 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1037/a0017326. PMID 20063961.
- Sackett, P. R. (1994). "Integrity testing for personnel selection". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 3 (3): 73–76. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770422.
- MacLane, C. N.; Walmsley, P. T. (2010). "Reducing counterproductive work behavior through employee selection". Human Resource Management Review. 20 (1): 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.05.001.
- Levy, T.; Tziner, A. (2011). "When destructive deviance in the workplace becomes a liability: A decisional behavioral model". Quality & Quantity. 45 (1): 233–239. doi:10.1007/s11135-009-9277-0.
- Devonish, D.; Greenidge, D. (2010). "The effect of organizational justice on contextual performance, counterproductive work behaviors, and task performance: Investigating the moderating role of ability-based emotional intelligence". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 18 (1): 75–86. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2010.00490.x.
- Roberts, B. W.; Harms, P. D.; Caspi, A.; Moffitt, T. E. (2007). "Predicting the counterproductive employee in a child-to-adult prospective study". Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (5): 1427–1436. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1427. PMID 17845095.
- Oppler, E. S.; Lyons, B. D.; Ricks, D. A.; Oppler, S. H. (2008). "The relationship between financial history and counterproductive work behavior". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 16 (4): 416–420. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2008.00445.x.
- Jackson, C. J.; Hobman, E. V.; Jimmieson, N. L.; Martin, R. (2009). "Comparing different approach and avoidance models of learning and personality in the prediction of work, university, and leadership outcomes". British Journal of Psychology. 100 (2): 283–312. doi:10.1348/000712608X322900.
- Diefendorff, J. M; Mehta, K. (2007). "The relations of motivational traits with workplace deviance". Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (4): 967–977. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.967. PMID 17638458.
- Marcus, B.; Schuler, H. (2004). "Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: A general perspective". Journal of Applied Psychology. 89 (4): 647–660. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.647. PMID 15327351.
- Fox, S.; Spector, P. E.; Goh, A.; Bruursema, K. (2007). "Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence og self- and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior". International Journal of Stress Management. 14 (1): 41–60. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.41.
- Fox, S.; Spector, P. E.; Goh, A.; Bruursema, K. (2007). "Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence of self- and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior". International Journal of Stress Management. 14 (1): 41–60. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.41.
- Sackett, P. R. (2002). "The structure of counterproductive work behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance". International Journal of Selection & Assessment. 10 (1/2): 5–11. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00189.
- Marcus, B.; Wagner, U.; Poole, A.; Powell, D. M.; Carswell, J. (2009). "The relationship of GMA to counterproductive work behavior revisited". European Journal of Personality. 23 (6): 489–507. doi:10.1002/per.728.
- De Jonge, J.; Peeters, M. C. W. (2009). "Convergence of self-reports and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior: A cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 46 (5): 699–707. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.010. PMID 19185863.
- Richards, David A.; Schat, Aaron C. H. (2011). "Attachment at (not to) work: Applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations". Journal of Applied Psychology. 96 (1): 169–82. doi:10.1037/a0020372. PMID 20718531.
- Ng, T. W.; Feldman, D. C. (2008). "The relationship of age to ten dimensions of job performance". Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (2): 392–423. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.392. PMID 18361640.
- Dilchert, S.; Ones, D. S.; Davis, R. D.; Rostow, C. D. (2007). "Cognitive ability predicts objectively measured counterproductive work behaviors". Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (3): 616–627. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.616. PMID 17484545.
- Gordon, W. (2010). "Climbing high for EI". T + D. 64 (8): 72–73.
- Kisamore, J. L.; Jawahar, I. M.; Liguori, E. W. Mharapara; Stone, T. H. (2010). "Conflict and abusive workplace behaviors: the moderating effects of social competencies". Career Development International. 15 (6): 583–600. doi:10.1108/13620431011084420.
- Jones, D. A. (2009). "Getting even with one's supervisor and one's organization: relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge, and counterproductive work behaviors". Journal of Organizational Behavior. 30 (4): 525–542. doi:10.1002/job.563.
- Mount, M.; Ilies, R.; Johnson, E. (2006). "Relationship of personality traits and counterproductive work behaviors: The mediating effects of job satisfaction". Personnel Psychology. 59 (3): 591–622. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00048.x.
- Hershcovis, M. S.; Turner, N.; Barling, J.; Arnold, K. A.; Dupre, K. E.; Inness, M.; Sivanathan, N. (2007). "Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis". Journal of Applied Psychology. 92 (1): 228–238. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.228. PMID 17227164.
- Meier, L. L.; Spector, P. E. (2013). "Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study". Journal of Applied Psychology. 98 (3): 529–539. doi:10.1037/a0031732. PMID 23379915.
- Skarlicki, D. P.; Folger, R. (1997). "Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive (fairness of reward distribution), procedural (fairness in the process by which rewards are distributed), and interactional (fairness in personal treatment) justice". Journal of Applied Psychology. 82 (3): 434–443. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.434.
- Flaherty, S.; Moss, S. A. (2007). "The impact of personality and team context on the relationship between workplace injustice and counterproductive work behavior". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 37 (11): 2549–2575. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00270.x.
- Salgado, J. F. (2002). "The Big Five personality dimensions and counterproductive behaviors". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 10: 117–125. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00198.
- Bolton, L. R.; Becker, L. K.; Barber, L. K. (2010). "Big Five trait predictors of differential counterproductive work behavior dimensions". Personality and Individual Differences. 49 (5): 537–541. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.047.
- Penney, L. M.; Spector, P. E. (2002). "Narcissism and counterproductive work behavior: Do bigger egos mean bigger problems?". International Journal of Selection & Assessment. 10 (1/2): 126–134. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00199.
- Boddy, CR (2011), Corporate Psychopaths: Organizational Destroyers.
- Beall A How a toxic boss can ruin your career: Leaders with psychopathic traits could transform you into an office bully Daily Mail 6 Jan 2017
- Glowatz E Bad Jobs: If Your Boss Is A Psychopath, You Might Act Like One Too Medical Daily 6 Jan 2017
- Fodchuk, K. M. (2007). "I. Management principles: The theory of management: Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers". Psychologist-Manager Journal. 10 (1): 27–46. doi:10.1080/10887150709336611.
- Curphy, G. J.; Gibson, F. W.; Macomber, G.; Calhoun, C. J.; Wilbanks, L. A.; Burger, M. J. (1998). "Situational factors affecting peer reporting intentions at the U. S. Air Force Academy: A scenario-based investigation". Military Psychology. 10 (1): 27–43. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1001_3.
- Lucas, G. M.; Friedrich, J. (2005). "Individual differences in workplace deviance and integrity as predictors of academic dishonesty". Ethics & Behavior. 15 (1): 15–35. doi:10.1207/s15327019eb1501_2.
- Bayram, N.; Gursakal, N.; Bilgel, N. (2009). "Counterproductive work behavior among white-collar employees: A study from Turkey". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 17 (2): 180–188. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2009.00461.x.
- Semmer, N. K.; Tschan, F.; Meier, L. L.; Facchin, S.; Jacobshagen, N. (2010). "Illegitimate tasks and counterproductive work behavior". Applied Psychology: An International Review. 59 (1): 70–96. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00416.x.
- Chang, K.; Smithikrai, C. (2010). "Counterproductive behavior at work: An investigation into reduction strategies". The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 21 (8): 1272–1288. doi:10.1080/09585192.2010.483852.
- Fodchuck, K. M. (2007). "Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers". The Psychologist Manager Journal. 10 (1): 27–46. doi:10.1080/10887150709336611.
- Bruk-Lee, V.; Spector, P. E. (2006). "The social stressors-counterproductive work behavior link: Are conflicts with supervisors and coworkers the same?". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 11 (2): 145–156. doi:10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124. PMID 16649848.
- Krischer, M. M.; Penney, L. M.; Hunter, E. M. (2010). "Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 15 (2): 154–166. doi:10.1037/a0018349. PMID 20364913.
This section lacks ISBNs for the books listed in it. (November 2010)
- Durando, M. W., It's good to be bad: potential benefits of counterproductive work behavior (2007)
- Enns, J. R., The roles of realistic conflict and relative deprivation (2006)
- Fox, S., Spector PE Counterproductive work behavior: investigations of actors and targets (2005)
- Hunter, E. M., Confessions of a disgruntled waiter: counterproductive work behavior in the service industry (2006)
- Tucker, J. S., The multilevel effects of occupational stress on counterproductive work behavior: a longitudinal study in a military context (2005)
- Vincent, R. C., Workplace integrity: an examination of the relationship among personality, moral reasoning, academic integrity and counterproductive work behavior (2007)
- O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Allen, Tammy D. (January 2008). "The Relative Importance of Correlates of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior Using Multiple Sources of Data". Human Performance. 21 (1): 62–88. doi:10.1080/08959280701522189.
- Bayram, Nuran; Gursakal, Necmi; Bilgel, Nazan (2009). "Counterproductive Work Behavior Among White-Collar Employees: A study from Turkey". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 17 (2): 180–8. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2009.00461.x.
- Bolton, Lamarcus R.; Becker, Liesl K.; Barber, Larissa K. (2010). "Big Five trait predictors of differential counterproductive work behavior dimensions". Personality and Individual Differences. 49 (5): 537–41. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.047.
- Bowling, N. A.; Eschleman, K. J. (2010). "Employee personality as a moderator of the relationships between work stressors and counterproductive work behavior". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 15 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1037/a0017326. PMID 20063961.
- Bowling, Nathan A.; Gruys, Melissa L. (2010). "Overlooked issues in the conceptualization and measurement of counterproductive work behavior". Human Resource Management Review. 20: 54–61. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.03.008.
- Bowling, Nathan; Burns, Gary; Beehr, Terry (2010). "Productive and Counterproductive Attendance Behavior: an Examination of Early and Late Arrival to and Departure from Work". Human Performance. 23 (4): 305–22. doi:10.1080/08959285.2010.501048.
- Bruursema, Kari (October 2007). How individual values and trait boredom interface with job characteristics and job boredom in their effects on counterproductive work behavior (Doctoral Thesis). University of South Florida.
- ullah Bukhari, Zirgham; Ali, Umair (January 2009). "Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behavior & Counterproductive Work Behavior in the Geographical Context of Pakistan". International Journal of Business and Management. 4 (1): 85–92. doi:10.5539/ijbm.v4n1p85.
- Cem-Ersoy, N (2010). Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Cross-cultural comparisons between Turkey and the Netherlands (Doctoral Thesis). hdl:1765/19631. ISBN 978-90-5335-290-8.
- Clark, Malissa (2010). Why Do Employees Behave Badly? An Examination Of The Effects Of Mood, Personality, And Job Demands On Counterproductive Work Behavior (Doctoral Dissertation).
- Dalal, RS (2005). "A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 90 (6): 1241–55. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1241. PMID 16316277.
- Flaherty, Shane; Moss, Simon A. (2007). "The Impact of Personality and Team Context on the Relationship Between Workplace Injustice and Counterproductive Work Behavior". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 37 (11): 2549–75. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00270.x.
- Fox, S; Spector, Paul E.; Miles, Don (2001). "Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions". Journal of Vocational Behavior. 59 (3): 291–309. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1803.
- Fox, Suzy; Spector, Paul E.; Goh, Angeline; Bruursema, Kari (2007). "Does your coworker know what you're doing? Convergence of self- and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior". International Journal of Stress Management. 14: 41–60. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.41.
- Popovich, Paula M.; Warren, Michael A. (2010). "The role of power in sexual harassment as a counterproductive behavior in organizations". Human Resource Management Review. 20: 45–53. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.05.003.
- Goh, Angeline (2007). An attributional analysis of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to occupational stress (Doctoral Thesis). University of South Florida.
- Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R. (March 2003). "Investigating the Dimensionality of Counterproductive Work Behavior". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 11: 30–42. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00224.
- Hung, Tsang-Kai. The relations between perceived loafing, revenge motive and counterproductive work behavior (Graduate Thesis). National Changhua University of Education.
- Zhang, Jian-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xin (2009). "Parsing the Definition and Typology of Enterprise Counterproductive Work Behavior". Advances in Psychological Science. 17 (5): 1059–66. ISSN 1671-3710.
- De Jonge, J; Peeters, M. C. (2009). "Convergence of self-reports and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior: a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers". International journal of nursing studies. 46 (5): 699–707. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.010. PMID 19185863.
- Kelloway, E. Kevin; Francis, Lori; Prosser, Matthew; Cameron, James E. (2010). "Counterproductive work behavior as protest". Human Resource Management Review. 20: 18–25. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.03.014.
- Kessler, S. R.: The effects of organizational structure on faculty job performance, job satisfaction, and counterproductive work behavior – University of South Florida 2007
- Ling L, Han-Ying T, Hong-Yu MA The Psychological Mechanism of Counterproductive Work Behavior in the Workplace – Advances in Psychological Science 2010 18 (01) Pages 151-161
- MacLane, Charles N.; Walmsley, Philip T. (2010). "Reducing counterproductive work behavior through employee selection". Human Resource Management Review. 20: 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.05.001.
- Marcus, B.; Wagner, U. (2007). "Combining dispositions and evaluations of vocation and job to account for counterproductive work behavior in adolescent job apprentices". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 12 (2): 161–76. doi:10.1037/1076-89126.96.36.199. PMID 17469998.
- Marcus, Bernd; Wagner, Uwe; Poole, Amanda; Powell, Deborah M.; Carswell, Julie (2009). "The relationship of GMA to counterproductive work behavior revisited". European Journal of Personality. 23 (6): 489–507. doi:10.1002/per.728.
- Miles, Donald E.; Borman, Walter E.; Spector, Paul E.; Fox, Suzy (2002). "Building an Integrative Model of Extra Role Work Behaviors: A Comparison of Counterproductive Work Behavior with Organizational Citizenship Behavior". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 10: 51–7. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00193.
- Neff, N. L.: Peer reactions to counterproductive work behavior – Pennsylvania State University 2009
- O'Brien, K. E.: A stressor-strain model of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior – University of South Florida 2008
- Oppler ES, Lyons BD, Ricks DA, Oppler SH The relationship between financial history and counterproductive work behavior – International Journal of Selection and Assessment Volume 16 Number 4 December 2008
- Penney, Lisa M.; Spector, Paul E. (2005). "Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): the moderating role of negative affectivity". Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26 (7): 777–96. doi:10.1002/job.336.
- Penney, Lisa M.; Spector, Paul E. (2002). "Narcissism and Counterproductive Work Behavior: Do Bigger Egos Mean Bigger Problems?". International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 10: 126–34. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00199.
- Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Meier, Laurenz L.; Facchin, Stephanie; Jacobshagen, Nicola (2010). "Illegitimate Tasks and Counterproductive Work Behavior". Applied Psychology. 59: 70–96. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00416.x.
- Smithikrai C Collectivism as a Moderator of the Relationships among Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Job Stress and Counterproductive Work Behavior – The 6th International Postgraduate Research Colloquium IPRC Proceedings
- Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Domagalski, T. A.: Emotions, violence, and counterproductive work behavior – Handbook of workplace violence, 2006
- Spector, Paul E.; Fox, Suzy (2010). "Theorizing about the deviant citizen: An attributional explanation of the interplay of organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behavior☆". Human Resource Management Review. 20 (2): 132–43. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.06.002.
- Spector, P. E.; Bauer, JA; Fox, S (2010). "Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: do we know what we think we know?". The Journal of Applied Psychology. 95 (4): 781–90. doi:10.1037/a0019477. PMID 20604597.
- Spector, P.; Fox, Suzy (2002). "An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior". Human Resource Management Review. 12 (2): 269–92. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00049-9.
- Spector, Paul E.; Fox, Suzy (2010). "Counterproductive Work Behavior and Organisational Citizenship Behavior: Are They Opposite Forms of Active Behavior?". Applied Psychology. 59: 21–39. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00414.x.
- Tucker, J. S.; Sinclair, R. R.; Mohr, C. D.; Thomas, J. L.; Salvi, A. D.; Adler, A. B. (2009). "Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time". Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 14 (3): 257–71. doi:10.1037/a0014951. PMID 19586221.
- Tucker J. S, The multilevel effects of occupational stress on counterproductive work behavior: A longitudinal study in a military context – Portland State University 2005
- http://scienceforwork.com/blog/how-to-find-bad-eggs-personality-traits-that-predict-counterproductive-behaviors/ A resume of psychological research about CPB and personality