Cox's Bazar District

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Cox's Bazar
কক্সবাজার জেলা
Adinath Temple located at Maheshkhali.jpg
Entry gate of Rangkut Banasram Pilgrimage Monastery.jpg
Himchori Waterfall 2.jpg
Pink sky at sea beach.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Fasiakhali Wildlife Sanctuary, Adinath Temple at Maheshkhali, Himchori Waterfall, Sunset at Teknaf Beach, Rangkut Banasram Pilgrimage Monastery in Ramu
Location of Cox's Bazar District within Bangladesh
Location of Cox's Bazar District within Bangladesh
Expandable map of Cox's Bazar District
Coordinates: 21°15′N 91°35′E / 21.25°N 91.59°E / 21.25; 91.59Coordinates: 21°15′N 91°35′E / 21.25°N 91.59°E / 21.25; 91.59
Country Bangladesh
DivisionChittagong Division
 • Deputy CommissionerMd. Mamunur Rashid
 • Total2,491.85 km2 (962.11 sq mi)
 (2011 census)
 • Total2,289,990
 • Density920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+06:00 (BST)
HDI (2019)0.574[1]
medium · 19th of 20

Cox's Bazar (Bengali: কক্সবাজার জেলা, Cox's Bazar Jela also Cox's Bazar Zila) is a district in the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh.[2] It is named after Cox's Bazar town. It is located 150 kilometres (93 mi) south of Chittagong. Cox's Bazar is also known by the name Panowa ("yellow flower"). Another old name was Palongkee. The modern Cox's Bazar derives its name from Captain Hiram Cox (died 1799), an army officer who served in British India. It is one of the fishing ports of Bangladesh. At Cox's Bazar is one of the world's longest natural sea beaches (120 kilometres (75 mi) long including mud flats).


Often termed as the world's longest beach, Cox's Bazar is a major tourist destination within Bangladesh.

Cox's Bazar District has an area of 2,491.86 km2 (962.11 sq mi). It is bounded by Chittagong District on the north, Bay of Bengal in the south, Bandarban District on the east, and the Bay of Bengal on the west. Major rivers include Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Reju Khal, Naf River, Maheshkhali channel and Kutubdia channel. The area of the city of Cox's Bazar is 6.85 km2 (2.64 sq mi).


The history of Cox's Bazar begins in the Mughal period. On his way to Arakan, when the Mughal Prince Shah Shuja (1616–1660) passed through the hilly terrain of the present day Cox's Bazar, he was attracted to the scenic nature of the region. He commanded his forces to camp there. A place named Dulahazara, meaning "one thousand palanquins", still exists in the area.

After the Mughals, the place came under the control of the Tipras and the Arakanese, followed by the Portuguese and then the British.

Cox's Bazar is named after Captain Hiram Cox, an officer of the East India Company, who was assigned with the charges of the current day Cox's Bazar and its adjacent areas.[3][4] The town of Cox's Bazar was established in 1799 as a market town to honour Captain Cox. In 1854, Cox's Bazar was made a Sub Divisional headquarter in Chittagong district under the Bengal Presidency of British India.

After the end of British rule in 1947, Cox's Bazar remained a part of East Pakistan under the Dominion of Pakistan till 1971. Captain Advocate Fazlul Karim was the first chairman after independence from the British of Cox's Bazar municipality. He established the Tamarisk Forest along the beach to draw tourism to the town and to protect the beach from the tide. He donated many of his father-in-law's and his own lands to establish a public library and town hall. In 1971, the wharf was used as a naval port by the Pakistan Navy's gunboats. This and the nearby airstrip of the Pakistan Air Force were the scene of intense shelling by the Indian Navy during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

In the year 1984, Cox's Bazar was upgraded into a District from a Sub Division under the Chittagong Division.

Starting in 2017, a "mass human exodus" of the Rohingya Muslim minority group from neighboring Myanmar's Rakhine State led to the creation, in Cox's Bazar, of the "world's largest refugee settlement" over the following year. In the first year, the UNHCR estimated that 725,000 refugees had sought safety in Bangladesh.[5]

Upazila (Subdivisions)[edit]

Inani Beach

There are nine upazilas under this district, namely:

  1. Chakaria Upazila
  2. Cox's Bazar Sadar Upazila
  3. Kutubdia Upazila
  4. Maheshkhali Upazila
  5. Ramu Upazila
  6. Teknaf Upazila
  7. Ukhia Upazila
  8. Pekua Upazila
  9. Eidgaon Upazila[6]


  • Cox's Bazar Medical College
  • Cox's Bazar Polytechnic Institute
  • Cox's Bazar Govt. College
  • Cox's Bazar Govt. Women College
  • Cox's Bazar City College
  • Cox's Bazar International University
  • Cox's Bazar Commerce College
  • Cox's Bazar DC College
  • Cox's Bazar Harvard College
  • Ramu Degree College
  • Teknaf College


The annual average temperature in Cox's Bazar is 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) and a minimum of 16.1 °C (61.0 °F). The climate remains hot and humid with some seasons of temperate weather. The average amount of rainfall is 4,285 mm (168.7 in).


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1974 809,310—    
1981 1,026,172+3.45%
1991 1,419,260+3.30%
2001 1,773,709+2.25%
2011 2,289,990+2.59%
2022 2,821,123+1.91%

According to the 2011 Bangladesh census, Cox's Bazar district had a population was 2,289,990, of which 1,169,604 were males and 1,120,386 females. Rural population was 1,790,979 (78.21%) while the urban population was 499,011 (21.79%). Cox's Bazar district had a literacy rate of 39.29% for the population 7 years and above: 40.32% for males and 38.22% for females.[7]

Religions in Cox's Bazar district (2011)[7]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated
Religion in present-day Cox's Bazar district[a]
Religion Population (1941)[9]: 104–105  Percentage (1941) Population (2011)[7] Percentage (2011)
Islam Star and Crescent.svg 342,378 86.22% 2,151,958 93.97%
Buddhism Dharma Wheel (2).svg 27,211 6.85% 37,822 1.65%
Hinduism Om.svg 26,907 6.78% 97,648 4.26%
Others [b] 617 0.16% 2,562 0.12%
Total Population 397,113 100 2,289,990 100%

93.97% are Muslims, 4.26% Hindus and 1.65% Buddhists. Ethnic population is 14,551. The local dialect is Chittagonian, although there are many Rohingya speakers due to the massive refugee camps.


The major livelihood of Cox's Bazar district is tourism. Millions of foreign and Bangladeshi natives visit this coastal city every year. A number of hotels, guest houses, and motels have been built in the city and coastal region and the hospitality industry is a major employer in the area.

A number of people are involved in the fishing and collection of seafoods and sea products. Oysters, snails, pearls and jewelry made from shells are popular with the tourists in the seaside and city stores. A number of people are also involved in the transportation business for tourists. Many people of the district are farmers.

In 2002, a surfing club was initiated at Cox's Bazar by a local Bangladeshi. It has now extended to holding an annual competition including locals and foreign tourists. This is the first surfing initiative in Bangladesh's history.

Places of interest[edit]

Cox's Bazaar (Kolatoli Sea Beach) after sunset

Cox's Bazar, mostly known for its beach and sunsets,[citation needed] has several other attractions, including:

  • Aggmeda Khyang, a large Buddhist monastery, and a place revered by around 400,000 Buddhist people of Cox's Bazar Hill Tracts.[10]
Himchori from top
  • Himchori, located about 8 km (5 mi) south of Cox's Bazar, is a picnic spot with waterfalls and hill top from where views of the sea can be seen. Birds and terrestrial animals roam near the road.
  • Inani Beach has interesting rocks and coral boulders. It is 32 km (20 mi) from the main beach.
  • Coxsbazar Circuit House, located 2 km (1.2 mi) from Laboni Point, has a viewpoint from which the ocean can be seen. There are also views of Cox's Bazar city.[11]
  • St. Martin's Island, the only coral island in Bangladesh, is situated at 9 km (5.6 mi) south of Teknaf. It is a tourist spot.
  • Dulhazra Safari Park, a safari park in Bangladesh which is situated at Chakaria Upazila. It has a range of exotic animals such as birds, snakes, and water beasts.
  • Ukhiya Central Ananda Bhavan Vihar, a renowned Buddhist temple dating from 1782 located at Patabari, Ukhia (3-minute distance from the Arakan highway) 33 km away from the main town of Cox's Bazar.[12][13]

Notable people[edit]


  1. ^ Cox's Bazar subdivision of Chittagong district
  2. ^ Including Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated


  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  2. ^ Mohammad Mahibbullah Siddiqi (2012). "Cox's Bazar District". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal (ed.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  3. ^ G. P. Ramachandra (September 1981). "Captain Hiram Cox's Mission to Burma, 1796-1798: A Case of Irrational Behaviour in Diplomacy". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 12 (2): 433–451. doi:10.1017/s0022463400009966. JSTOR 20070440. S2CID 162684044.
  4. ^ Jerdan, William; Workman, William Ring; Arnold, Frederick; Morley, John; Goodwin, Charles Wycliffe (1842-08-07). Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres, Arts, Sciences, Volume 8. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
  5. ^ Kolstad, Kristine, "Cox's Bazar: The world's largest refugee settlement", Norwegian Refugee Council, 24 August 2018. Retrieved 2019-05-26.
  6. ^ "নতুন আরও তিনটি উপজেলা". Bangla Tribune (in Bengali). 2021-07-26. Retrieved 2021-07-26.
  7. ^ a b c d "Bangladesh Population and Housing Census 2011 Zila Report – Cox's Bazar" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
  8. ^ "2022 Census of Bangladesh - Preliminary Report". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
  10. ^ Aggmeda Khyang Monastery in Cox's Bazar 14 March 2020,, accessed 29 March 2021
  11. ^ Cox's Bazar Hill Top Circuit House, accessed 29 March 2021
  12. ^ Welcome to Ukhiya Central Ananda Bhavan Vihar Patabari, Ukhiya ,Cox's bazar, Bangladesh Buddhist Temple, accessed 29 March 2021
  13. ^ Ukhia Central Ananda Bhaban Vihar, accessed 29 March 2021
  14. ^ Mahtab, Moyukh (27 April 2017). "Will this lead to integration?". The Daily Star. Dhaka: Transcom Group. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.

External links[edit]