Country code top-level domain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Country-code top-level domain)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.

In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today, ccTLDs make up 40% of the total domain name industry.[1] Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered first extensions that year were .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom), and .il (Israel).[2] There are 308 delegated ccTLDs. The .cn, .tk, .de and .uk ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains. The top ten ccTLDs account for 64.3% of registered ccTLD domains and there were 156.5 million ccTLD domains registered at the end of March 2021.[3]

Delegation and management[edit]

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs.[4] Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History[edit]

The first registered ccTLD was .uk, which was registered in 1985. Later ccTLDs registered were .us and .il in 1985. Then, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .is, .kr, .nl, .jp and .se were also registered in 1986.[5]

Lists[edit]

As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. This number is 316, As of June 2020, with the addition of internationalized domains.[6]

Latin Character ccTLDs[edit]

Table columns – legend
Name  DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for the European Union, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland instead of ".gb". ISO codes bv, bl, mf, sj, gb, and um are not used for country code top-level domains.
Entity  Country, dependency, or region
Explanation  Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German language name for Germany).
Notes  General remarks
Registry  Domain name registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC)
IDN  Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC  Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD  Allows second-level domain registration (restrictions may apply)
IPv6  Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Overview of Latin-character country-code TLDs
Name[7] Entity Explanation Notes Registry[7] IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island (United Kingdom) Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (.ac.uk), India (.ac.in) or Indonesia (.ac.id). Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Ascension Island Network Information Centre (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[8][9] Nic.ad No Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates .aeDA No No Yes
.af  Afghanistan No Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft). No Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla (United Kingdom) Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence). No No Yes
.al  Albania Citizenship no longer required. No No Yes
.am  Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business. No Yes Yes Yes
.ao  Angola No No Un­known
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ? No Yes ?
.ar  Argentina Spanish[A] Yes Yes Yes
.as  American Samoa (United States) In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain. Yes No Yes
.at  Austria Nic.at Yes[B] Yes Yes Yes
.au  Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must be Australian, and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[12] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. No Yes No Yes
.aw  Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens No Yes Yes
.ax  Åland (Finland) .al and .ad already allocated No Yes Yes
.az  Azerbaijan Only for Residents. Has no WHOIS-Server. No Yes Yes Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina No No Yes
.bb  Barbados No No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh For individuals, registrant must have a valid NID. For companies, registrant must have company or trademark registered in Bangladesh. Yes No Yes
.be  Belgium Also unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland Latin[13] Yes Yes Yes[14]
.bf  Burkina Faso No No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria See also .бг (.bg in cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD Yes Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain No Yes Yes
.bi  Burundi No No Yes
.bj  Benin .be, .bn, and .bi already allocated No No Yes
.bm  Bermuda (United Kingdom) Local corporate registration required No Yes Yes
.bn  Brunei No No No
.bo  Bolivia No No Yes
.bq  Caribbean Netherlands ( Bonaire,  Saba, and  Sint Eustatius) .be and .bs already allocated Not used.
.br  Brazil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: .edu.br for higher education institutions, .gov.br for government agencies, etc.).[15] Yes[16] Yes No[C]
.bs  Bahamas No No Yes
.bt  Bhutan Must have local presence in Bhutan, and valid trade license[17] No Yes No
.bw  Botswana May also be used for the Province of Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgium No Yes Yes
.by  Belarus Byelorussia Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany No Yes Yes
.bz  Belize Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) No Yes Yes
.ca  Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Also unofficially used by some websites in the U.S. state of California. French[18] Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos islands in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. Yes Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic Also unofficially used for Compact disc-related domains. No No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[19] No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo No No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica Yes[D] Yes Yes
.ci  Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire No No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands No No Yes
.cl  Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon A local entity / company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. No No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.

Also unofficially used for Cartoon Network-related domains.

Yes Yes Yes Yes
.co  Colombia Marketed as a global domain. Anyone can register. No Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica No Yes Yes
.cu  Cuba No No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde Also unofficially used for curriculum vitae-related domains. No No Yes
.cw  Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Curaçao, West Indies No Un­known
.cx  Christmas Island Christmas Xmas Made infamous from Goatse.cx No Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus No No No
.cz  Czech Republic No[E] Yes Yes
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. DENIC Yes[F] Yes Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti Also unofficially used by disc jockeys. No No Yes
.dk  Denmark Danmark Yes[G] Yes Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica No No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic No No Yes
.dz  Algeria El Djazair / Dzayer No Yes Yes
.ec  Ecuador In Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "base.in" and "official.ec".[24] No No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Yes[H] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt No No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara Español Sahara Unassigned No No No
.er  Eritrea No Yes
.es  Spain España Yes[26] Yes Yes
.et  Ethiopia No Yes No
.eu  European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[I] Yes Yes Yes[28]
.fi  Finland Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[J] Yes Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji No No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) No No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia Also unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. Emoji[30] Yes Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark) royar No Yes Yes
.fr  France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes[31] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[32] No Yes
.gd  Grenada No Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant).[33] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana (France) Guyane Française No No
.gg  Guernsey .gu, .gs, and .gy already allocated Also unofficially used by video game related websites (see GG (gaming)) Yes[34] No Yes
.gh  Ghana No No No
.gi  Gibraltar (United Kingdom) No Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark) Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now [[.gal]] has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 No Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. No No Yes
.gn  Guinea A local contact is required No Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe (France) Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin No No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[35] No
.gr  Greece Yes[L] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom) No Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala Yes No Yes Yes
.gu  Guam (United States) Registry has been closed since 2017. No No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau Gine-Bisaawo No Yes Yes
.gy  Guyana No Yes Yes
.hk  Hong Kong Yes Yes Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands Unused for its intended purposes (islands are uninhabited and government sites instead use .aq); registry open to the public. No No Yes
.hn  Honduras No Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska No Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary Citizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU Yes[37] Yes Yes
.id  Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (co.id), organisations (or.id), academic (ac.id & sch.id) and citizens (biz.id, my.id & web.id). Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[38] PANDI (run by Kominfo) Yes Yes Yes
.ie  Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[39][40] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.il  Israel Yes Yes Yes
.im  Isle of Man No No Yes
.in  India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except for gov.in, nic.in, mil.in, ac.in, edu.in, res.in). Yes[41] Yes Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom) Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input / output that is useful for domain hacks. NIC.IO (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq No Partial[M] Yes
.ir  Iran Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example it.is, that.is, etc.). Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[42] Yes[43] Yes Yes
.je  Jersey Yes[44] No Yes
.jm  Jamaica No No No
.jo  Jordan No Yes
.jp  Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. Yes Yes Yes Yes[45]
.ke  Kenya No Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan No Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer No No No
.ki  Kiribati No Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori No No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis No No Yes
.kp  North Korea Korea Democratic People's Republic Restricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea. No No No No
.kr  South Korea Korea Republic Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait Yes No
.ky  Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) .ci and .cy already allocated No Yes Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan Yes No Yes
.la  Laos Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles.[46] Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein Also unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense plural ending li . Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Lanka Yes Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia Partial[M] No
.ls  Lesotho No No
.lt  Lithuania Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg Also unofficially used in Lucerne, Switzerland Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya No Yes
.ma  Morocco Maroc Partial[M] Yes
.mc  Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco. Yes Yes
.md  Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. Yes Yes
.me  Montenegro Montenegro Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example love.me, meet.me, etc.). Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar Restricted to registration with a company in Madagascar No Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands No
.mk  North Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia No Yes
.ml  Mali Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[47] No Yes
.mm  Myanmar No No
.mn  Mongolia The second-level domains .gov.mn, .org.mn, and .edu.mn are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands (United States) Marianas Pacific No Yes
.mq  Martinique (France) No No
.mr  Mauritania Also unofficially used for Mr.-related domains. Yes Yes
.ms  Montserrat (United Kingdom) Also unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. No Yes
.mt  Malta No No
.mu  Mauritius No Yes
.mv  Maldives No Yes
.mw  Malawi No Yes
.mx  Mexico Yes Yes
.my  Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia Yes[48] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique No No
.na  Namibia Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia (France) Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. Yes Yes
.ne  Niger Also unofficially used and marketed as a Lithuanian-language domain hack (for example o.ne, kaip.ne, etc.). No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua No No
.nl  Netherlands First active country-code domain outside the US.[49] No Yes Yes Yes
.no  Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.

Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example oh.no, what.no, etc.).

Yes Yes Yes Yes
.np    Nepal All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. No No
.nr  Nauru Was previously used as a free domain service to the public as co.nr.[50] No Yes
.nu  Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[51] Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand Māori[52] Yes Yes[53] Yes
.om  Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. Yes No
.pa  Panama Some use in Pennsylvania No No
.pe  Peru Yes Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia (France) Polynésie française With Clipperton Island No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea No No
.ph  Philippines No Yes
.pk  Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 No Yes
.pl  Poland Yes[54] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom) As a part of a marketing campaign, Lionsgate used the TLD for some (now defunct) sites related to The Hunger Games franchise, presenting it as the "official" country code of the fictional nation of Panem, notable sites included thecapitol.pn and revolution.pn. No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico (United States) Yes Yes
.ps  Palestine[56] Jerusalem, West Bank and Gaza Strip. No Yes
.pt  Portugal Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[57]
.pw  Palau Pelew Yes Yes Yes Yes[58]
.py  Paraguay No No
.qa  Qatar No No
.re  Réunion (France) Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes[31] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania Yes[59] Yes[60] Yes Yes[61]
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija See also .срб (.srb in Cyrillic). Also unofficially used for Rust (programming language)-related domains. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ru  Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. No Yes Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[62] Arabic[13] Yes[63] Yes Yes[64]
.sb  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, British Also unofficially used for SpongeBob SquarePants-related domains. Yes No
.sc  Seychelles Also unofficially used for Snapchat-related domains. Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan No Yes
.se  Sweden Yes[N] Yes Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore Also unofficially used in the Canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland Yes Yes
.sh  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) NIC.SH (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes[66] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia Yes[O] Yes Yes
.sk  Slovakia Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations, and citizens. Yes Yes Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone Yes Yes
.sm  San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark. No Yes
.sn  Senegal Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. Yes Yes
.so  Somalia Relaunched on 1 November 2010. No No Yes
.sr  Suriname No Yes
.ss  South Sudan Added to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available. Yes
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz). Yes[68] No Yes
.su  Soviet Union Still in use. Also unofficially used by Student Unions. Yes[P] Yes Yes Yes[70]
.sv  El Salvador No No
.sx  Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands) .sm, .ma, and .mt already allocated Yes No
.sy  Syria No Yes
.sz  Eswatini Swaziland Registration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) Also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. The domain also sees frequent use for community-run sites related to the video game Team Fortress 2.[K] Yes[31] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo No Yes
.th  Thailand Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan No Yes
.tk  Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes[71] No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp has been deactivated since 2015. Yes Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan Yes[72] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Tamil Nadu[73] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.to  Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin (Torino in Italian), Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins, and also as a domain hack in Slavic languages (to meaning it). Yes No Yes
.tr  Turkey .nc.tr used by Northern Cyprus Yes[Q] No Yes Yes[R]
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that "TW" is "designated for use to represent "Taiwan."[76] Yes[S] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Ukraina Ukrainian trademark required Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[78] Nominet UK Yes Yes Yes
.us  United States of America Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD. Neustar Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[79] Yes Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan No Yes
.va   Vatican City Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State). No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Vincent Partial[M] Yes
.ve  Venezuela Registration is at the third level. Yes No
.vg  British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) Virgin Islands Yes Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands (United States) Virgin Islands No Yes
.vn  Vietnam Yes[80] Yes Yes
.vu  Vanuatu Yes Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes[31] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Western Samoa Marketed for use in general Websites Yes Yes[81] Yes
.ye  Yemen No No
.yt  Mayotte Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Also unofficially used for YouTube-related domains. Yes[31] Yes Yes
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika Yes Yes
.zm  Zambia No Yes[T]
.zw  Zimbabwe No No
Table Notes
  1. ^ 17 November 2009, Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law.[10]
  2. ^ Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see[11]
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered-in.
  4. ^ Since March 2004, see[20]
  5. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[21]
  6. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see[22]
  7. ^ 1 January 2004, support æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é: see[23]
  8. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) starting from 13 June 2011[25]
  9. ^ Supported characters: Latin, Greek, & Cyrillic; see[27]
  10. ^ September 2005, supported characters: Latin only; see[29]
  11. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011)[55]
  12. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005; see[36]
  13. ^ a b c d Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
  14. ^ October 2003, for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish; see[65]
  15. ^ Since October 2010, see[67]
  16. ^ (28 April 2008) see[69]
  17. ^ 14 November 2006; see[74]
  18. ^ 21 July 2015; see[75]
  19. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see[77]
  20. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm .

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Internationalized country code top-level domains[82]
DNS name IDN ccTLD Country/Region Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j .الجزائر  Algeria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Jazā'ir .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hay .am Yes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a .البحرين  Bahrain Arabic Arabic al-Bahrain Not in use .bh No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla .bd Yes
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel .by No
xn--90ae .бг[83]  Bulgaria Bulgarian Cyrillic bg .bg No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c .مصر  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Miṣr / Maṣr[84] .eg Yes
xn--e1a4c .ею  European Union Bulgarian Cyrillic eyu .eu Yes
xn--qxa6a .ευ  European Union Greek Greek ey Not in use .eu
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE .ge No
xn--qxam .ελ[83]  Greece Greek Greek el In use since July 2018 .gr No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 .hk Yes
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 August 2014[85] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e .بھارت  India Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Became available 2015 .in Yes
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--2scrj9c .ಭಾರತ  India Kannada Kannada Bhārata Became available 2020 .in
xn--rvc1e0am3e .ഭാരതം  India Malayalam Malayalam Bhāratam Became available 2020 .in
xn--45br5cyl .ভাৰত  India Assamese Bengali Bharatam Not in use .in
xn--3hcrj9c .ଭାରତ  India Oriya Oriya Bhārat Became available 2021 .in
xn--mgbbh1a .بارت  India Kashmiri Arabic (Kashmiri) Bārat Not in use .in
xn--h2breg3eve .भारतम्  India Sanskrit Devanagari Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--h2brj9c8c .भारोत  India Santali Devanagari Bharot Not in use .in
xn--mgbgu82a .ڀارت  India Sindhi Arabic (Sindhi) Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgba3a4f16a .ایران  Iran Persian Arabic (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b .عراق  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿIrāq Not in use .iq No
xn--4dbrk0ce .ישראל  Israel Hebrew Hebrew Israel Not in use .il No
xn--mgbayh7gpa .الاردن  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--q7ce6a .ລາວ  Laos Lao Lao Lao Became available 2020 .la
xn--mix082f .澳门  Macao Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mix891f .澳門  Macao Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Became available 2020 .mo No
xn--mgbx4cd0ab .مليسيا  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysīyā .my Yes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd .موريتانيا  Mauritania Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Mūrītāniyā .mr No
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg .المغرب  Morocco Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Maġrib .ma No
xn--d1alf .мкд  North Macedonia Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd .mk No
xn--mgb9awbf .عمان  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿUmān .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j .پاکستان  Pakistan Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Pākistān .pk Yes
xn--ygbi2ammx .فلسطين  Palestinian Authority Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filasṭīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a .قطر  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qaṭar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar .السعودية  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Suʿūdīya .sa Yes[63]
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbian Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg Yes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg Yes
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhala Sinhala Lanka .lk Partial[A]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilaṅkai .lk Partial[A]
xn--mgbpl2fh .سودان  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūdān .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl .سورية  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūriyya .sy Yes
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh .تونس  Tunisia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn Yes
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h .امارات  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes .اليمن  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Yaman Not delegated .ye No
Table notes
  1. ^ a b Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.

Relation to ISO 3166-1[edit]

The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

— Jon Postel, RFC 1591[86]

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes[edit]

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still await local assignment by France's government.

The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[87] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1[edit]

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

  • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.[88]
  • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union was still extant; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
  • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
  • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area.

Historical ccTLDs[edit]

ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[89][90] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 23 July 2003, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its native language script or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Indic script (.भारत), Japanese script (.日本), etc. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[91] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[92]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Generic ccTLDs[edit]

Generic Country Code Top-Level Domain or gccTLD refers to those TLDs which are technically "non-restricted ccTLDs" but used like traditional generic TLDs (gTLDs) rather than "country" targeted ones.[93][94][95] Most of the gccTLDs are primarily used as domain hacks:

gccTLD Country/Region Domain hacks
.ad Andorra advertising
.as American Samoa
.az Azerbaijan Arizona
.bz Belize
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.cd Congo Compact disc
.co Colombia
.dj Djibouti Disc jockey
.fm Federated States of Micronesia FM broadcasting and podcasts
.gg Bailiwick of Guernsey Good Game
.io British Indian Ocean Territory Input/output
.la Laos
.me Montenegro
.ms Montserrat
.nu Niue
  • new
  • now
.sc Seychelles
.tf French Southern and Antarctic Lands
.tv Tuvalu television
.ws Western Samoa
  • website
  • world site

Unconventional usage[edit]

Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start.at and go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu.be of Belgium (be), del.icio.us of the United States (us), and cr.yp.to of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[96]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[97]

Commercial use[edit]

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Domain Name Industry Report (PDF). verisign.com (Report).
  2. ^ "ccTLD". ICANN (iana.org). 2012-02-25.
  3. ^ "Verisign Domain Name Industry Brief Q1 2021" (PDF). verisign.com.
  4. ^ "list of ccTLDs". IANA (iana.org).
  5. ^ "Root Zone database". IANA (iana.org). Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  6. ^ [citation needed]
  7. ^ a b "IANA — Root Zone Database". iana.org. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  8. ^ "Andorra Telecom trademark domain registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  9. ^ "Andorra Telecom trade name registration policy". Nic.ad. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  10. ^ "norma". infoleg.gov.ar.
  11. ^ "IDN Zeichentabelle" (PDF) (in German).
  12. ^ "Rules for .au Domains".
  13. ^ a b [citation needed]
  14. ^ "DNS Belgium and IPv6" (PDF). economie.fgov.be. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  15. ^ "Domínios .br". Registro.br.
  16. ^ "Domínios em Português e restrição de dados no WHOIS". Registro.br. 4 May 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  17. ^ "Domain Registration". Nic.Bt. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  18. ^ "About internationalized domain names" (PDF). Cira.ca. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  19. ^ "EmojiBoutique cf". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  20. ^ "details". nic.ch.
  21. ^ "CZ.NIC - IDN - Internationalized domain names". Nic.cz. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  22. ^ "details". denic.de. Archived from the original on 2010-10-31.
  23. ^ "details". æøå.dk-hostmaster.dk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007.
  24. ^ BASE. "BASE (ベイス) | ネットショップを無料で簡単に作成". BASE (ベイス) | ネットショップを無料で簡単に作成 (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN)". Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
  26. ^ "Other applicable Regulations". dominios.es. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  27. ^ "details". eurid.eu. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012.
  28. ^ ".eu and IPv6". EURid.eu. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  29. ^ "details". ficora.fi.
  30. ^ ".fm Emoji Domain Search". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Availability of IDN on the .fr, .yt, .pm, .wf, .tf, and .re TLDs". Afnic.fr. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  32. ^ "EmojiBoutique ga". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  33. ^ Rules and Conditions for GE Domain Names Registration (PDF). nic.net.ge (Report). Article 1.9. Recent Georgian version has some updates not affecting this article.
  34. ^ "EmojiBoutique gg". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  35. ^ "EmojiBoutique gq". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  36. ^ "details". Archived from the original on 5 November 2013.
  37. ^ "Delegation Rules". The Council of Hungarian Internet Providers. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  38. ^ "Shorter .id domain will be available in Indonesia next year". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  39. ^ "Domain chaos spikes e-business ambitions". Silicon Republic. 17 December 2002. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  40. ^ Information Technology Law: Professional practice guide (Report). Dublin, IE: Law Society of Ireland. 2004. p. 23.
  41. ^ "Now, get Internet domain names in regional languages". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  42. ^ "Idn: un successo". Nic.it. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  43. ^ "TLD DNSSEC Report". stats.research.icann.org. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  44. ^ "Emoji Boutique je". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  45. ^ Morishita, Yasuhiro Orange (2 September 2003). ".JP technical update" (PDF). jprs.jp. RIPE 46 General Meeting. Japan Registry Service, Co., Ltd. (JPRS). Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  46. ^ ".LA - The Official .LA Registry". La. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  47. ^ "EmojiBoutique ml". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  48. ^ ".my Domain Registry". Domainregistry.my. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  49. ^ "our milestones". sidn.nl.
  50. ^ "Free Domain Name Pro". freedomain.pro. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  51. ^ "nu teckentabell" (PDF). iis.se.
  52. ^ "F.A.Q. for Domain Names with macrons (IDNs)". .nz Domain Name Commission. Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  53. ^ "second level domains". dnc.org.nz. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  54. ^ "IDN intro www.dns.pl". Archived from the original on 10 August 2003. Retrieved 11 September 2003.
  55. ^ "Opening to Europe of the .fr, .wf, .re, .yt, .pm, and .tf TLDs".
    Previously restricted to residents of the corresponding French territory.
  56. ^ "Delegation Record for .PS". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  57. ^ "Notícias". Dns.pt. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  58. ^ "Registrars". Registry.PW. Poets & Writers. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  59. ^ "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  60. ^ "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  61. ^ "Romania Top Level Domain". Rotld.ro. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  62. ^ "Beginning of the Landrush phase of second level domain under (.sa)". nic.sa.
  63. ^ a b "DNSSEC is Officially Enabled in Saudi Arabia's TLD". Nic.sa. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  64. ^ "Saudi NIC" (PDF). nic.sa. 2012. IPv6.
  65. ^ "details" (PDF). iis.se.
  66. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .SH Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.sh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  67. ^ "details".
  68. ^ "EmojiBoutique st". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  69. ^ "details". Archived from the original on 19 May 2014.
  70. ^ "ccTLD.su". Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  71. ^ "EmojiBoutique tk". Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  72. ^ "IDN Code Points Policy for the .TM Top Level Domain" (PDF). Nic.tm. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  73. ^ ".TN for Tamil Nadu". tamil.tn. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  74. ^ "details". nic.tr.
  75. ^ "details". iana.org.
  76. ^ "IANA — Report on the Delegation of the .台灣 and .台湾 ("Taiwan") domains representing Taiwan in Chinese to Taiwan Network Information Center". Iana.org. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  77. ^ "details". twnic.net.tw.
  78. ^ Mueller, Milton (2002). Ruling the Root: Internet governance and the taming of cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780262632980 – via Google Books.
  79. ^ "New rules for the registration of domain names under UY" (PDF). Nic.org.uy. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  80. ^ "Trung tâm internet Viêt Nam – Tên mien tieng viet". Archived from the original on 23 January 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  81. ^ "You are being redirected". Domain.me. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  82. ^ "String evaluation completion". Icann.org. Resources. ICANN. 2014-02-19. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2019.
  83. ^ a b "ccTLD applicants who have requested the second and final review". EPSRP reports. ICANN. 2014-10-14. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  84. ^ "دوت مصر ::: الصفحة الرئيسية". Dotmasr.eg. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  85. ^ "Launch of .भारत domain name in Devanagari script by Hon'ble MCIT and Law & Justice Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad". Registry.in. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  86. ^ Postel, Jon (March 1994). "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". RFC 1591. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  87. ^ "DNS loookup for dra.hmg.gb". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
  88. ^ Mueller, Milton (2002). Ruling the Root: Internet governance and the taming of cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780262632980.
  89. ^ Daigle, Leslie (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  90. ^ Daigle, Leslie (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22.
  91. ^ "ICANN Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  92. ^ "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 6 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  93. ^ "What is gccTLD?". dynadot.com.
  94. ^ "What you should know about gccTDLs and organic search". name.com. Nov 2016.
  95. ^ "gccTLD generic country-code domains". dynadot.com.
  96. ^ "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". cointernet.co. Colombia: .CO Internet S.A.S. Archived from the original on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
  97. ^ "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. Cable News Network. 2007-06-01. Archived from the original on 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2010-11-05.

External links[edit]