County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos
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|County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos
Παλατινή Κομητεία της Κεφαλονιάς και της Ζακύνθου
|Vassal state* of various countries, de facto autonomous|
|•||1185–1195||Margaritus of Brindisi|
|•||1448–1479||Leonardo III Tocco|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|•||Divided into the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice||1479|
|Today part of||Greece|
Following Margaritus, the county passed on to a branch of the family of Orsini until 1325, when it passed briefly to Angevins and then, from 1357, to the Tocco family. The Tocchi used the county as a springboard for their acquisition of lands in the Greek mainland, and were successful in gaining control over the Despotate of Epirus from 1411 on. However, facing the advance of the Ottoman Turks they successively lost their mainland territories and were once again reduced to the County Palatine, which they held until 1479, when it was divided between Venice and the Ottomans: Zakynthos was put under direct rule of Venice and Cephalonia came under Turkish rule for 21 years.
The beginning of the Frankish conquest in the islands of Cephalonia, Zakynthos and Ithaca was linked with the pirate and admiral of the Sicilian fleet Margaritus of Brindisi, known to the chroniclers of the late 12th century. He developed significant activity as the trustee of William II, Norman king of Sicily. In Latin documents of 1192 and 1193 he signed in Greek, as Margaritoni admiral count Melitios. Irrespective of Margaritus’ unclear descent, it is certain that William, after the Norman invasion of 1185 against the Byzantine provinces, granted him the new Norman acquisitions in the Ionian Sea, in exchange for the services he had offered to the Normans.
Ten years later, in 1195, Maio or Matthew Orsini, possibly offspring of a Sicilian branch of the family of the counts palatines of Rome succeeded Margaritus as the ruler of the Ionian Islands. In order to secure his position, Matthew recognized the dominion of Venice and of the pope and later of the prince of Achaea. That same period the Orthodox bishopric of the islands was abolished, the Episcopal thrones were occupied by Latins and the feudal system was put into force. The successor of Matthew, Richard, the "most noble count of the palace and lord of Cephalonia, Zakynthos and Ithaca", authenticated in 1264 the estates of the Latin bishopric of Cephalonia. During the reign of the latter Frankish ruler, Cephalonia had become a refuge to pirates.
The Orsini family did not only rule the Ionian Islands, but it also conquered Epirus in early 14th century, thus acquiring the title of the despot as well. Certain members of the family embraced the Orthodox dogma and married Greek women. After the death of John II Orsini in 1335, the islands were occupied by the Anjou, who as rulers of Achaea had the islands under their suzerainty until then.
The Angevin occupation lasted until 1357, when the said Greek territory was ceded to the Italian family of the Tocchi, who remained in power for over a century and secured unity in the governance of those three Ionian Islands. In 1357, Robert of Taranto ceded Cephalonia, Zakynthos and Ithaca to the governor of Corfu Leonardo I Tocco - as reward for the services he had provided when he was a captive of the king of Hungary.
After the expansion of his dominion to Leukas, Leonardo I Tocco attempted to reinforce his position against Venice, the pope, the Anjou, but mostly against the Albanians of Epirus, by entering into family relations with the Florentine family of the Acciaiuoli.
This policy gave the family of the Tocchi increased power, which reached its peak during the 15th century with its expansion to the continental coast, after Carlo I Tocco had conquered Ioannina (1411) and Arta (1416). He received the title of despot by the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and maintained the Byzantine tradition. Seated in the islands of the Ionian Sea or in the acquisitions in Central Greece, the dynasty of the Tocchi attempted to win over the populations by ceding to the seigneurs, according to the Chronicle of the Tocco, "inheritances", "estates", "kratimata" and "pronoias". Following an analogous policy on the religious front, Leonardo III (1448-1481), the last of the Tocchi dynasty, reinstated the Orthodox episcopal throne of Cephalonia that had been abolished by the Orsini.
Venice was not pleased with the increased influence of the Tocchi. The downfall of the duchy of the Tocchi by the Turks (1479) gave the opportunity to the Serenissima to intervene resolutely in the Ionian Sea and succeeded, through the treaty of 1484, in annexing Zakynthos and later, in 1500, Cephalonia and Ithaca.
Counts Palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos
- Matthew Orsini, 1195 – after 1238
- Richard Orsini, before 1260 – 1304
- John I Orsini, 1304–1317
- Nicholas Orsini, 1317–1323
- John II Orsini, 1323–1325
House of Tocco
- Leonardo I Tocco, 1357–1376
- Charles I Tocco, 1376–1429
- Charles II Tocco, 1429–1448
- Leonardo III Tocco, 1448–1479