Cover crop

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cover crops)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A cover crop is planted to manage soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality, water, weeds, pests, diseases, biodiversity and wildlife in an agroecosystem—an ecological system managed and shaped by humans. Cover crops may be an off-season crop planted after harvesting the cash crop. The cover crop may grow over winter. [1][2]

Soil erosion[edit]

Although cover crops can perform multiple functions in an agroecosystem simultaneously, they are often grown for the sole purpose of preventing soil erosion. Soil erosion is a process that can irreparably reduce the productive capacity of an agroecosystem. Dense cover crop stands physically slow down the velocity of rainfall before it contacts the soil surface, preventing soil splashing and erosive surface runoff.[3] Additionally, vast cover crop root networks help anchor the soil in place and increase soil porosity, creating suitable habitat networks for soil macrofauna.[4] It keeps the enrichment of the soil good for the next few years.

Soil fertility management[edit]

One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility. These types of cover crops are referred to as "green manure." They are used to manage a range of soil macronutrients and micronutrients. Of the various nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient in crop production.

Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and quality. Also the stalks left block the soil from being eroded.

Green manure crops are commonly leguminous, meaning they are part of the Fabaceae (pea) family. This family is unique in that all of the species in it set pods, such as bean, lentil, lupins and alfalfa. Leguminous cover crops are typically high in nitrogen and can often provide the required quantity of nitrogen for crop production. In conventional farming, this nitrogen is typically applied in chemical fertilizer form. This quality of cover crops is called fertilizer replacement value.[5]

Another quality unique to leguminous cover crops is that they form symbiotic relationships with the rhizobial bacteria that reside in legume root nodules. Lupins is nodulated by the soil microorganism Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). Bradyrhizobia are encountered as microsymbionts in other leguminous crops (Argyrolobium, Lotus, Ornithopus, Acacia, Lupinus) of Mediterranean origin. These bacteria convert biologically unavailable atmospheric nitrogen gas (N
2
) to biologically available ammonium (NH+
4
) through the process of biological nitrogen fixation.

Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process, an energy-intensive method developed to carry out industrial nitrogen fixation and create chemical nitrogen fertilizer, most nitrogen introduced to ecosystems arose through biological nitrogen fixation.[6] Some scientists believe that widespread biological nitrogen fixation, achieved mainly through the use of cover crops, is the only alternative to industrial nitrogen fixation in the effort to maintain or increase future food production levels.[7][8] Industrial nitrogen fixation has been criticized as an unsustainable source of nitrogen for food production due to its reliance on fossil fuel energy and the environmental impacts associated with chemical nitrogen fertilizer use in agriculture.[9] Such widespread environmental impacts include nitrogen fertilizer losses into waterways, which can lead to eutrophication (nutrient loading) and ensuing hypoxia (oxygen depletion) of large bodies of water.

An example of this lies in the Mississippi Valley Basin, where years of fertilizer nitrogen loading into the watershed from agricultural production have resulted in a hypoxic "dead zone" off the Gulf of Mexico the size of New Jersey.[10] The ecological complexity of marine life in this zone has been diminishing as a consequence.[11]

As well as bringing nitrogen into agroecosystems through biological nitrogen fixation, types of cover crops known as "catch crops" are used to retain and recycle soil nitrogen already present. The catch crops take up surplus nitrogen remaining from fertilization of the previous crop, preventing it from being lost through leaching,[12] or gaseous denitrification or volatilization.[13]

Catch crops are typically fast-growing annual cereal species adapted to scavenge available nitrogen efficiently from the soil.[14] The nitrogen tied up in catch crop biomass is released back into the soil once the catch crop is incorporated as a green manure or otherwise begins to decompose.

An example of green manure use comes from Nigeria, where the cover crop Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) has been found to increase the availability of phosphorus in soil after a farmer applies rock phosphate.[15]

Soil quality management[edit]

Cover crops can also improve soil quality by increasing soil organic matter levels through the input of cover crop biomass over time. Increased soil organic matter enhances soil structure, as well as the water and nutrient holding and buffering capacity of soil.[16] It can also lead to increased soil carbon sequestration, which has been promoted as a strategy to help offset the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.[17][18][19]

Soil quality is managed to produce optimum circumstances for crops to flourish. The principal factors of soil quality are soil salination, pH, microorganism balance and the prevention of soil contamination.

Water management[edit]

By reducing soil erosion, cover crops often also reduce both the rate and quantity of water that drains off the field, which would normally pose environmental risks to waterways and ecosystems downstream.[20] Cover crop biomass acts as a physical barrier between rainfall and the soil surface, allowing raindrops to steadily trickle down through the soil profile. Also, as stated above, cover crop root growth results in the formation of soil pores, which in addition to enhancing soil macrofauna habitat provides pathways for water to filter through the soil profile rather than draining off the field as surface flow. With increased water infiltration, the potential for soil water storage and the recharging of aquifers can be improved.[21]

Just before cover crops are killed (by such practices including mowing, tilling, discing, rolling, or herbicide application) they contain a large amount of moisture. When the cover crop is incorporated into the soil, or left on the soil surface, it often increases soil moisture. In agroecosystems where water for crop production is in short supply, cover crops can be used as a mulch to conserve water by shading and cooling the soil surface. This reduces evaporation of soil moisture. In other situations farmers try to dry the soil out as quickly as possible going into the planting season. Here prolonged soil moisture conservation can be problematic.

While cover crops can help to conserve water, in temperate regions (particularly in years with below average precipitation) they can draw down soil water supply in the spring, particularly if climatic growing conditions are good. In these cases, just before crop planting, farmers often face a tradeoff between the benefits of increased cover crop growth and the drawbacks of reduced soil moisture for cash crop production that season. C/N ratio is balanced with this application.

Weed management[edit]

Cover crop in South Dakota

Thick cover crop stands often compete well with weeds during the cover crop growth period, and can prevent most germinated weed seeds from completing their life cycle and reproducing. If the cover crop is flattened down on the soil surface rather than incorporated into the soil as a green manure after its growth is terminated, it can form a nearly impenetrable mat. This drastically reduces light transmittance to weed seeds, which in many cases reduces weed seed germination rates.[22] Furthermore, even when weed seeds germinate, they often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop mulch layer. This is often termed the cover crop smother effect.[23]

Some cover crops suppress weeds both during growth and after death.[24] During growth these cover crops compete vigorously with weeds for available space, light, and nutrients, and after death they smother the next flush of weeds by forming a mulch layer on the soil surface. For example, researchers found that when using Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) as a cover crop in an improved fallow system (where a fallow period is intentionally improved by any number of different management practices, including the planting of cover crops), weed biomass only constituted between 1-12% of total standing biomass at the end of the cover crop growing season.[24] Furthermore, after cover crop termination, the yellow sweetclover residues suppressed weeds to levels 75–97% lower than in fallow (no yellow sweetclover) systems.

In addition to competition-based or physical weed suppression, certain cover crops are known to suppress weeds through allelopathy.[25][26] This occurs when certain biochemical cover crop compounds are degraded that happen to be toxic to, or inhibit seed germination of, other plant species. Some well known examples of allelopathic cover crops are Secale cereale (rye), Vicia villosa (hairy vetch), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum-sudangrass), and species in the Brassicaceae family, particularly mustards.[27] In one study, rye cover crop residues were found to have provided between 80% and 95% control of early season broadleaf weeds when used as a mulch during the production of different cash crops such as soybean, tobacco, corn, and sunflower.[28]

In a recent study released by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists examined how rye seeding rates and planting patterns affected cover crop production. The results show that planting more pounds per acre of rye increased the cover crop's production as well as decreased the amount of weeds. The same was true when scientists tested seeding rates on legumes and oats; a higher density of seeds planted per acre decreased the amount of weeds and increased the yield of legume and oat production. The planting patterns, which consisted of either traditional rows or grid patterns, did not seem to make a significant impact on the cover crop's production or on the weed production in either cover crop. The ARS scientists concluded that increased seeding rates could be an effective method of weed control.[29]

Disease management[edit]

In the same way that allelopathic properties of cover crops can suppress weeds, they can also break disease cycles and reduce populations of bacterial and fungal diseases[30], and parasitic nematodes.[31][32] Species in the Brassicaceae family, such as mustards, have been widely shown to suppress fungal disease populations through the release of naturally occurring toxic chemicals during the degradation of glucosinolade compounds in their plant cell tissues.[33]

Pest management[edit]

Some cover crops are used as so-called "trap crops", to attract pests away from the crop of value and toward what the pest sees as a more favorable habitat.[34] Trap crop areas can be established within crops, within farms, or within landscapes. In many cases the trap crop is grown during the same season as the food crop being produced. The limited area occupied by these trap crops can be treated with a pesticide once pests are drawn to the trap in large enough numbers to reduce the pest populations. In some organic systems, farmers drive over the trap crop with a large vacuum-based implement to physically pull the pests off the plants and out of the field.[35] This system has been recommended for use to help control the lygus bugs in organic strawberry production.[36] Another example of trap crops are nematode resistance white mustard (Sinapis alba) and radish (Raphanus sativus). They can be grown after a main (cereal) crop and trap nematodes, for example the beet cyst nematode[37][38] and Columbian root knot nematode.[39] When grown, nematodes hatch and are attracted to the roots. After entering the roots they cannot reproduce in the root due to a hypersensitive resistance reaction of the plant. Hence the nematode population is greatly reduced, by 70-99%, depending on species and cultivation time.

Other cover crops are used to attract natural predators of pests by providing elements of their habitat. This is a form of biological control known as habitat augmentation, but achieved with the use of cover crops.[40] Findings on the relationship between cover crop presence and predator/pest population dynamics have been mixed, pointing toward the need for detailed information on specific cover crop types and management practices to best complement a given integrated pest management strategy. For example, the predator mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) is known to help control the pest citrus thrips in Central California citrus orchards. Researchers found that the planting of several different leguminous cover crops (such as bell bean, woollypod vetch, New Zealand white clover, and Austrian winter pea) provided sufficient pollen as a feeding source to cause a seasonal increase in E. tularensis populations, which with good timing could potentially introduce enough predatory pressure to reduce pest populations of citrus thrips.[41]

Diversity and wildlife[edit]

Although cover crops are normally used to serve one of the above discussed purposes, they often simultaneously improve farm habitat for wildlife. The use of cover crops adds at least one more dimension of plant diversity to a cash crop rotation. Since the cover crop is typically not a crop of value, its management is usually less intensive, providing a window of “soft” human influence on the farm. This relatively “hands-off” management, combined with the increased on-farm heterogeneity created by the establishment of cover crops, increases the likelihood that a more complex trophic structure will develop to support a higher level of wildlife diversity.[42]

In one study, researchers compared arthropod and songbird species composition and field use between conventionally and cover cropped cotton fields in the Southern United States. The cover cropped cotton fields were planted to clover, which was left to grow in between cotton rows throughout the early cotton growing season (stripcover cropping). During the migration and breeding season, they found that songbird densities were 7–20 times higher in the cotton fields with integrated clover cover crop than in the conventional cotton fields. Arthropod abundance and biomass was also higher in the clover cover cropped fields throughout much of the songbird breeding season, which was attributed to an increased supply of flower nectar from the clover. The clover cover crop enhanced songbird habitat by providing cover and nesting sites, and an increased food source from higher arthropod populations.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carlson, Sarah (Summer 2013). "Research Priorities for Advancing Adoption of Cover Crops in Agriculture-intensive Regions". Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development. 3: 125–129.
  2. ^ "Cover Crops, a Farming Revolution With Deep Roots in the Past". The New York Times. 2016.
  3. ^ Römkens, M. J. M.; Prasad, S. N.; Whisler, F. D. (1990). "Surface sealing and infiltration". In Anderson, M. G.; Burt, T. P. (eds.). Process studies in hillslope hydrology. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. pp. 127–172. ISBN 0471927147.
  4. ^ Tomlin, A. D.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Edwards, W. M.; Protz, R. (1995). "Earthworms and their influence on soil structure and infiltration". In Hendrix, P. F. (ed.). Earthworm Ecology and Biogeography in North America. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers. pp. 159–183.
  5. ^ Thiessen-Martens, J. R.; Entz, M. H.; Hoeppner, J. W. (2005). "Legume cover crops with winter cereals in southern Manitoba: Fertilizer replacement values for oat". Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 85 (3): 645–648. doi:10.4141/p04-114.
  6. ^ Galloway, J. N.; Schlesinger, W. H.; Levy, H.; Michaels, A.; Schnoor, J. L. (1995). "Nitrogen-Fixation - Anthropogenic Enhancement-Environmental Response". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 9 (2): 235–252. Bibcode:1995GBioC...9..235G. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.143.8150. doi:10.1029/95gb00158.
  7. ^ Bohlool, B. B.; Ladha, J. K.; Garrity, D. P.; George, T. (1992). "Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective". Plant and Soil (Historical Archive). 141 (1–2): 1–11. doi:10.1007/bf00011307.
  8. ^ Peoples, M. B.; Craswell, E. T. (1992). "Biological nitrogen fixation: Investments, expectations and actual contributions to agriculture". Plant and Soil (Historical Archive). 141 (1–2): 13–39. doi:10.1007/BF00011308.
  9. ^ Jensen, E. S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. (2003). "How can increased use of biological N-2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment?". Plant and Soil. 252: 177–186. doi:10.1023/A:1024189029226.
  10. ^ Rabalais, N. N.; Turner, R. E.; Wiseman, W. J. (2002). "Gulf of Mexico hypoxia, aka "The dead zone"". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 33: 235–263. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150513.
  11. ^ National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (2000). Integrated Assessment of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC.
  12. ^ Morgan, M. F.; Jacobson, H. G. M.; LeCompte, S. B., Jr. (1942). Drainage water losses from a sandy soil as affected by cropping and cover crops (Technical report). Windsor Lysimeter Series C. New Haven: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. pp. 731–759.
  13. ^ Thorup-Kristensen, K.; Magid, J.; Jensen, L. S. (2003). "Catch crops and green manures as biological tools in nitrogen management in temperate zones". Advances in Agronomy. San Diego, California: Academic Press Inc. 79: 227–302.
  14. ^ Ditsch, D. C.; Alley, M. M. (1991). "Nonleguminous Cover Crop Management for Residual N Recovery and Subsequent Crop Yields". Journal of Fertilizer Issues. 8: 6–13.
  15. ^ Vanlauwe, B.; Nwoke, O. C.; Diels, J.; Sanginga, N.; Carsky, R. J.; Deckers, J.; Merckx, R. (2000). "Utilization of rock phosphate by crops on a representative toposequence in the Northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria: response by Mucuna pruriens, Lablab purpureus and maize". Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 32 (14): 2063–2077. doi:10.1016/s0038-0717(00)00149-8.
  16. ^ Patrick, W. H.; Haddon, C. B.; Hendrix, J. A. (1957). "The effects of longtime use of winter cover crops on certain physical properties of commerce loam". Soil Science Society of America Journal. 21 (4): 366–368. Bibcode:1957SSASJ..21..366P. doi:10.2136/sssaj1957.03615995002100040004x.
  17. ^ Kuo, S.; Sainju, U. M.; Jellum, E. J. (1997). "Winter cover crop effects on soil organic carbon and carbohydrate in soil". Soil Science Society of America Journal. 61 (1): 145–152. Bibcode:1997SSASJ..61..145K. doi:10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100010022x.
  18. ^ Sainju, U. M.; Singh, B. P.; Whitehead, W. F. (2002). "Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA". Soil & Tillage Research. 63 (3–4): 167–179. doi:10.1016/s0167-1987(01)00244-6.
  19. ^ Lal, R (2003). "Offsetting global CO2 emissions by restoration of degraded soils and intensification of world agriculture and forestry". Land Degradation & Development. 14 (3): 309–322. doi:10.1002/ldr.562.
  20. ^ Dabney, S. M.; Delgado, J. A.; Reeves, D. W. (2001). "Using winter cover crops to improve soil quality and water quality". Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 32 (7–8): 1221–1250. doi:10.1081/css-100104110.
  21. ^ Joyce, B. A.; Wallender, W. W.; Mitchell, J. P.; Huyck, L. M.; Temple, S. R.; Brostrom, P. N.; Hsiao, T. C. (2002). "Infiltration and soil water storage under winter cover cropping in California's Sacramento Valley". Transactions of the ASAE. 45 (2): 315–326. doi:10.13031/2013.8526.
  22. ^ Teasdale, J. R. (1993). "Interaction of light, soil moisture, and temperature with weed suppression by hairy vetch residue". Weed Science. 41: 46–51.
  23. ^ Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, M.; Suwanarak, K. (2003). "Evaluation of smothering effect of four legume covers on Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Swartz) Brunken". Weed Biology and Management. 3 (4): 222–227. doi:10.1046/j.1444-6162.2003.00107.x.
  24. ^ a b Blackshaw, R. E.; Moyer, J. R.; Doram, R. C.; Boswell, A. L. (2001). "Yellow sweetclover, green manure, and its residues effectively suppress weeds during fallow". Weed Science. 49 (3): 406–413. doi:10.1614/0043-1745(2001)049[0406:ysgmai]2.0.co;2.
  25. ^ Creamer, N. G.; Bennett, M. A.; Stinner, B. R.; Cardina, J.; Regnier, E. E. (1996). "Mechanisms of weed suppression in cover crop-based production systems". HortScience. 31 (3): 410–413. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.31.3.410.
  26. ^ Singh, H. P.; Batish, D. R.; Kohli, R. K. (2003). "Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: New possibilities for sustainable weed management". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 22 (3–4): 239–311. doi:10.1080/713610858.
  27. ^ Haramoto, E. R.; Gallandt, E. R. (2004). "Brassica cover cropping for weed management: A review". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 19 (4): 187–198. doi:10.1079/raf200490.
  28. ^ Nagabhushana, G. G.; Worsham, A. D.; Yenish, J. P. (2001). "Allelopathic cover crops to reduce herbicide use in sustainable agricultural systems". Allelopathy Journal. 8: 133–146.
  29. ^ "In Organic Cover Crops, More Seeds Means Fewer Weeds". USDA Agricultural Research Service. January 25, 2010.
  30. ^ Everts, K. L. (2002). "Reduced fungicide applications and host resistance for managing three diseases in pumpkin grown on a no-till cover crop". Plant Dis. 86 (10): 1134–1141. doi:10.1094/pdis.2002.86.10.1134.
  31. ^ Potter, M. J.; Davies, K.; Rathjen, A. J. (1998). "Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 24: 67–80. doi:10.1023/A:1022336812240.
  32. ^ Vargas-Ayala, R.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Morgan-Jones, G.; McInroy, J. A.; Kloepper, J. W. (2000). "Shifts in soil microflora induced by velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) in cropping systems to control root-knot nematodes". Biological Control. 17: 11–22. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.526.3937. doi:10.1006/bcon.1999.0769.
  33. ^ Lazzeri, L.; Manici, L. M. (2001). "Allelopathic effect of glucosinolate-containing plant green manure on Pythium sp and total fungal population in soil". HortScience. 36 (7): 1283–1289. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.36.7.1283.
  34. ^ Shelton, A. M.; Badenes-Perez, E. (2006). "Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest management". Annual Review of Entomology. 51: 285–308. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.150959. PMID 16332213.
  35. ^ Kuepper, George; Thomas, Raeven (February 2002). "Bug vacuums" for organic crop protection (Technical report). Fayetteville, Arkansas: Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas.
  36. ^ Zalom, F. G.; Phillips, P. A.; Toscano, N. C.; Udayagiri, S. (2001). UC Pest Management Guidelines: Strawberry: Lygus Bug (Report). Berkeley, CA: University of California Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
  37. ^ Lelivelt, C. L. C.; Leunissen, E. H. M.; Frederiks, H. J.; Helsper, J. P. F. G.; Krens, F. A. (1993-02-01). "Transfer of resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera Schachtii Schm.) from Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) to the Brassica napus L. gene pool by means of sexual and somatic hybridization". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 85 (6–7): 688–696. doi:10.1007/BF00225006. ISSN 0040-5752. PMID 24196037.
  38. ^ Smith, Heidi J.; Gray, Fred A.; Koch, David W. (2004-06-01). "Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt on Resistant Mustard, Radish, and Sugar Beet Cultivars". Journal of Nematology. 36 (2): 123–130. ISSN 0022-300X. PMC 2620762. PMID 19262796.
  39. ^ Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.; Been, Thomas H. (2014-05-28). "Relative susceptibilities of five fodder radish varieties (Raphanus sativus var. Oleiformis) to Meloidogyne chitwoodi". Nematology. 16 (5): 577–590. doi:10.1163/15685411-00002789. ISSN 1568-5411.
  40. ^ Bugg, R. L.; Waddington, C. (1994). "Using Cover Crops to Manage Arthropod Pests of Orchards - a Review". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 50: 11–28. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(94)90121-x.
  41. ^ Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Ouyang, Y. L.; Bugg, R. L. (1999). "Leguminous cover crops to enhance population development of Euseius tularensis (Acari : Phytoseiidae) in citrus". Biological Control. 16: 73–80. doi:10.1006/bcon.1999.0732.
  42. ^ Freemark, K. E.; Kirk, D. A. (2001). "Birds on organic and conventional farms in Ontario: partitioning effects of habitat and practices on species composition and abundance". Biological Conservation. 101 (3): 337–350. doi:10.1016/s0006-3207(01)00079-9.
  43. ^ Cederbaum, S. B.; Carroll, J. P.; Cooper, R. J. (2004). "Effects of alternative cotton agriculture on avian and arthropod populations". Conservation Biology. 18 (5): 1272–1282. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00385.x.

Further reading[edit]

  • SARE National. Topic: Cover Crops. [1]
  • Midwest Cover Crops Council. [2] Resources for growers, researchers, and educators.
  • Clark, Andy, ed. (2007). Managing Cover Crops Profitably (PDF) (3rd ed.). Beltsville, Maryland: Sustainable Agriculture Network.
  • Giller, K. E.; Cadisch, G. (1995). "Future benefits from biological nitrogen fixation: An ecological approach to agriculture". Plant and Soil (Historical Archive). 174 (1–2): 255–277. doi:10.1007/bf00032251.
  • Hartwig, N. L.; Ammon, H. U. (2002). "50th Anniversary - Invited article - Cover crops and living mulches". Weed Science. 50 (6): 688–699. doi:10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0688:aiacca]2.0.co;2.
  • Hill, E. C.; Ngouajio, M.; Nair, M. G. (2006). "Differential responses of weeds and vegetable crops to aqueous extracts of hairy vetch and cowpea". HortSci. 31: 695–700.
  • Lu, Y. C.; Watkins, K. B.; Teasdale, J. R.; Abdul-Baki, A. A. (2000). "Cover crops in sustainable food production". Food Reviews International. 16 (2): 121–157. doi:10.1081/fri-100100285.
  • Snapp, S. S.; Swinton, S. M.; Labarta, R.; Mutch, D.; Black, J. R.; Leep, R.; Nyiraneza, J.; O'Neil, K. (2005). "Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches". Agron. J. 97: 1–11.
  • Thomsen, I. K.; Christensen, B. T. (1999). "Nitrogen conserving potential of successive ryegrass catch crops in continuous spring barley". Soil Use and Management. 15 (3): 195–200. doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.1999.tb00088.x.

External links[edit]

  • [3] "Cover Crops," Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, v. 2, ed. by L. H. Bailey (1911). A short encyclopedia article, early primary source on varieties and uses of cover crops.