Countries banning non-human ape experimentation
This is a list of countries banning non-human ape experimentation. The term non-human ape here refers to all members of the superfamily Hominoidea, excluding Homo sapiens. Banning in this case refers to the enactment of formal decrees prohibiting experimentation on non-human apes, though often with exceptions for extreme scenarios.[a]
Great ape experimentation is currently banned in the European Union and New Zealand (29 countries total). These countries have ruled that chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans are so cognitively similar to humans that using them as test subjects is unethical. Austria is the only country in the world to have completely banned experiments on all apes, including both the great apes and the lesser apes, commonly known as gibbons.
Table of countries banning all non-human ape experimentation
|Austria||2012||Animal Experiments Act 2012[b]||An animal experiment is in any case unlawful if the animal experiment is on any species and subspecies of the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (pan paniscus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla spp), and on any species and subspecies of the families Orangutans (Pongidae) and Gibbons (Hylobatidae).[c]|||
Table of countries banning non-human great ape experimentation
|European Union Member States||2013||EU Directive 2010/63/EU||The use of great apes, as the closest species to human beings with the most advanced social and behavioural skills, should be permitted only for the purposes of research aimed at the preservation of those species and where action in relation to a life-threatening, debilitating condition endangering human beings is warranted, and no other species or alternative method would suffice in order to achieve the aims of the procedure. The Member State claiming such a need should provide information necessary for the Commission to take a decision.|||
|New Zealand||1999||Animal Welfare Act 1999||No person may carry out any research, testing, or teaching involving the use of a non-human hominid unless such use has first been approved by the Director-General and the research, testing, or teaching is carried out in accordance with any conditions imposed by the Director-General.
The Director-General must not give approval unless he or she is satisfied that the use of the non-human hominid in the research, testing, or teaching is in the best interests of the non-human hominid; or that the use of the non-human hominid in the research, testing, or teaching is in the interests of the species to which the non-human hominid belongs and that the benefits to be derived from the use of the non-human hominid in the research, testing, or teaching are not outweighed by the likely harm to the non-human hominid.
- Animal rights by country or territory
- Great ape personhood
- Great Ape Trust
- Declaration on Great Apes
- Great Ape Project
- Project R&R: Release and Restitution for Chimpanzees in U.S. Laboratories
- Animal liberation movement
- E.g. EU Directive 2010/63/EU allows for experimentation on great apes only for "the preservation of those species and where action in relation to a life-threatening, debilitating condition endangering human beings is warranted, and no other species or alternative method would suffice in order to achieve the aims of the procedure."
- Original German: "Tierversuchsgesetz 2012"
- Original German: "Ein Tierversuch ist jedenfalls unzulässig, wenn der Tierversuch an allen Arten und Unterarten der Schimpansen (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus) und Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla spp), sowie an allen Arten und Unterarten der Familien Orang Utans (Pongidae) und Gibbons (Hylobatidae)"
- "International Bans | Laws | Release & Restitution for Chimpanzees". releasechimps.org. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- Knight, Andrew (2008-06-02). "The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?". Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. 3 (1): 16. doi:10.1186/1747-5341-3-16. ISSN 1747-5341. PMC 2432070. PMID 18518999.
- Benz-Schwarzburg, Judith; Knight, Andrew (2011). "Cognitive Relatives yet Moral Strangers?". Journal of Animal Ethics. 1 (1): 9–36. doi:10.5406/janimalethics.1.1.0009. ISSN 2156-5414. JSTOR 10.5406/janimalethics.1.1.0009.
- "ANIMAL RESEARCH AMENDMENT (PRIMATES) BILL - Mark Pearson MLC - Mark Pearson". Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "RIS - Tierversuchsgesetz 2012 - Bundesrecht konsolidiert, Fassung vom 08.11.2019". www.ris.bka.gv.at. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "Austria Bans Experiments on Great Apes | Related News | News". www.releasechimps.org. Retrieved 2019-11-04.
- "Austria | World Animal Protection". api.worldanimalprotection.org. Retrieved 2019-11-08.
- "DIRECTIVE 2010/63/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL".
- "Animal Welfare Act 1999 No 142 (as at 08 September 2018), Public Act 85 Restrictions on use of non-human hominids – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019-11-07.