County-controlled city

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from County-administered city)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is part of a series on
Administrative divisions
of Taiwan
Centrally-governed
Township-level
Village-level
Neighborhood-level
  • Neighborhoods
Historical divisions of
Taiwan (1895–1945)
Republic of China (1912–49)

A county-controlled city, or county-administered city (Chinese: 縣轄市; pinyin: xiànxiáshì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: koān-hat-chhī)), is a unit of administrative division in Taiwan. Under the administrative structure of Taiwan, it is with the same level of a township or a district. Such cities are administrated by counties. It is also the lowest-level city of Taiwan, below a provincial city and a special municipality. There are 14 county-controlled cities currently.

History[edit]

The first administrative divisions entitled "city" were established in the 1920s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. At this time cities were under the jurisdiction of prefectures. After the World War II, nine (9) out of eleven (11) prefectural cities established by the Japanese government were reform into provincial cities. The reform was based on the Laws on the City Formation (市組織法) of the Republic of China.

In this reform, the populations of Hualien (Karenkō) and Yilan (Giran) were too low to became a provincial city, but they are also much more important than other urban townships. Thus the special administrative division type is created in Scheme on the Local Rules in Various Counties and Cities of Taiwan Province (臺灣省各縣市實施地方自治綱要). In this time, a county is divided into county-controlled cities and county-controlled districts. A county-controlled district is divided into urban townships and urban townships. The level of a county-controlled city is higher than a township.

Spelling changes of provincial cities in 1945
County-controlled cities formed in 1945 County-controlled cities formed in 1951
Character Japanese
(before 1945)
Chinese
(after 1945)
Character Japanese
(before 1945)
Chinese
(after 1945)
宜蘭 Giran Yilan 新竹 Shinchiku Hsinchu
花蓮(港) Karenkō Hualien 彰化 Shōka Changhua
嘉義 Kagi Chiayi
屏東 Heitō Pingtung

In 1951, a large scale administrative division reorganization took place in Taiwan. The size of counties shrink and the county-controlled districts were abolished. This puts county-controlled cities and townships into the same level in the hierarchy. Four provincial cities were also downgraded to county-controlled cities after this reorganization. Since the county-controlled cities are based on the law for Taiwan Province, Kinmen County and Lienchiang County under Fukien do not have any city under their jurisdiction.

The population criterion was originally 50,000 in the 1940s, but was raised to 100,000 in 1959, again in 1977 to 150,000, and in 2015 it was lower back to 100,000. Under the current. Currently, the Local Government Act of the Ministry of the Interior applies for the creation of a provincial city, in which a city needs to have a population between 100,000 and 500,000 and occupies major political, economical and cultural roles.[1] Note that not all existing county-controlled cities are qualified for the population test, they were built for historical reasons.

Current County-administered cities[edit]

There are currently fourteen(14) provincial cities:

Name[2] Chinese Pinyin[2] Wade–Giles Tongyong Pe̍h-ōe-jī Pha̍k-fa-sṳ County Establishment
Changhua 彰化市 Zhānghuà Chang¹-hua⁴ Jhanghuà Chiong-hòa Chông-fa Changhua 1951-12-01
Douliu 斗六市 Dǒuliù Tou³-liu⁴ Dǒuliòu Táu-la̍k Téu-liuk Yunlin 1981-12-25
Hualien 花蓮市 Huālián Hua¹-lien² Hualián Hoa-liân Fâ-lièn Hualien 1946-01-16
Magong 馬公市 Mǎgōng Ma³-kung¹ Mǎgong Má-keng Mâ-kûng Penghu 1981-12-25
Miaoli 苗栗市 Miáolì Miao²-li⁴ Miáolì Biâu-le̍k Mèu-li̍t Miaoli 1981-12-25
Nantou 南投市 Nántóu Nan²-t'ou² Nántóu Lâm-tâu Nàm-thèu Nantou 1981-12-25
Pingtung 屏東市 Píngdōng P'ing²-tung¹ Píngdong Pîn-tong Phìn-tûng Pingtung 1951-12-01
Puzi 朴子市 Pūzǐ P'u¹-tzu³ Puzǐh Phò-chú Phú-chṳ́ Chiayi 1992-09-10
Taibao 太保市 Tàibǎo T'ai⁴-pao³ Tàibǎo Thài-pó Thai-pó Chiayi 1991-07-01
Taitung 臺東市 Táidōng T'ai²-tung¹ Táidong Tâi-tang Thòi-tûng Taitung 1976-01-01
Toufen 頭份市 Tóufèn T'ou²-fên⁴ Tóufèn Thâu-hūn Thèu-fun Miaoli 2015-10-05
Yilan 宜蘭市 Yílán I²-lan² Yílán Gî-lân Ngì-làn Yilan 1946-01-16
Yuanlin 員林市 Yuánlín Yüan²-lin² Yuánlín Oân-lîm Yèn-lìm Changhua 2015-08-08
Zhubei 竹北市 Zhúběi Chu²-pei³ Jhúběi Tek-pak Tsuk-pet Hsinchu 1988-10-31

Each county-controlled cities has its own self-governed bodies. The self-governed bodies (executive and legislature) regulated by the Local Government Act are: A City Office (市公所) and a City Council (市民代表大會). The mayor (市長) and city representatives (市民代表) shall be directly elected by the people reside in the city territory. A county-controlled city are further divided into urban villages ().

Timeline[edit]

Below, unless noted otherwise in parenthesis, the newly created cities were towns that exceeded the 150,000 criteria.

Date Addition Removal No. Description
January, 1946 Hualien
Yilan
2 Reorganized from the prefectural cities (州轄市; Zhōuxiá Shì) in the period under Japanese rule.
16 August 1950 Chiayi 3 Downgraded from provincial city (省轄市; Shěngxiá Shì).
1 December 1951 Changhua
Hsinchu
Pingtung
6 Downgraded from provincial cities (省轄市; Shěngxiá Shì).
1 April 1962 Sanchong 7 The population requirement of county-controlled cities is set to 100,000.
Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
1 July 1967[3] Zhongli 8 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
21 April 1971[4] Taoyuan 9 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
1 July 1972 Banqiao
Fengshan
11 Originally urban townships (; Zhèn).
1 January 1976 Taitung 12 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
1 March 1976 Fengyuan 13 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
1 January 1979 Yonghe
Zhonghe
15 The population requirement of county-controlled cities changed to 150,000.
[Yonghe] Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
[Zhonghe] Originally rural township (鄉; Xiāng).
15 January 1980 Xindian
Xinzhuang
17 Originally urban townships (; Zhèn).
25 December 1981 Douliu
Magong
Miaoli
Nantou
Xinying
22 All county seats in Taiwan Province were upgraded from urban township ( Zhèn) to county-controlled cities.
1 July 1982 Chiayi
Hsinchu
20 Upgraded to provincial cities (省轄市; Shěngxiá Shì).
31 October 1988 Zhubei 21 Originally rural township (鄉; Xiāng), county seat.
1 July 1991 Taibao 22 Originally rural township (鄉; Xiāng), county seat.
1 March 1992 Pingzhen 23 Originally rural township (鄉; Xiāng).
10 September 1992 Puzi 24 Originally rural township (; Xiāng), county seat.
1 May 1993 Yongkang 25 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
26 June 1993 Tucheng 26 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
1 November 1993 Dali 27 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
1 January 1995 Bade 28 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
1 August 1996 Taiping 29 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
6 October 1997 Luzhou 30 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
1 July 1999 Xizhi 31 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
4 October 1999 Shulin 32 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
1 August 2010 Yangmei 33 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
25 December 2010 Banqiao
Dali
Fengshan
Fengyuan
Luzhou
Sanchong
Shulin
Taiping
Tucheng
Xindian
Xinying
Xinzhuang
Xizhi
Yonghe
Yongkang
Zhonghe
17 New special municipalities established in Taipei County, Taichung, Tainan, and
Kaohsiung; all county-controlled cities in such places were upgraded into districts (; Qū).
3 June 2014 Luzhu 18 Originally rural township (; Xiāng).
25 December 2014 Bade
Luzhu
Pingzhen
Taoyuan
Yangmei
Zhongli
12 New special municipality established in Taoyuan County; all county-controlled cities
in such places were upgraded into districts (; Qū).
8 August 2015 Yuanlin 13 The population requirement of county-controlled cities changed to 100,000.
Originally urban township (; Zhèn).
5 October 2015 Toufen 14 Originally urban township (; Zhèn).

Populous Townships[edit]

Townships with population more than 90,000, close to the upgrading criterion (as of March 2017)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.moi.gov.tw/english/english_law/law_detail.aspx?sn=284
  2. ^ a b "Glossary of Names for Admin Divisions" (PDF). Taiwan Geographic Names Information Systems. The Ministry of Interior of ROC. Retrieved 6 June 2015. [permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-28. Retrieved 2014-12-28. 
  4. ^ 桃園區公所 (19 March 2015). "The Peach Blossom Garden in the Olden Days-桃園區公所". www.taocity.gov.tw. Retrieved 12 April 2018.