Crèvecœur chicken

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Crèvecœur
Crevecoeur chicken.JPG
Crèvecœur cock (foreground)
Conservation status FAO (2007): endangered
Country of origin France
Use dual-purpose, meat and eggs; fancy
Traits
Weight
  • Male: 3 kg[1]:37
  • Female: 2.5 kg[1]:37
Egg color white
Comb type V-shaped
Classification
APA continental[2]
ABA all other comb clean legged
PCGB rare soft feather: heavy[3]
Notes
crested breed

The Crèvecœur is an endangered historic chicken breed from the Pays d'Auge, in the Calvados département of Normandy, in north-western France. It is named after the commune of Crèvecœur-en-Auge. It is related to the La Flèche and to other Norman breeds such as the Caumont and Caux and the extinct Pavilly; the Merlerault was formerly considered a sub-type of the Crèvecœur.

History[edit]

The Crèvecœur is among the oldest French breeds of chicken; its origins are unknown. It takes its name from the commune of Crèvecœur-en-Auge, near Lisieux in the historic region of the Pays d'Auge, in the Calvados département of Normandy. Crèvecoeur chickens won prizes at the Exposition Universelle of 1855 in Paris.[1]:37 The breed was described in detail by Louis Bréchemin in 1894,[4][5] but the breed standard was not accepted by the Société d’Aviculture de Basse-Normandie until 1909.[4]

The population of the breed suffered during both the First and Second World Wars; after the latter, it was thought to have virtually disappeared. Recovery was begun in 1976 by Jean-Claude Périquet. In 1995 numbers were reported to be between 100 and 1000 individuals;[6] in 2007 the breed was classified by the FAO as "endangered".[7]:152

The Crèvecœur was added to the Standard of Perfection of the American Poultry Association in 1874.[2]

Characteristics[edit]

The Crèvecœur has a crest similar to that of the Houdan breed. Unlike the Houdan, the Crèvecœur is four-toed and has a V-shaped comb like that of the La Flèche.[8]:331

The Crèvecœur is most commonly black;[9] there are three other recognised colour variants: blue,[10] white,[11] and cuckoo.[7]:45[12] The legs are a dark blue-gray.[13]:116

Use[edit]

The Crèvecœur was traditionally kept as a dual-purpose chicken, raised both for its eggs and for its meat, which is of high quality. The eggs are white, and weigh about 55 g.[1]:37 The Crèvecœur is now raised primarily for poultry exhibition.[1]:37

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Nathalie Semenuik, Georges Pernot (photographs) (2008). [ Les poules] (in French). [Paris]: Artemis. ISBN 9782844166937.
  2. ^ a b APA Recognized Breeds and Varieties as of January 1, 2012. American Poultry Association. Accessed September 2016.
  3. ^ Breed Classification. Poultry Club of Great Britain. Accessed September 2016.
  4. ^ a b Pierre-Alain Falquet (2014). Coup de coeur pour la Crèvecoeur (in French). Club Suisse des Volailles Françaises. Accessed September 2016.
  5. ^ Louis Bréchemin (1893). [ Élevage moderne des animaux de basse-cour. Poules et poulaillers, élevage naturel et artificiel, monographie de toutes les races] (in French). Paris: E. Dentu. Page 72–75.
  6. ^ Breed data sheet: Crèvecoeur/France. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2016.
  7. ^ a b Barbara Rischkowsky, D. Pilling (eds.) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Accessed May 2014.
  8. ^ Victoria Roberts (2008). British poultry standards: complete specifications and judging points of all standardized breeds and varieties of poultry as compiled by the specialist breed clubs and recognised by the Poultry Club of Great Britain. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 9781405156424.
  9. ^ Breed data sheet: Crèvecoeur noire/France. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2016.
  10. ^ Breed data sheet: Crèvecoeur bleue/France. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2016.
  11. ^ Breed data sheet: Crèvecoeur blanche/France. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2016.
  12. ^ Breed data sheet: Crèvecoeur coucou/France. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2016.
  13. ^ Carol Ekarius (2007). Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. ISBN 9781580176682.

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