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Digitaria sanguinalis
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Supertribe: Panicodae
Tribe: Paniceae
Subtribe: Anthephorinae
Genus: Digitaria
Haller 1768,[1] conserved name not Heist. ex Fabr. 1759 nor Scop. 1772 nor Adans. 1763[2]
  • Digitaria Heist. ex Fabr. 1759, rejected name not Haller 1768
  • Valota Adans. 1763, rejected name not Dumort. 1829
  • Sanguinella Gleichen
  • Syntherisma Walter
  • Acicarpa Raddi
  • Trichachne Nees
  • Gramerium Desv.
  • Elytroblepharum (Steud.) Schltdl.
  • Eriachne Phil. 1870, illegitimate homonym not R.Br. 1810
  • Sanguinaria Bubani
  • Leptoloma Chase
  • Digitariopsis C.E.Hubb.
  • Digitariella De Winter
  • Panicum sect. Digitaria (Haller) Trin.
  • Panicum ser. Digitaria (Haller) Benth.
  • Panicum ser. Digitarieae (Haller) Benth.
  • Panicum subg. Digitaria (Haller) A. Gray
  • Panicum subg. Digitaria (Haller) Hack.
  • Paspalum sect. Digitaria (Haller) Nees
  • Paspalum subg. Digitaria (Haller) A. Camus

Digitaria is a genus of plants in the grass family native to tropical and warm temperate regions but can occur in tropical, subtropical, and cooler temperate regions as well. Common names include crabgrass, finger-grass, and fonio. They are slender monocotyledonous annual and perennial lawn, pasture, and forage plants; some are often considered lawn pests. Digitus is the Latin word for "finger", and they are distinguished by the long, finger-like inflorescences they produce.

Large crabgrass seedhead 2 - 9 spikelets
Large crabgrass seedhead raceme


The seeds are edible, most notably those of fonio (Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua), Digitaria sanguinalis, as well as Digitaria compacta. They can be toasted, ground into a flour, made into porridge or fermented to make beer. Fonio has been widely used as a staple crop in parts of Africa. It also has decent nutrient qualities as a forage for cattle.[5][6]


The prevalent species of Digitaria in North America are large crabgrass (D. sanguinalis), sometimes known as hairy crabgrass; and smooth crabgrass (D. ischaemum). These species often become problem weeds in lawns and gardens, growing especially well in thin lawns that are watered lightly, under-fertilized, and poorly drained. They are annual plants, and one plant is capable of producing 150,000 seeds per season. The seeds germinate in the late spring and early summer and outcompete the domesticated lawn grasses, expanding outward in a circle up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter. In the autumn when the plants die, they leave large voids in the lawn. The voids then become prime areas for the crabgrass seeds to germinate the following season.

Biological control is preferable over herbicide use on lawns, as crabgrass emergence is not the cause of poor lawn health but a symptom, and it will return annually if the lawn is not restored with fertilization and proper watering.[7] Crabgrass is quickly outcompeted by healthy lawn grass because, as an annual plant, crabgrass dies off in autumn and needs open conditions for its germination the following spring.

Selected species[edit]


  1. ^ "Genus: Digitaria Haller". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Archived from the original on 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  2. ^ search for Digitaria
  3. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  4. ^ Tropicos, Digitaria Haller
  5. ^ Gilani, S. S., et al. (2003). "Taxonomic relationship of Digitaria in Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Botany 35(3): 279–282.
  6. ^ Gilani, S. S., et al. (2003)."New subspecies of Digitaria sanguinalis from Pakistan". Pakistan Journal of Botany 35(3): 261–278.
  7. ^ "Weed Killer Guide". 2009.
  8. ^ Klaassen, E.S.; Craven, P. (2003). Checklist of grasses in Namibia, Part 3 (PDF). South African Botanical Diversity Network. ISBN 99916-63-16-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Digitaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
  10. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Digitaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2010-11-06.

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