Court of Appeals of Virginia

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Court of Appeals of Virginia
Composition methodLegislative election
Authorized byVa. Code § 17.1–400
Appeals toSupreme Court of Virginia
Judge term length8 years
Number of positions17
WebsiteCourt of Appeals
Chief Judge
CurrentlyMarla Graff Decker
Lead position ends2023

The Court of Appeals of Virginia, established January 1, 1985, is an intermediate appellate court of 17 judges that hears appeals from decisions of Virginia's circuit courts and the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission. The Court sits in panels of at least three judges, and sometimes hears cases en banc. Appeals from the Court of Appeals go to the Supreme Court of Virginia.


The need for expanded appellate capacity was first recognized in 1971. The report[1] of the Virginia Court System Study Commission, composed of distinguished legislators and members of the bench and bar, recommended a reorganization plan for a unified court system. The Commission, chaired by former Chief Justice Lawrence W. I'Anson, recognized the need for an intermediate appellate court in Virginia which would absorb the bulk of review of circuit court appeals, while preserving the Supreme Court as a single body concentrating on the development of the law.[2]

In 1978, a comprehensive study of the Virginia court system conducted by the National Center for State Courts also recommended that the appellate capacity of the Virginia courts be increased by creating an intermediate Court of Appeals.[3] In 1982, the Judicial Council of Virginia proposed legislation for a twelve judge intermediate appellate court. Finally, in 1983, the General Assembly created the Court of Appeals of Virginia, effective January 1, 1985. E. Ballard Baker was the first chief judge of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.[2]

Since the establishment of the Court of Appeals, appellate capacity has increased 38.8%. The number of petitions acted upon has risen each year, achieving the desired goal of increasing appellate capacity in the court system.[2]

In March 2021, the Court was expanded from 11 judges to 17 judges.[4]


The Court of Appeals consists of 17 judges who are elected for eight-year terms by a majority of the members of each house of the General Assembly. If a vacancy occurs while the General Assembly is not in session, the Governor may appoint a successor to serve until thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the legislature.[2]

The chief judge of the Court of Appeals is elected by a majority vote of the judges of the Court of Appeals to serve a term of four years. The Chief Judge designates where the Court of Appeals will sit in order to provide convenient access to the citizens of the various geographic areas of the state. The Court normally sits in four locations: Alexandria, Chesapeake, Richmond and Salem.[2]

The clerk of the Court of Appeals receives, processes and maintains permanent records of appeals and other official documents filed with the Court.[2]


The Court of Appeals sits en banc (or as a whole) in the following circumstances:

  • Where there is a dissent in a panel to which a case was originally assigned and an aggrieved party requests an en banc hearing and at least three other judges of the Court vote in favor of such a hearing.[2]
  • If a judge of a panel certifies that a decision of that panel conflicts with a previous decision of the Court or of any panel and three other judges agree.[2]
  • In any case in which a majority of the Court, upon its own motion, determines it is appropriate to sit en banc.[2]

Under these conditions, the Court of Appeals convenes en banc and reconsiders the case. The court sitting en banc may override any previous decision of a panel or the full Court. No fewer than eight judges may be present when Court of Appeals sits en banc.[2]


The Court of Appeals has authority to hear appeals as a matter of right from:

  • any final judgment, order, or decree of a circuit court involving affirmance or annulment of a marriage, divorce, custody, spousal or child support, or control or disposition of a child, as well as other domestic relations cases;[2]
  • any final decision of the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission (a state agency responsible for handling workers' compensation claims);[2]
  • any final decision of a circuit court on appeal from a decision of an administrative agency (example: the Department of Health);[2] and
  • any interlocutory order granting, dissolving, or denying an injunction or adjudicating the principles of a cause in any of the cases listed above.[2]

The Court of Appeals has authority to consider petitions for appeal from:

  • final orders of conviction in criminal and traffic matters except where a death penalty is imposed.[2]
  • final decisions of a circuit court on an application for a concealed weapons permit.[2]
  • certain preliminary rulings in felony cases when requested by the Commonwealth.[2]

The Court of Appeals has original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition and habeas corpus in any case over which the Court would have appellate jurisdiction.[2]

In addition, the Court of Appeals has original jurisdiction to issue a writ of actual innocence upon petition of a person who has been convicted of a felony upon a plea of not guilty.[2]

Reforms effective January 2022[edit]

As part of a comprehensive reform bill passed by the Virginia General Assembly and signed into law in March 2021, the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals expanded on January 1, 2022, as follows:

  • Litigants can now appeal as of right a lower court's decision in civil cases, and the Supreme Court of Virginia will retain the power to select which appeals it hears.
  • Criminal defendants can now appeal as of right a lower court's decision in criminal cases, but the Commonwealth will still need to petition the Court of Appeals if it wishes to appeal a decision in a criminal case.
  • The Court of Appeals now has jurisdiction to hear interlocutory appeals and petitions for review of injunctions.[5]

An appeal filed with the Supreme Court of Virginia before January 1, 2022 remains under its jurisdiction.[5]


All criminal cases that are within the Court's jurisdiction and all traffic infraction cases are presented to the Court by petition for appeal. A petition is a formal written application to a court requesting judicial action on a certain matter.[2]

Each petition for appeal in a criminal case is referred to a judge of the Court for review to determine if an appeal should be awarded. The judge may grant the petition for appeal in whole or part. An appellant may request a panel of three judges of the Court of Appeals to review a petition for appeal that was denied, either in whole, or part, by the judge who initially reviewed the petition. As long as oral argument was preserved in the petition for appeal and a reply brief was not filed, the appellant may present oral argument on the petition for appeal before a panel of three judges. Any one of the three judges may grant the petition on the basis of the record without oral argument. If the petition is granted, briefs are filed by both parties. The clerk of the Court of Appeals refers each granted appeal to a panel of the Court. Oral argument is permitted and may be waived.[2]

All other appeals (domestic relations, Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission and those from administrative agencies) are heard as a matter of right. Appeals of right are cases that an appellate court is required to hear. These cases do not go through the petition process. Briefs are filed by both parties and the case is referred by the clerk of the Court to a panel of three judges. Oral argument is permitted and may be waived. The Court may summarily affirm an appeal without oral argument if a panel of three judges determines that it has no merit.[2]

Since January 1, 2022, when the court's jurisdiction expanded, most appeals are initiated by filing a notice of appeal and related documents with the clerk of the Court of Appeals.[5]

Decisions are issued by the Court of Appeals by written opinion or order.[2]


In any case in which an appeal has been taken to the Court of Appeals, the Supreme Court may certify the case for review by the Supreme Court before it has been determined by the Court of Appeals. Such certification transfers jurisdiction over the case to the Supreme Court for all purposes. These certifications occur only when the case is of such public importance to require prompt decision by the Supreme Court or when the docket of the Court of Appeals is congested and expeditious administration of justice requires the transfer.[2]

Finality of decisions[edit]

When the Court of Appeals has rejected a petition for appeal, dismissed an appeal, or decided on an appeal, its decision is final, without appeal to the Supreme Court in the following cases:

  • Traffic infraction and misdemeanor cases where no incarceration is imposed[2]
  • Cases originating before any administrative agency or the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission[2] and
  • Cases involving affirmance or annulment of a marriage, divorce, custody, spousal or child support, cases involving the control or disposition of a juvenile, and all other domestic relations matters.[2]

Notwithstanding the finality of these cases, if the Supreme Court determines on a petition for review that the decision of the Court of Appeals involves a substantial constitutional question as a determinative issue or matters of significant precedential value, review may be had in the Supreme Court.[2]

Review by the Supreme Court of Virginia[edit]

Except where the decisions of the Court of Appeals are final, any party aggrieved by a final decision of the Court of Appeals may petition the Supreme Court for an appeal.[2]

Current composition[edit]

As of November 3, 2021:


Judge First elected[6] Expiration[6][7] Chief Note
Robert J. Humphreys 2000 April 15, 2024
Randolph A. Beales 2006[8] April 15, 2022[7]
Glen A. Huff 2011[9] July 31, 2027[10] 2015–2018
Marla Graff Decker 2013 January 31, 2022[7] 2019–present
Richard Y. AtLee Jr. 2015[11] January 31, 2023[11]
Mary Grace O'Brien 2015[12] January 31, 2023[12]
Mary B. Malveaux 2016 April 15, 2024[7]
Clay Athey 2019 August 31, 2027[13]
Junius P. Fulton, III 2021[14] 2029[14]
Daniel E. Ortiz 2021 2029
Doris Henderson Causey 2021 2029
Frank K. Friedman 2021 2029
Vernida R. Chaney 2021 2029
Lisa Lorish 2021 2029
Stuart Raphael 2021 2029
Dominique Callins 2021[15] 2029[15]
Kimberley S. White[16] 2022 2030


Judge Active service Chief Senior
Rosemarie Annunziata 1995–2004[17] —— 2005[17]
Jean Harrison Clements 2000–2008[18] —— 2009[18]
Robert P. Frank 1999–2014[19] —— 2015[19]
James W. Haley, Jr. 2005–2012[20] —— 2012[20]

Chief judges[edit]

Judge Chief
E. Ballard Baker 1985
Lawrence L. Koontz, Jr. 1985–1993
Norman K. Moon 1993–1997
Johanna L. Fitzpatrick 1997–2006[21]
Walter S. Felton, Jr. 2006–2014
Glen A. Huff 2015–2019[22]
Marla Graff Decker 2019–[23]


  1. ^ Report of the Court System Study Commission to The Governor and The General Assembly of Virginia, Virginia House Document No. 6 (1972 Regular Session) (1971)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "The Court of Appeals of Virginia (informational pamphlet)" (PDF). Virginia's Judicial System. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  3. ^ Final Report: Virginia Court Organization Study. National Center for State Courts. 1979. p. 232.
  4. ^ "SB 1261 Court of Appeals; expands jurisdiction, increases from 11 to 17 number of judges on Court". Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  5. ^ a b c "LIS > Bill Tracking > SB1261 > 2021 session". Retrieved 2021-06-14.
  6. ^ a b The American Bench: Judges of the Nation. Dallas, TX: Forster-Long. 2013. pp. 2735–2774. ISBN 9780931398674.
  7. ^ a b c d "Judicial Branch" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-07-03. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
  8. ^ "Randolph Beales". Judgepedia. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  9. ^ "Glen Huff". Judgepedia. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  10. ^ "SENATE RESOLUTION NO. 92". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  11. ^ a b Albiges, Marie (22 January 2015). "General Assembly Moves York Judge to Appeals Court, Reappoints WJCC District Judge". Retrieved 23 March 2015.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b "Judge Kelsey Appointed to Supreme Court of Virginia". Virginia State Bar. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Virginia Justices and Judges Terms of Office" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  14. ^ a b "Virginia lawmakers elect 8 new judges to appeals court". AP NEWS. 2021-08-10. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  15. ^ a b "Judges of the Court of Appeals of Virginia". Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  16. ^ "After impasse, legislators elect 2 Supreme Court justices". AP NEWS. 2022-06-18. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
  17. ^ a b "Lawyers in the News". Virginia Lawyers Weekly. September 26, 2005.
  18. ^ a b Cooper, Alan (November 24, 2008). "Judge Clements to retire from appeals court". Virginia Lawyers Weekly. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  19. ^ a b Vieth, Peter (22 September 2014). "Assembly requests recommendations for appellate judgeships". Virginia Lawyers Weekly. Virginia Lawyers Media. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  20. ^ a b "James Haley". Judgepedia. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  21. ^ "The McCammon Group, Hon. Johanna L. Fitzpatrick (Ret.)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  22. ^ "Glen A. Huff Named Chief Judge-elect of Court of Appeals of Virginia". Virginia State Bar. Virginia State Bar. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Judge Marla Graff Decker is elected chief judge-elect of the Virginia Court of Appeals".

External links[edit]