Country code top-level domain

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A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs.

In 2018, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes. While gTLDs have to obey international regulations, ccTLDs are subjected to requirements that are determined by each country’s domain name regulation corporation. With over 150 million domain name registrations today or as of 2022, ccTLDs make up about 40% of the total domain name industry.[1] Country code extension applications began in 1985. The registered country code extensions in that year included .us (United States), .uk (United Kingdom) and .il (Israel). The registered country code extensions in 1986 included .au (Australia), .de (Germany), .fi (Finland), .fr (France), .is (Iceland), .jp (Japan), .kr (South Korea), .nl (Netherlands) and .se (Sweden). The registered country code extensions in 1987 included .nz (New Zealand), .ch (Switzerland) and .ca (Canada).[2] The registered country code extensions in 1988 included .ie (Ireland) .it (Italy), .es (Spain) and .pt (Portugal). In the 1990s, .cn (People’s Republic of China) and .ru (Russian Federation) were first registered. There are 308 delegated ccTLDs. The .cn, .tk, .de, .uk, .nl and .ru ccTLDs contain the highest number of domains. The .jp, .kr, .ca, .pl, .gr, .cz, .hu, .au, .fr, .it, .es and .us ccTLDs do not contain as many domains as other ccTLDs. The top ten ccTLDs account for more than five-eighths of registered ccTLD domains. There were about 153 million ccTLD domains registered at the end of March 2022.[3]

Delegation and management[edit]

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control are then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs.[4] Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local-presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as, for example, the American (us), Japanese (jp), Canadian (ca), French (fr) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.


The first registered ccTLD was .us, which was registered in 1985. Later ccTLDs registered in that year included .uk and .il. Then, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .is, .jp, .kr, .nl and .se were also registered in 1986.[5] In 1987, .nz, .ch and .ca were registered. Later on, in 1988, .ie, .it, .es and .pt were also registered.


As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. The number was 316 as of June 2020, with the addition of internationalized domains.[6] The number is 308 as of June 2022.

Latin Character ccTLDs[edit]

Table columns – legend
Name  DNS name of the two-letter country-code top-level domain. They follow ISO 3166-1 alpha-2, with some exceptions such as ".ac" for Ascension Island, ".eu" for the European Union, or ".uk" for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland instead of ".gb". ISO codes bv, bl, mf, sj, gb, and um are not used for country code top-level domains.
Entity  Country, dependency, or region
Explanation  Explanation of the code when it is not self-evident from the English name of the country. These are usually domains that arise from native name of the country (e.g. .de for Deutschland, German language name for Germany).
Notes  General remarks
Registry  Domain name registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC)
IDN  Support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
DNSSEC  Presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions
SLD  Second level domain
IPv6  Registry fully supports IPv6 access
Overview of Latin-character country-code TLDs
Name[7] Entity Explanation Notes Registry[7] IDN DNSSEC SLD IPv6
.ac  Ascension Island (United Kingdom) Ascension Island Commonly used for academic websites, such as universities. However, .ac is not to be confused with the official academic domains used by several countries such as the United Kingdom (, India ( or Indonesia ( Also used in the accounting, consulting, and air-conditioning industries. Ascension Island Network Information Centre (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ad  Andorra Andorra Local trademark, trade name or citizenship required[8][9] No Yes Yes
.ae  United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates .aeDA No No Yes
.af  Afghanistan Afghanistan No Yes Yes
.ag  Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Also unofficially used by German businesses (where AG is an abbreviation of Aktiengesellschaft). No Yes Yes
.ai  Anguilla (United Kingdom) Anguilla Also unofficially used by tech companies specializing in AI (Artificial Intelligence). No No Yes
.al  Albania Albania Citizenship no longer required. No No Yes
.am  Armenia Armenia Also unofficially used by AM radio stations, podcasts or related business. No Yes Yes Yes
.ao  Angola Angola No No Un­known
.aq  Antarctica Antarctique Defined by the Antarctic Treaty as everything south of latitude 60°S. AQ domain names are available to government organizations who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and to other registrants who have a physical presence in Antarctica. ? No Yes ?
.ar  Argentina Argentina Spanish[A] Yes Yes Yes
.as  American Samoa (United States) American Samoa In some countries, like Norway and Denmark, "AS" or "A/S" is used as an abbreviation for stock-based or limited companies. Such companies will often make use of the domain. Also unofficially used by the Principality of Asturias, Spain. Yes No Yes
.at  Austria Austria Yes[B] Yes Yes Yes
.au  Australia Australia Restrictions apply. In general, registrants must have an "Australian presence", and can be registered anywhere between 1 and 5 years.[12] Includes Ashmore and Cartier Islands and Coral Sea Islands. Direct second-level domain registration (marketed as ".au Direct") has been made available commencing 24 March 2022.[13] auDA No Yes Yes (*From 24 Mar 2022)[13] Yes
.aw  Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Aruba, West Indies Restricted to registered Aruban companies, organisations and citizens No Yes Yes
.ax  Åland (Finland) .al and .ad already allocated No Yes Yes
.az  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Only for Residents. Has no WHOIS-Server. No Yes Yes Yes
.ba  Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina University of Sarajevo - University tele-informatic Centre No No Yes
.bb  Barbados Barbados No No Yes
.bd  Bangladesh Bangladesh For individuals, registrant must have a valid NID. For companies, registrant must have company or trademark registered in Bangladesh. Yes No Yes
.be  Belgium Belgium Used for YouTube-related domains. Also unofficially used in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland. Latin[14] Yes Yes Yes[15]
.bf  Burkina Faso Burkina Faso No No Yes
.bg  Bulgaria Bulgaria See also .бг (.bg in Cyrillic) for IDN ccTLD Yes Yes Yes
.bh  Bahrain Bahrain No Yes Yes
.bi  Burundi Burundi No No Yes
.bj  Benin .be, .bn, and .bi already allocated No No Yes
.bm  Bermuda (United Kingdom) Bermuda Local corporate registration required No Yes Yes
.bn  Brunei Brunei No No No
.bo  Bolivia Bolivia No No Yes
.bq  Caribbean Netherlands ( Bonaire,  Saba, and  Sint Eustatius) .be and .bs already allocated
.br  Brazil Brasil Restricted. Registration is done under several categories (i.e.: for higher education institutions, for government agencies, etc.).[16] Yes[17] Yes No[C]
.bs  Bahamas Bahamas No No Yes
.bt  Bhutan Bhutan Must have local presence in Bhutan, and valid trade license[18] No Yes No
.bw  Botswana Botswana May also be used for the Province of Walloon Brabant, Wallonia, Belgium No Yes Yes
.by  Belarus Byelorussia Also unofficially used to denote Bayern (Bavaria), Germany No Yes Yes
.bz  Belize Belize Also unofficially used in the province of Bozen (or South Tyrol, see .st) No Yes Yes
.ca  Canada Canada Subject to Canadian Presence Requirements. Also unofficially used by some websites in the U.S. state of California. CIRA French[19] Yes Yes Yes
.cc  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Islands Australian territory: not to be confused with Cocos Island in Guam. Currently marketed as global domain, registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required; the domain is currently operated by eNIC, a VeriSign company. Yes Yes Yes
.cd  Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic Also unofficially used for Compact disc-related domains. No No Yes
.cf  Central African Republic Central African Republic Also used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains) Yes No Yes
.cg  Republic of the Congo Congo No No Yes
.ch   Switzerland Confoederatio Helvetica Yes[D] Yes Yes
.ci  Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire No No Yes
.ck  Cook Islands Cook Islands No No Yes
.cl  Chile Chile Yes Yes Yes Yes
.cm  Cameroon Cameroon A local entity / company in Cameroon is required to register a domain name. No No Yes
.cn  People's Republic of China China A local company in China is required to register a domain name, or for personal registrations a valid Resident Identity Card. See ICP license for more information regarding registrations. Hong Kong and Macau also maintain TLDs.

Also unofficially used for Cartoon Network-related domains.

Yes Yes Yes Yes
.co  Colombia Colombia Marketed as a global domain. Anyone can register. No Yes Yes
.cr  Costa Rica Costa Rica No Yes Yes
.cu  Cuba Cuba No No Yes
.cv  Cape Verde Cape Verde Also unofficially used for curriculum vitae-related domains. No No Yes
.cw  Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands) Curaçao, West Indies No Un­known
.cx  Christmas Island Christmas Xmas Made infamous from No Yes Yes
.cy  Cyprus Cyprus No No Yes
.cz  Czech Republic Czech No[E] Yes Yes
.de  Germany Deutschland German postal address for administrative contact (admin-c) required. Proxy registrations are allowed. DENIC Yes[F] Yes Yes Yes
.dj  Djibouti Djibouti Also unofficially used by disc jockeys. No No Yes
.dk  Denmark Denmark DK Hostmaster Yes[G] Yes Yes Yes
.dm  Dominica Dominica No No Yes
.do  Dominican Republic Dominican No No Yes
.dz  Algeria El Djazair / Dzayer No Yes Yes
.ec  Ecuador Ecuador In Japan, "EC" is used as an acronym for "electronic commerce". Because of that, it's used unofficially by companies dedicated to provide online stores like BASE, a company that has two domains related to e-commerce: "" and "".[24] No No Yes
.ee  Estonia Eesti Yes[H] Yes Yes
.eg  Egypt Egypt No No Yes
.eh  Western Sahara Español Sahara Unassigned No No No
.er  Eritrea Eritrea No Yes
.es  Spain España Yes[26] Yes Yes
.et  Ethiopia Ethiopia No Yes No
.eu  European Union European Union Restricted to legal and natural persons in European Union member states. Previously unofficially used for sites in the Basque language, but now .eus is in official use. Yes[I] Yes Yes Yes[28]
.fi  Finland Finland Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. Yes[J] Yes Yes Yes
.fj  Fiji Fiji No No Yes
.fk  Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) Falkland No No No
.fm  Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Also unofficially used by FM radio stations, podcasts or related business. Yes Yes Yes
.fo  Faroe Islands (Kingdom of Denmark) royar No Yes Yes
.fr  France France Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] AFNIC Yes[30] Yes Yes
.ga  Gabon Gabon Also used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains) Yes No Yes
.gd  Grenada Grenada No Yes Yes
.ge  Georgia Georgia Available for registration for residents of Georgia (unlimited) or for foreign companies via representation of any local legal person (one domain name per registrant).[31] No No Yes
.gf  French Guiana (France) Guyane Française No No
.gg  Guernsey .gu, .gs, and .gy already allocated Also unofficially used by video game related websites (see GG (gaming)) Yes No Yes
.gh  Ghana Ghana No No No
.gi  Gibraltar (United Kingdom) Gibraltar No Yes Yes
.gl  Greenland (Kingdom of Denmark) Greenland Previously also unofficially used in Galicia, Spain, but now .gal has been approved for such use and was implemented in mid-2014 No Yes Yes
.gm  The Gambia Gambia Domain name should match the domain owners name or trademarks. Common nouns are blocked. No No Yes
.gn  Guinea Guinea A local contact is required No Yes No
.gp  Guadeloupe (France) Guadeloupe Still used for Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin No No Yes
.gq  Equatorial Guinea Guinée équatoriale Also used as a free domain service to the public. Yes No
.gr  Greece Greece Yes[L] Yes Yes
.gs  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom) South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands No Yes Yes
.gt  Guatemala Guatemala Yes No Yes Yes
.gu  Guam (United States) Guam Registry has been closed since 2017. No No No
.gw  Guinea-Bissau Gine-Bisaawo No Yes Yes
.gy  Guyana Guyana No Yes Yes
.hk  Hong Kong Hong Kong Yes Yes Yes
.hm  Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Unused for its intended purposes (islands are uninhabited and government sites instead use .aq); registry open to the public. No No Yes
.hn  Honduras Honduras No Yes Yes
.hr  Croatia Hrvatska No Yes Yes
.ht  Haiti Haiti Yes No Yes
.hu  Hungary Hungary Citizens of the European Union or entities established by law within the territory of the EU Yes[33] Yes Yes
.id  Indonesia Indonesia Restricted to Indonesian companies (, organisations (, academic ( & and citizens (, & Second-level domains are becoming available now and opened to general registration on 17 August 2014.[34] PANDI (run by Kominfo) Yes Yes Yes
.ie  Ireland Ireland In 2002, registration was expanded to include persons or businesses with a "real and substantive" connection with the island of Ireland (including Northern Ireland).[35][36] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.il  Israel Israel Yes Yes Yes
.im  Isle of Man Isle of Man No No Yes
.in  India India Under INRegistry since April 2005 (except for,,,,, NIXI[37] Yes[38] Yes Yes Yes
.io  British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom) Indian Ocean Used unofficially by technology companies, startups, and web applications because IO can be an acronym for input / output that is useful for domain hacks. NIC.IO (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes Yes Yes
.iq  Iraq Iraq No Partial[M] Yes
.ir  Iran Iran Yes No Yes
.is  Iceland Ísland Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example,, etc.). Yes Yes Yes
.it  Italy Italy Restricted to companies and individuals in the European Union. Yes[39] Yes[40] Yes Yes
.je  Jersey Jersey Yes No Yes
.jm  Jamaica Jamaica No No No
.jo  Jordan Jordan No Yes
.jp  Japan Japan Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Japan. Yes Yes Yes Yes[41]
.ke  Kenya Kenya No Yes No
.kg  Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan No Yes Yes
.kh  Cambodia Khmer No No No
.ki  Kiribati Kiribati No Yes Yes
.km  Comoros Komori No No Yes
.kn  Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis No No Yes
.kp  North Korea Korea Democratic People's Republic Restricted to companies, organizations, or government entities based in North Korea. Despite this, few domains are actually registered because of internet censorship in North Korea. No No No No
.kr  South Korea Korea Republic Yes Yes Yes
.kw  Kuwait Kuwait Yes No
.ky  Cayman Islands (United Kingdom) .ci and .cy already allocated No Yes Yes
.kz  Kazakhstan Kazak Yes No Yes
.la  Laos Lao Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Los Angeles.[42] Yes Yes
.lb  Lebanon Lebanon Restricted to registration with a company in Lebanon Yes No
.lc  Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Yes Yes
.li  Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Also unofficially used by entities on Long Island, New York or people with the last name Li. In Russian, li can be used to create domain names that mean a verb with a past tense plural ending li . Yes Yes Yes
.lk  Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Yes Yes Yes
.lr  Liberia Liberia Partial[M] No
.ls  Lesotho Lesotho No No
.lt  Lithuania Lithuania Yes Yes Yes
.lu  Luxembourg Luxembourg Also unofficially used in Lucerne, Switzerland Yes Yes Yes
.lv  Latvia Latvia Yes Yes Yes
.ly  Libya Libya Used unofficially as a domain hack for words ending in -ly. Yes Yes
.ma  Morocco Murakuc, Maroc, Marokko Partial[M] Yes
.mc  Monaco Monaco Only for companies with a trademark registered in Monaco. Yes Yes
.md  Moldova Moldova Restricted to individuals or companies with a physical address in Moldova. Yes Yes
.me  Montenegro Montenegro Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example,, etc.). Yes Yes
.mg  Madagascar Madagascar Restricted to registration with a company in Madagascar No Yes
.mh  Marshall Islands Marshall No
.mk  North Macedonia Makedonija Restricted to registration with a company in North Macedonia No Yes
.ml  Mali Mali Also used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains) Yes No Yes
.mm  Myanmar Myanmar No No
.mn  Mongolia Mongolia The second-level domains,, and are reserved for special use. See .mn for more information. Yes Yes
.mo  Macau Macao Registrants must have a registered business in Macau, with the same name as the domain they wish to register. No Yes
.mp  Northern Mariana Islands (United States) Marianas Pacific No Yes
.mq  Martinique (France) Martinique No No
.mr  Mauritania Mauritania Also unofficially used for Mr.-related domains. Yes Yes
.ms  Montserrat (United Kingdom) Montserrat Also unofficially used for Microsoft-related domains. No Yes
.mt  Malta Malta No No
.mu  Mauritius Mauritius No Yes
.mv  Maldives Maldives No Yes
.mw  Malawi Malawi No Yes
.mx  Mexico Mexico Yes Yes
.my  Malaysia Malaysia Restricted to registration by an individual or company in Malaysia MYNIC Yes[43] Yes Yes
.mz  Mozambique Mozambique No No
.na  Namibia Namibia Yes Yes
.nc  New Caledonia (France) New Caledonia Restricted to companies that have a New Caledonian Business Registration Certificate or individuals living in New Caledonia for at least 6 months. Yes Yes
.ne  Niger Niger Also unofficially used and marketed as a Lithuanian-language domain hack (for example,, etc.). No Yes
.nf  Norfolk Island Norfolk Yes Yes
.ng  Nigeria Nigeria No Yes
.ni  Nicaragua Nicaragua No No
.nl  Netherlands Netherlands First active country-code domain outside the US.[44] No Yes Yes Yes
.no  Norway Norway Businesses and professionals must be registered as an approved type of organization in the Brønnøysund Register Centre. Individual applicants must be of age (18 years) and be registered in Folkeregisteret. All applicants must have a Norwegian postal address.

Also unofficially used and marketed as a domain hack (for example,, etc.).

Yes Yes Yes Yes
.np    Nepal Nepal All .np domains are free to register for individuals and registered businesses. Foreign businesses must provide proof of local presence in Nepal. No No
.nr  Nauru Nauru Was previously used as a free domain service to the public as[45] No Yes
.nu  Niue Niue Commonly used by Danish, Dutch, and Swedish websites, because in those languages "nu" means "now". Yes[46] Yes Yes Yes
.nz  New Zealand New Zealand Māori[47] Yes Yes[48] Yes
.om  Oman Oman Registrant must have company or trademark registered in Oman as well as a local administrative contact. Yes No
.pa  Panama Panama Some use in Pennsylvania No No
.pe  Peru Peru Also unofficially used for Private Equity related businesses. Yes Yes Yes
.pf  French Polynesia (France) Polynésie française With Clipperton Island No Yes
.pg  Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea No No
.ph  Philippines Philippines No Yes
.pk  Pakistan Pakistan Operated by PKNIC since 1992 No Yes
.pl  Poland Poland Yes[49] Yes Yes
.pm  Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (France) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes Yes
.pn  Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom) Pitcairn As a part of a marketing campaign, Lionsgate used the TLD for some (now defunct) sites related to The Hunger Games franchise, presenting it as the "official" country code of the fictional nation of Panem, notable sites included and No Yes
.pr  Puerto Rico (United States) Puerto Rico Yes Yes
.ps  Palestine[51] Palestine Jerusalem, West Bank and Gaza Strip. No Yes
.pt  Portugal Portugal Portuguese Yes Yes Yes[52]
.pw  Palau Pelew Yes Yes Yes Yes[53]
.py  Paraguay Paraguay No No
.qa  Qatar Qatar No No
.re  Réunion (France) union Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes[30] Yes Yes
.ro  Romania Romania Yes[54] Yes[55] Yes Yes[56]
.rs  Serbia Republika Srbija See also .срб (.srb in Cyrillic). Also unofficially used for Rust (programming language)-related domains. Yes Yes Yes Yes
.ru  Russia Russia See also .su, still in use, and .рф, for IDN. No Yes Yes Yes
.rw  Rwanda Rwanda No Yes
.sa  Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Registrant must have a registered trademark in Saudi Arabia matching the domain name to register or provide company incorporation documents of a company in Saudi Arabia or for personal registrations a copy of valid ID. A letter on the official letterhead of your organization addressed to SaudiNIC requesting the domain name registration is also required. Local administrative contact required. 2LD registrations rolled out in 2011.[57] Arabic[14] Yes[58] Yes Yes[59]
.sb  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands, British Also unofficially used for SpongeBob SquarePants-related domains. Yes No
.sc  Seychelles Seychelles Also unofficially used for Snapchat-related domains. Yes Yes
.sd  Sudan Sudan No Yes
.se  Sweden Sweden Yes[N] Yes Yes Yes
.sg  Singapore Singapore Also unofficially used in the Canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland Yes Yes
.sh  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom) Saint Helena NIC.SH (run by Internet Computer Bureau) Yes[61] Yes Yes
.si  Slovenia Slovenia Yes[O] Yes Yes
.sk  Slovakia Slovensko Restricted to Slovak companies, organisations, and citizens. Yes Yes Yes
.sl  Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Yes Yes
.sm  San Marino San Marino Domain name must be same as company name or trademark. No Yes
.sn  Senegal Senegal Registration allowed for companies only. Individuals are not allowed to register. Yes Yes
.so  Somalia Somalia Relaunched on 1 November 2010. No No Yes
.sr  Suriname Suriname No Yes
.ss  South Sudan South Sudan Added to the DNS root zone in February 2019. Registry is not yet available. Yes
.st  São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé Also unofficially used in South Tyrol (or province of Bozen, see .bz). Yes No Yes
.su  Soviet Union Soviet Union Still in use. Also unofficially used by Student Unions. Yes[P] Yes Yes Yes[64]
.sv  El Salvador Salvador No No
.sx  Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands) .sm, .ma, and .mt already allocated Yes No
.sy  Syria Syria No Yes
.sz  Eswatini Swaziland Registration is restricted to Eswatini organizations with Eswatini Trading Licenses. No No
.tc  Turks and Caicos Islands (United Kingdom) Turks


Also marketed in Turkey. The official abbreviation of 'Türkiye Cumhuriyeti' (Republic of Turkey) is TC. No Yes
.td  Chad Tchad Available for registration to entities connected with Chad only. No Yes
.tf  French Southern and Antarctic Lands Terres australes et antarctiques françaises Seldom used. Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. Domains must be longer than two characters. The domain also sees frequent use for community-run sites related to the video game Team Fortress 2.[K] Yes[30] Yes Yes
.tg  Togo Togo No Yes
.th  Thailand Thai Yes Yes No
.tj  Tajikistan Tajik No Yes
.tk  Tokelau Tokelau Also used as a free domain service to the public. Freenom (for free domains) Yes No Yes
.tl  East Timor Timor-Leste Old code .tp has been deactivated since 2015. Yes Yes
.tm  Turkmenistan Turkmen Yes[65] Yes Yes
.tn  Tunisia Tunisia Currently being marketed as the unofficial domain for Tamil Nadu[66] Yes Yes Yes Yes
.to  Tonga Tonga Often used unofficially for Torrent, Turin (Torino in Italian), Toronto, Tokyo, or Tocantins, and also as a domain hack in Slavic languages (to meaning it). Yes No Yes
.tr  Turkey Turkey and used by Northern Cyprus Yes[Q] No Yes Yes[R]
.tt  Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad


Yes Yes
.tv  Tuvalu Tuvalu Used as an abbreviation of television, the domain is currently operated by dotTV, a VeriSign company; the Tuvalu government owns twenty percent of the company. Yes Yes
.tw  Taiwan Taiwan Registration allowed worldwide, local presence not required. In line with ISO 3166-1, IANA's official position is that "TW" is "designated for use to represent Taiwan, Province of China".[69] Yes[S] Yes Yes
.tz  Tanzania Tanzania Must have a presence in Tanzania Yes No
.ua  Ukraine Ukraina Yes Yes
.ug  Uganda Uganda Yes Yes
.uk  United Kingdom United Kingdom The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. UK is a specially reserved ISO 3166-1 code. However, the creation of the .uk TLD predates the ISO 3166-1 list of ccTLD and is the primary TLD for the United Kingdom.[71] Nominet UK Yes Yes Yes
.us  United States of America United States Registrants must be United States citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States. Formerly commonly used by U.S. State and local governments, see also .gov TLD. Neustar Yes Yes
.uy  Uruguay Uruguay 2LD rollout began on 10 July 2012.[72] Yes Yes
.uz  Uzbekistan Uzbek No Yes
.va   Vatican City Vatican Limited to the official sites of the Holy See (including those of the Vatican City State). No No
.vc  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Vincent Partial[M] Yes
.ve  Venezuela Venezuela Registration is at the third level. Yes No
.vg  British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) Virgin Islands Yes Yes
.vi  United States Virgin Islands (United States) Virgin Islands No Yes
.vn  Vietnam Vietnam Yes[73] Yes Yes
.vu  Vanuatu Vanuatu Yes Yes
.wf  Wallis and Futuna Wallis


Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein.[K] Yes[30] Yes Yes
.ws  Samoa Western Samoa Marketed for use in general Websites Yes Yes[74] Yes
.ye  Yemen Republic of Yemen Also unofficially used by Kanye West. No No
.yt  Mayotte Mayotte Restricted to individuals and companies in European Union, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.[K] Also unofficially used for YouTube-related domains. Yes[30] Yes Yes
.za  South Africa Zuid-Afrika Yes Yes
.zm  Zambia Zambia No Yes[T]
.zw  Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No No
Table Notes
  1. ^ 17 November 2009, Spanish-Portuguese specific characters (á, â, ã, à, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü, ñ, ç) allowed, as approved by law.[10]
  2. ^ Mostly latin characters (à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ø ù ú û ü ý þ ÿ œ š ž), see[11]
  3. ^ Currently not allowed, but some higher-learning institutions were grandfathered-in.
  4. ^ Since March 2004, see[20]
  5. ^ IDN not adopted due to lack of public and corporate interest[21]
  6. ^ 93 non-ASCII characters, see[22]
  7. ^ 1 January 2004, support æ, ø, å, ö, ä, ü, & é: see[23]
  8. ^ Estonian domain names to incorporate diacritics (IDN) starting from 13 June 2011[25]
  9. ^ Supported characters: Latin, Greek, & Cyrillic; see[27]
  10. ^ September 2005, supported characters: å, ä, ö and Sami language; see[29]
  11. ^ a b c d e f (6 December 2011)[50]
  12. ^ Support for Greek characters since July 2005; see[32]
  13. ^ a b c d Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.
  14. ^ October 2003, for Swedish characters, summer 2007 also for Finnish, Meänkieli, Romani, Sami, and Yiddish; see[60]
  15. ^ Since October 2010, see[62]
  16. ^ (28 April 2008) see[63]
  17. ^ 14 November 2006; see[67]
  18. ^ 21 July 2015; see[68]
  19. ^ Traditional Chinese characters: see[70]
  20. ^ Restricted to ISPs and other undefined entities. See .zm .

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Internationalized country code top-level domains[75]
DNS name IDN ccTLD Country/Region Language Script Transliteration Comments Other ccTLD DNSSEC
xn--lgbbat1ad8j .الجزائر  Algeria Berber, Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Jazā'ir .dz No
xn--y9a3aq .հայ  Armenia Armenian Armenian hay .am Yes
xn--mgbcpq6gpa1a .البحرين  Bahrain Arabic Arabic al-Bahrain Not in use .bh No
xn--54b7fta0cc .বাংলা  Bangladesh Bengali Bengali Bangla .bd Yes
xn--90ais .бел  Belarus Belarusian Cyrillic bel .by No
xn--90ae .бг[76]  Bulgaria Bulgarian Cyrillic bg .bg No
xn--fiqs8s .中国  China Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--fiqz9s .中國  China Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Zhōngguó .cn Yes
xn--wgbh1c .مصر  Egypt Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Miṣr / Maṣr[77] .eg Yes
xn--e1a4c .ею  European Union Bulgarian Cyrillic eyu .eu Yes
xn--qxa6a .ευ  European Union Greek Greek ey Not in use .eu
xn--node .გე  Georgia Georgian Georgian (Mkhedruli) GE .ge No
xn--qxam .ελ[76]  Greece Greek Greek el In use since July 2018 .gr No
xn--j6w193g .香港  Hong Kong Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Hoeng1 gong2 .hk Yes
xn--h2brj9c .भारत  India Hindi Devanagari Bhārat Became available 27 August 2014[78] .in Yes
xn--mgbbh1a71e .بھارت  India Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--fpcrj9c3d .భారత్  India Telugu Telugu Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--gecrj9c .ભારત  India Gujarati Gujarati Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--s9brj9c .ਭਾਰਤ  India Punjabi Gurmukhī Bhārat Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--xkc2dl3a5ee0h .இந்தியா  India Tamil Tamil Intiyā Became available 2015 .in Yes
xn--45brj9c .ভারত  India Bengali Bengali Bharôt Became available 2017 .in Yes
xn--2scrj9c .ಭಾರತ  India Kannada Kannada Bhārata Became available 2020 .in
xn--rvc1e0am3e .ഭാരതം  India Malayalam Malayalam Bhāratam Became available 2020 .in
xn--45br5cyl .ভাৰত  India Assamese Bengali Bharatam Not in use .in
xn--3hcrj9c .ଭାରତ  India Oriya Oriya Bhārat Became available 2021 .in
xn--mgbbh1a .بارت  India Kashmiri Arabic (Kashmiri) Bārat Not in use .in
xn--h2breg3eve .भारतम्  India Sanskrit Devanagari Bhāratam Not in use .in
xn--h2brj9c8c .भारोत  India Santali Devanagari Bharot Not in use .in
xn--mgbgu82a .ڀارت  India Sindhi Arabic (Sindhi) Bhārat Not in use .in
xn--mgba3a4f16a .ایران  Iran Persian Arabic (Persian) Īrān .ir No
xn--mgbtx2b .عراق  Iraq Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿIrāq Not in use .iq No
xn--4dbrk0ce .ישראל  Israel Hebrew Hebrew Israel Not in use .il No
xn--mgbayh7gpa .الاردن  Jordan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Urdun .jo No
xn--80ao21a .қаз  Kazakhstan Kazakh Cyrillic (Kazakh) qaz .kz No
xn--q7ce6a .ລາວ  Laos Lao Lao Lao Became available 2020 .la
xn--mix082f .澳门  Macao Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Not in use .mo No
xn--mix891f .澳門  Macao Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Ou3 mun4 / Àomén Became available 2020 .mo No
xn--mgbx4cd0ab .مليسيا  Malaysia Malay Arabic (Jawi) Malaysīyā .my Yes
xn--mgbah1a3hjkrd .موريتانيا  Mauritania Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Mūrītāniyā .mr No
xn--l1acc .мон  Mongolia Mongolian Cyrillic (Mongolian) mon .mn Yes
xn--mgbc0a9azcg .المغرب  Morocco Berber, Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Maġrib .ma No
xn--d1alf .мкд  North Macedonia Macedonian Cyrillic (Macedonian) mkd .mk No
xn--mgb9awbf .عمان  Oman Arabic Arabic (Arabic) ʿUmān .om No
xn--mgbai9azgqp6j .پاکستان  Pakistan Urdu Arabic (Urdu) Pākistān .pk Yes
xn--ygbi2ammx .فلسطين  Palestinian Authority Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Filasṭīn .ps No
xn--wgbl6a .قطر  Qatar Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Qaṭar .qa No
xn--p1ai .рф  Russia Russian Cyrillic (Russian) rf .ru Yes
xn--mgberp4a5d4ar .السعودية  Saudi Arabia Arabic Arabic (Arabic) as-Suʿūdīya .sa Yes[58]
xn--90a3ac .срб  Serbia Serbian Cyrillic (Serbian) srb .rs No
xn--yfro4i67o .新加坡  Singapore Chinese Chinese (Simplified and Traditional) Xīnjiāpō .sg Yes
xn--clchc0ea0b2g2a9gcd .சிங்கப்பூர்  Singapore Tamil Tamil Cinkappūr .sg Yes
xn--3e0b707e .한국  South Korea Korean Hangul Han-guk .kr Yes
xn--fzc2c9e2c .ලංකා  Sri Lanka Sinhala Sinhala Lanka .lk Partial[A]
xn--xkc2al3hye2a .இலங்கை  Sri Lanka Tamil Tamil Ilaṅkai .lk Partial[A]
xn--mgbpl2fh .سودان  Sudan Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūdān .sd No
xn--ogbpf8fl .سورية  Syria Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Sūriyya .sy Yes
xn--kprw13d .台湾  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Simplified) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--kpry57d .台灣  Taiwan Chinese Chinese (Traditional) Táiwān .tw Yes
xn--o3cw4h .ไทย  Thailand Thai Thai Thai .th Yes
xn--pgbs0dh .تونس  Tunisia Berber, Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Tūnis .tn Yes
xn--j1amh .укр  Ukraine Ukrainian Cyrillic (Ukrainian) ukr .ua No
xn--mgbaam7a8h .امارات  United Arab Emirates Arabic Arabic (Arabic) Imārāt .ae No
xn--mgb2ddes .اليمن  Yemen Arabic Arabic (Arabic) al-Yaman Not delegated .ye No
Table notes
  1. ^ a b Delegation Signer (DS) record in a root zone has not yet been published.

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Japan and Libya.

Relation to ISO 3166-1[edit]

The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

— Jon Postel, RFC 1591[79]

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes[edit]

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy to not assign any at present. Two French territories—bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin)—still await local assignment by France's government.

The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[80] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom), and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules, .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1[edit]

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

  • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.[81]
  • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union still existed; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
  • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
  • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all in the European Economic Area.

Historical ccTLDs[edit]

ccTLDs may be removed if that country ceases to exist. There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[82][83] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 23 July 2003, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its native language script or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Latin script (.us, .uk and .br), Indic script (.भारत) and Korean script (.한국), etc. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, including the United Kingdom, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[84] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[85]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Generic ccTLDs[edit]

Generic Country Code Top-Level Domain or gccTLD refers to those TLDs which are technically "non-restricted ccTLDs" but used like traditional generic TLDs (gTLDs) rather than "country" targeted ones.[86][87][88] Most of the gccTLDs are primarily used as domain hacks:

gccTLD Country/Region Domain hacks
.ac Ascension Island
.ad Andorra advertising
.ag Antigua and Barbuda Aktiengesellschaft (German for corporation)
.ai Anguilla Artificial intelligence
.am Armenia
.as American Samoa
.az Azerbaijan Arizona
.bz Belize
.ca Canada California
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.cd Congo Compact disc
.co Colombia
.cu Cuba see you
.cv Cape Verde curriculum vitae
.dj Djibouti Disc jockey
.fm Federated States of Micronesia
.ga Gabon Georgia
.gg Bailiwick of Guernsey
.io British Indian Ocean Territory
.is Iceland,, etc.
.it Italy Information technology
.kg Kyrgyzstan Keygen
.la Laos
.ly Libya words ending in -ly
.md Moldova Medicine
.me Montenegro
.no Norway,, etc.
.ms Montserrat
.nu Niue
  • new
  • now
  • nude
.pe Peru Private Equity
.pn Pitcairn Phone number
.pw Palau Pwned (leet speak)
.re Réunion Reverse engineering
.sc Seychelles
.sh Saint Helena Shell
.sx Sint Maarten sex
.tf French Southern and Antarctic Lands
.tk Tokelau
.tm Turkmenistan Trademark
.to Tonga link-to
.tr Turkey travel
.tv Tuvalu television and broadcasts
.ws Western Samoa
  • website
  • websocket
  • world site
  • west
.yt Mayotte YouTube

Unconventional usage[edit]

Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as,, and form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), of Belgium (be), of the United States (us), and of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[89]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[90]

Commercial use[edit]

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also[edit]



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External links[edit]