Cox's Orange Pippin

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'Cox's Orange Pippin'
SpeciesMalus domestica
Hybrid parentage'Margil' X 'Rosemary Russet'
Cultivar'Cox's Orange Pippin'
OriginUnited Kingdom, 1830

Cox's Orange Pippin, in Britain often referred to simply as Cox, is an apple cultivar first grown in 1825, at Colnbrook in Buckinghamshire, England, by the retired brewer and horticulturist Richard Cox. Though the parentage of the cultivar is unknown, Ribston Pippin seems a likely candidate. DNA analysis of major apple pedigrees has suggested Margil as the parent of Cox, with Ribston Pippin being another Margil seedling.[1] The variety was introduced for sale by the 1850s by Charles Turner, and grown commercially from the 1860s, particularly in the Vale of Evesham in Worcestershire, and later in Kent.[citation needed] A paper by Howard et al seems to suggest that the Cox Orange Pippin is a hybrid between the Cultivars: Rosemary Russet and Margil based on the SNP data 7

Description and uses[edit]

Fruit seen from stem end
Cox Orange Pippin

'Cox's Orange Pippin' is highly regarded for its excellent flavour and attractive appearance. The apples are of medium size, orange-red in colour, deepening to bright red and mottled with carmine over a deep yellow background. The flesh is very aromatic, yellow-white, fine-grained, crisp, and very juicy. Cox's flavour is sprightly subacid, with hints of cherry and anise, becoming softer and milder with age. When ripe apples are shaken, the seeds make a rattling sound as they are only loosely held in the apple's flesh.[2]

Cox's Orange Pippin is often blended with other varieties in the production of cider.[citation needed]

  • S genotype S5 S9.
  • Vitamin C 10 mg/100 gram
  • Density 0.85[3]


Illustration of the fruit

According to the Institute of Food Research,[4] Cox's Orange Pippin accounts for over 50% of the UK acreage of dessert apples. The tree is a moderate grower and is annually productive. However, it can be difficult to grow in many environments, and tends to be susceptible to diseases such as scab, mildew, and canker, so it is rarely grown commercially in North America.[5] Cox's Orange Pippin is also grown in Belgium and in the Netherlands, countries with a climate similar to that of Great Britain. In addition to the cultivation of Cox sports, apple breeders have hybridised Cox with other varieties to improve vigour, disease resistance, and yield, while attempting to retain the unique qualities of Cox's flavour.[6]

Typical crop yield in kg[3]
Year Rootstock M27 Rootstock M9 Rootstock M26
3 1 2.5 1.7
4 2.6 3.4 2.6
5 3 5 5
6 8.6 15 18.3
Typical size distribution[7]
-55mm 55-60mm 60-65mm 65-70mm 70-75mm 75-80mm
6% 19% 38% 28% 6% 3%


Cox La Vera
Crimson Cox

A number of sports of Cox's Orange Pippin have been discovered over subsequent years and propagated. These retain "Cox" in their names, e.g., Cherry Cox, Crimson Cox, King Cox, and Queen Cox.

Name Origin Discovered / Introduced
Bledisloe New Zealand 1932/1934
Cherry Cox Denmark 1942/
Cox La Vera Netherlands 1986/
Cox Orange Kortegaard Denmark 1914/
Crimson Cox Herefordshire, England c. 1913 / c. 1928
King Cox Worcestershire, England
Queen Cox Berkshire, England
Mendocino Cox[8] Northern California, USA
King Cox

Descendant cultivars[edit]

Cultivar name (female parent × male parent)

'Allington Pippin'
  • Allington Pippin (Cox's Orange Pippin × King of the Pippins)
  • Anna Boelens (Cox's Orange Pippin × Freiherr von Berlepsch)
  • Apollo (Cox's Orange Pippin × Geheimrat Doktor Oldenburg)[9]: 539 
  • Arthur W. Barnes (Gascoyne's Scarlet × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Barnack Orange (Cox's Orange Pippin × Barnack Beauty)
  • Barry (McIntosh × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Bountiful (Cox's Orange Pippin × Lane's Prince Albert)
  • Carswell's Honeydew (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Carswell's Orange (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Charles Ross' (Cox's Orange Pippin × Peasgood's Nonsuch)
  • Clivia (Geheimrat Doktor Oldenburg × Cox's Orange Pippin);[9]: 539 
  • Clopton Red (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Cobra (Cox's Orange Pippin' × Bramley's Seedling)
  • Downton Pippin (Cox's Orange Pippin × Golden Pippin)
  • Dukat (Golden Delicious × Cox's Orange Pippin) or (Geheimrat Doktor Oldenburg × Cox's Orange Pippin)[9]: 538 
  • Dunning (Cox's Orange Pippin × McIntosh)
  • Eden (John Standish × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Edith Hopwood (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Ellison's Orange (Cox's Orange Pippin × Cellini)
  • Elstar (Golden Delicious × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Fiesta (Cox's Orange Pippin × Idared)
  • Francis (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Freyburg (Cox's Orange Pippin × Golden Delicious)
  • Gloucester Cross (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Golden Nugget (Golden Russet × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Hereford Cross (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Herefordshire Russet (Cox's Orange Pippin × Idared)
  • High View Pippin (Sturmer Pippin × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Holstein (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Ingrid Marie (Cox's Orange Pippin × Cox Pomona)
  • James Grieve apple (Cox's Orange Pippin × Potts' Seedling)
  • Jupiter (Cox's Orange Pippin × Starking Delicious)
  • Karmijn de Sonneville (Cox's Orange Pippin × Jonathan)
  • Kent (Cox's Orange Pippin × Jonathan)
  • Kidd's Orange Red (Cox's Orange Pippin × Red Delicious)
  • King George V (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Langley Pippin (Cox's Orange Pippin × Gladstone)
  • Laxton's Advance (Cox's Orange Pippin × Gladstone)
  • Laxton's Epicure (Wealthy × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Laxton's Exquisite (Cellini × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Laxton's Fortune (Cox's Orange Pippin × Wealthy)
  • Laxton's Pearmain (Cox's Orange Pippin × Wyken Pippin)
  • Laxton's Superb (Cellini × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Laxton's Triumph (King of the Pippins × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Lucullus (Jonathan x Cox Orange Pippin)
  • Lynn's Pippin (Cox's Orange Pippin × Ellison's Orange)
  • Meridien (Cox's Orange Pippin × Falstaff)
  • Merton Beauty (Ellison's Orange × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Merton Charm (McIntosh × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Merton Russet (Sturmer Pippin × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Merton Worcester (Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain)
  • Millicent Barnes (Gascoyne's Scarlet × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Nuvar Cheerful Gold (Cox's Orange Pippin × Golden Delicious)
  • Nuvar Freckles (Golden Delicious × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Orangenburg (Cox's Orange Pippin × Esopus Spitzenburg)
  • Pixie (Cox's Orange Pippin × Sunset)
  • Polly Prosser (Cox's Orange Pippin × Duke of Devonshire)
  • Prince Charles (Lord Lambourne × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Prins Bernhard (Jonathan × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Red Windsor (Cox's Orange Pippin × Alkmene)
  • Rival (Peasgood's Nonsuch × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Rosy Blenheim (Blenheim Orange × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Rubens (Cox's Orange Pippin × Unknown)
  • Rubinette (Golden Delicious × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Ruby (Thorrington) (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Saint Cecilia (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Saint Everard (Cox's Orange Pippin × Margil)
  • Sunburn (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Suntan (Cox's Orange Pippin × Court Pendu Plat)
  • Sunset (Cox's Orange Pippin × unknown)
  • Sweetie Darling/East Malling A 3022 (Cox's Orange Pippin × Northern Spy)
  • Tydeman's Late Orange (Laxton's Superb × Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Tydeman's October Pippin (Cox's Orange Pippin × Ellison's Orange)
  • William Crump (Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain)
  • Winter Gem (Cox's Orange Pippin × Grimes Golden)
  • Winston/Winter King (Cox's Orange Pippin × Worcester Pearmain)

Sports (mutations)[edit]

A number of Sports of Cox's Orange Pippin have been selected.

  • Queen Cox (A self-fertile sport)
  • Cherry Cox (A sport that is more red than Cox's Orange Pippin and has mild cherry candy flavor)
  • Mendocino Cox[8]


  1. ^ Muranty, Hélène; Denancé, Caroline; Feugey, Laurence; Crépin, Jean-Luc; Barbier, Yves; Tartarini, Stefano; Ordidge, Matthew; Troggio, Michela; Lateur, Marc; Nybom, Hilde; Paprstein, Frantisek (2020-01-02). "Using whole-genome SNP data to reconstruct a large multi-generation pedigree in apple germplasm". BMC Plant Biology. 20 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/s12870-019-2171-6. ISSN 1471-2229. PMC 6941274. PMID 31898487.
  2. ^ The Food Coach: Healthy Food Database
  3. ^ a b Petzold Herbert, Apfelsorten, 1990
  4. ^ "Apple facts". Archived from the original on 2013-11-12. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
  5. ^ "United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service". Archived from the original on 2012-02-10. Retrieved 2012-02-09.
  6. ^ Apple Breeding in New Zealand
  7. ^ Silbereisen, Robert; Götz, Gerhard; Hartmann, Walter; Tambour, Gisela; Eberle, Christl (1996). Obstsorten – Atlas. Ulmer (Eugen). ISBN 9783800155378.
  8. ^ a b "Apple (Malus domestica 'Mendocino Cox') in the Apples Database —".
  9. ^ a b c d K. M. Evans, A. Patocchi, F. Rezzonico, F. Mathis, C. E. Durel, F. Fernández-Fernández, A. Boudichevskaia, F. Dunemann, M. Stankiewicz-Kosyl, L. Gianfranceschi, M. Komjanc, M. Lateur, M. Madduri, Y. Noordijk, W. E. van de Weg (2011). Genotyping of pedigreed apple breeding material with a genome-covering set of SSRs: trueness-to-type of cultivars and their parentages Archived 2014-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Molecular Breeding 28 (4): 535–547. doi:10.1007/s11032-010-9502-5

10 Howard, N. P., Micheletti, D., Luby, J. J., Durel, C. E., Denancé, C., Muranty, H., … Albach, D. C. (2022). Pedigree reconstruction for triploid apple cultivars using single nucleotide polymorphism array data. Plants People Planet, (March), 1–14.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bunyard, E. A. (1920) A Handbook of Fruits
  • Sanders, Rosanne (1988) The English Apple
  • Visser, J. (1983) Effect of the ground-water regime and nitrogen fertilizer on the yield and quality of apples: results of a ground-water level experimental field with the apple varieties Golden Delicious and Cox's Orange Pippin on a young calcerous marine clayey soil. Lelystad: Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat

External links[edit]