Cracker Barrel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc.
Cracker Barrel
TypePublic
NasdaqCBRL
S&P 400 Component[1]
ISINUS22410J1060
IndustryRestaurants
FoundedSeptember 19, 1969; 52 years ago (1969-09-19)
FounderDan Evins
Headquarters,
Number of locations
Increase 663 (2020)[2]
Area served
United States
Key people
William W. McCartten (Director and executive chairman)[3]
Sandra B. Cochran (President and CEO)[4]
ProductsSouthern Cuisine
(breakfast foods • seafood • chicken platters • Dumplings • Steaks • Kids Menu • Pork Dishes • Salads • Sandwiches • Beef Platters • Desserts) [5]
ServicesFood
General store
RevenueIncrease US$2.821 billion (FY 2021)[6]
Increase US$366.65 million (FY 2021)[6]
Increase US$254.51 million (FY 2021)[6]
Total assetsIncrease US$2.391 billion (FY 2021)[6]
Total equityDecrease US$2.391 billion (FY 2021)[6]
Number of employees
55,000[2] (2020)
SubsidiariesLogan's Roadhouse (1999–2006)
Rocking Chair, Inc. (2002–present)[7]
Maple Street Biscuit Company (2019–present)
Websitewww.crackerbarrel.com

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc., doing business as Cracker Barrel, is an American chain of restaurant and gift stores with a Southern country theme. The company was founded by Dan Evins in 1969; its first store was in Lebanon, Tennessee. The corporate offices are located at a different facility in the same city. The chain's stores were at first positioned near Interstate Highway exits in the Southeastern and Midwestern United States, but expanded across the country during the 1990s and 2000s. As of September 16, 2020, the chain operates 663 stores in 45 states.[2]

Cracker Barrel's menu is based on traditional Southern cuisine, with appearance and decor designed to resemble an old-fashioned general store. Each location features a front porch lined with wooden rocking chairs, a stone fireplace, and decorative artifacts from the local area. Cracker Barrel partners with country music performers. It engages in charitable activities, such as its assistance to victims of Hurricane Katrina and injured war veterans.

During the early 1990s, the company became the subject of controversy when founder and CEO Dan Evins instituted an official company policy prohibiting the hiring of any individual whose "sexual preferences fail to demonstrate normal heterosexual values." Following massive public backlash and large shareholders such as the New York City Employee Retirement System threatening to vote out the entirety of upper management, the company reversed the policy. For the next decade, Cracker Barrel continued to spark controversy through Evin's public and private encouragement of discriminatory practices against female and minority employees, practices which violated the company's own non-discrimination policy.

History[edit]

First location and early company history[edit]

Cracker Barrel was founded in 1969 by Dan Evins, a sales representative for Shell Oil, who developed the restaurant and gift store concept initially as a plan to improve gasoline sales.[8] Designed to resemble the traditional country store that he remembered from his childhood, with a name chosen to give it a Southern country theme,[9] Cracker Barrel was intended to attract the interest of highway travelers.[8] The name comes from the barrels of soda crackers that could be found for sale in small-town stores across the American South in the early 1900s; people would stand around the barrels chatting and catching up, similar in purpose to contemporary office water coolers.[10]

The first restaurant was built close to Interstate 40, in Lebanon, Tennessee.[11] It opened in September 1969,[12] serving Southern cuisine including biscuits, grits, country ham, and turnip greens.[11]

Evins incorporated Cracker Barrel in February 1970,[8] and soon opened more locations. In the early 1970s, the firm leased land on gasoline station sites near interstate highways to build restaurants.[9] These early locations all featured gas pumps on-site; during gasoline shortages in the mid to late 1970s, the firm began to build restaurants without pumps.[8] Into the early 1980s, the company reduced the number of gas stations on-site, eventually phasing them out altogether as the company focused on its restaurant and gift sales revenues.[12] Cracker Barrel became a publicly traded company in 1981 to raise funds for further expansion.[8][11] It floated more than half a million shares, raising $4.6 million.[9] Following the initial public offering, Cracker Barrel grew at a rate of around 20 percent per year;[13] by 1987, the company had become a chain of more than 50 units in eight states, with annual net sales of almost $81 million.[8]

New markets and refocus[edit]

A Cracker Barrel in Minnesota

The company grew consistently through the 1980s and 1990s, attaining a $1 billion market value by 1992.[11][14][15] In 1993, the chain's revenue was nearly twice that of any other family restaurant.[9]

In 1994, the chain tested a carry-out-only store, Cracker Barrel Old Country Store Corner Market, in suburban residential neighborhoods.[15] In addition, it expanded into new markets through the establishment of more traditional Cracker Barrel locations, the majority of them outside the South, and tested alterations to its menus to adapt to new regions.[16] The chain added regional dishes to its menus, including eggs and salsa in Texas and Reuben sandwiches in New York, but continued to offer its original menu items in all restaurants.[14]

By September 1997, Cracker Barrel had 314 restaurants, and aimed to increase the number of stores by approximately 50 per year over the following five years.[16] The firm closed its Corner Market operations in 1997 and refocused on its restaurant and gift store locations. The company's president, Ron Magruder, stated that the chain was concentrating on strengthening its core theme, offering traditional foods and retail in a country store setting, with good service and country music.[13] The chain opened its first restaurant and gift store not located near a highway in 1998, in Dothan, Alabama.[17] In the 2000s, in the wake of incidents including charges of racial discrimination and controversy over its policy of firing gay employees, the firm launched a series of promotional activities including a nationwide book drive and a sweepstakes with trips to the Country Music Association Awards and rocking chairs among the prizes.[18] The company has since begun expansion to the West Coast: in 2017, their first store in the region opened in Tualatin, Oregon,[19] and their first store in California was opened the next year in Victorville.[20]

In 2019 Cracker Barrel purchased Maple Street Biscuit Company for $36 million cash.[21]

Operations[edit]

The number of combined restaurants and stores owned by Cracker Barrel increased between 1997 and 2000, to more than 420 locations. In 2000 and 2001, the company addressed staffing and infrastructure issues related to this rapid growth by implementing a more rigorous recruitment strategy and introducing new technology, including an order-placement system.[22] From the late 1990s to the mid-2000s, the company focused on opening new locations in residential areas to attract local residents and workers as customers.[17] It updated its marketing in 2006 to encourage new customers, changing the design of its highway billboard advertisements to include images of menu items. Previously the signs had featured only the company's logo.[23] By 2011, Cracker Barrel had opened more than 600 restaurants in 42 states.[24][25][26] On January 17, 2012, company founder Dan Evins died of bladder cancer.[27]

Restaurants[edit]

Food and gift shop[edit]

A Cracker Barrel gift shop

As a Southern-themed chain, Cracker Barrel serves traditional Southern comfort food often described as "down-home" country cooking and sells gift items including simple toys representative of the 1950s and 1960s, toy vehicles, puzzles, and woodcrafts. Also sold are country music CDs, DVDs of early classic television, cookbooks, baking mixes, kitchen novelty decor, and early classic brands of candy and snack foods.[28][29] Breakfast is served all day, and there are two menus: one for breakfast, the other for lunch and dinner. Since the first restaurant opened, the menu has featured Southern specialties, including biscuits, fried chicken, and catfish;[8] seasonal and regional menu items were added during the 1980s and 1990s.[8][16] In 2007, Cracker Barrel announced plans to remove artificial trans fats from its menu items.[30][31]

Locations, service, and decor[edit]

A Cracker Barrel guest playing peg solitaire

For much of its early history, Cracker Barrel decided to locate its restaurants along the Interstate Highway System,[8] and the majority of its restaurants remain close to interstate and other highways.[32][33][34] Cracker Barrel is known for the loyalty of its customers,[14] particularly travelers who are likely to spend more at restaurants than locals.[16]

The locations are themed around the idea of a traditional Southern U.S. general store. Items used to decorate each store are authentic artifacts,[11] including everyday objects from the early 1900s and after.[35] Each location features a front porch lined with wooden rocking chairs, a wooden peg solitaire game on every table,[36] and a stone fireplace with a deer head displayed above the mantel.[37] Each location has five common items: a shotgun, a cookstove, a deer head, a telephone, and a traffic light.[38] The peg games have been present in Cracker Barrel since the opening of the first store, and continue to be produced by the same family in Lebanon, Tennessee.[39]

The decor at each location typically includes artifacts related to the local history of the area, including antique household tools, old wall calendars and advertising posters, and antique photographs.[33] The practice began with the first location which was decorated by Lebanon, Tennessee antique store owners Don and Kathleen Singleton. The Singletons continued to be involved in decorating subsequent stores until 1979 followed by their son, Larry Singleton, who held the role until his retirement in 2019.[40][41] Items acquired by the company to be used as decorations are centrally stored in a Tennessee warehouse,[42] where they are cleaned, restored and cataloged until needed.[43] As of 2018, the facility held more than 90,000 items.[44]

Awards[edit]

Wooden rocking chairs outside a Cracker Barrel in Florida City, Florida

Destinations magazine has presented the chain with awards for best chain restaurant,[45] and in 2010 and 2011, the Zagat survey named it the "Best Breakfast".[46][47] The chain was selected by the Outdoor Advertising Association of America as the 2011 OBIE Hall of Fame Award recipient for its long-standing use of outdoor advertising.[48] It was also named the "Best Family Dining" restaurant by a nationwide "Choice in Chains" consumer poll in Restaurants & Institutions magazine for 19 consecutive years.[37]

Fans[edit]

From 1977 to 2017, married couple Ray and Wilma Yoder drove a combined total of more than 5 million miles to visit 644 Cracker Barrel locations. When the company opened their 645th restaurant, in Tualatin, Oregon in August 2017 (on Ray Yoder's 81st birthday), it flew the Yoders out for the grand opening and presented them with custom aprons and rocking chairs, among other gifts.[49][50]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Leadership[edit]

Board of directors[edit]

The company is run by a board of directors made up of mostly company outsiders, as is customary for publicly traded companies. Board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders' meeting using a majority vote system. There are five committees within the board which oversee specific matters. These committees include the audit committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including nomination of the board; the executive committee, whose chairperson is ex officio the chairman of the board; and the Public Responsibility Committee, which works to ensure the company remains compliant with all local, state, and federal laws, in addition to ensuring the company remains neutral in American politics.[51]

On 10 July 2020, Cracker Barrel Old Country Store reported that, effective instantly, Gilbert Dávila was named to the board of directors of the company. Mr. Dávila is the founder and CEO of DMI Consulting – a major international communications, diversity & inclusion and innovation company in the United States, primarily helping Fortune 200 businesses to build competitive development strategies based on America's fastest expanding population / segment.[52]

Executives[edit]

Sandra B. Cochran is the CEO and president of the company. She has held the position since September 2011. Prior to this position, Cochran served as Chief Financial Officer of the company from April 2009 until November 2010 and was named Chief Operating Officer in November 2010.[53]

Investment and business model[edit]

Cracker Barrel restaurants are aimed at the family and casual dining market as well as retail sales.[13] The chain also advertises to people traveling on the interstate highways, as the majority of its locations are close to highway exits.[15] The company has promoted its cost controls to investors.[54][55] The company has stated its goals are to keep employee turnover low and to provide better trained staff.[55] Since the 1980s, the firm has offered a formal training program with benefits for progressing through it to all of its employees.[8][56]

Partnerships[edit]

Cracker Barrel has frequently collaborated with country musician Dolly Parton. The company first worked with Parton in 2009 on the collector's edition of her album Backwoods Barbie. Since then, the company has released collector's editions of other Parton albums. It also brought together Parton and the a cappella group Pentatonix to create a remix of Parton's song Jolene, which won a grammy award for best country duo/group performance in 2017.[57] Parton also performed as part of Cracker Barrel's appearance in the 2020 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[58]

In 2009, the company worked with country musician Alan Jackson to release an album, called Songs of Love and Heartache, along with a collectible collection.[59] In 2019, the company launched its 'Five Decades, One Voice' campaign, which highlighted female country music singers such as Loretta Lynn, Trisha Yearwood, and Brandi Carlile after a study found female country artists receive less radio time than male artists. The initiative included producing covers of classic country songs and creating all-female playlists for the company's restaurants.[60][61]

In 2011, The Oakridge Boys recorded a 30th anniversary edition of their album "It's Only Natural" for the company.[62] In 2020, Cracker Barrel brought together Ingrid Andress, Kimberly Schlapman, and Karen Fairchild to collaborate on a version of Andress' song "More Hearts Than Mine."[63]

Community involvement[edit]

A Cracker Barrel in Minnesota
A Cracker Barrel in Minnesota

Cracker Barrel has supported a wide range of charities through one-off donations, promotional events, and partnerships with charitable organizations.[64] The chain has supported charities and causes in communities where its restaurants are located, including the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina in 2005[65] and Nashville after severe flooding in 2010. In the same year, Cracker Barrel established Cracker Barrel Cares Inc., an employee-funded non-profit organization that provides support to Cracker Barrel employees.[66] Cracker Barrel has also formed a partnership with the Wounded Warrior Project, a charity for injured veterans.[67] In attempts to rebuild its image after several race-related controversies,[68] the firm has provided a scholarship through the National Black MBA Association,[69] and job skills programs and sponsorships with 100 Black Men of America[68][70] and the Restaurant and Lodging Association.[71]

Cracker Barrel sponsored the NASCAR Atlanta 500 race at Atlanta Motor Speedway from 1999 to 2001[72] and the Grand Ole Opry from 2004 to 2009. The company was the first presenting sponsor of the Grand Ole Opry.[73] This sponsorship allowed the company to make connections within the Nashville music industry, following which it entered into partnership with a number of country music performers.[74] The chain has established partnerships with artists including Alison Krauss, Charlie Daniels, Josh Turner, Kenny Rogers, Dolly Parton, Alan Jackson, and Alabama, to offer CD releases and merchandise.[74][75][76]

In 1997, the company purchased the Mitchell House in Lebanon, Tennessee. The house had been the elementary dormitory and school for Castle Heights Military Academy which both Dan Evins and his son attended. The school had closed in 1986 and the building had sat empty since then. Cracker Barrel spent two million dollars to restore the home and used it as its corporate headquarters from 1999 to 2013.[77][78]

Conflict with Biglari Holdings[edit]

The board of directors of Cracker Barrel has repeatedly been at odds with the largest shareholder, Biglari Holdings Inc.[79] According to SEC filings, as of 2013, Biglari Holdings controlled a 19.9% share of the company,[80] just short of the 20% needed to trigger a shareholder rights plan, more commonly termed a "poison pill".[81] The poison pill was adopted after Biglari Holdings sought approval to purchase a 49.99% share of the company and join the board of directors.[81] Sardar Biglari made another attempt to join Cracker Barrel's board in 2020, which shareholders rejected. At the time, he reportedly controlled approximately 8.7% of the company.[82]

Biglari Holdings purchased shares of Cracker Barrel in 2011, and has often been critical of the transparency to shareholders, overspending on advertising, lack of customer value,[83] capital funds mismanagement,[84] and not maximizing shareholder value.[85] As of 2020, Biglari had made five attempts to join the board as a candidate himself or by proxy.[86] Each attempt has been denied by a shareholder vote. Biglari Holdings has also put forward a request for a one-time $20/share dividend to address perceived overly conservative capitalization,[85] which was also rejected by shareholders.[84] Cracker Barrel has responded by claiming Biglari has a "hidden agenda" and a conflict of interest by holding shares in other restaurant chains such as Steak 'n Shake.[87][88]

Controversies[edit]

LGBT policies[edit]

In early 1991, an intra-company memo called for employees to be dismissed if they did not display "normal heterosexual values". According to news reports, at least 11 employees were fired under the policy on a store-by-store basis from locations in Georgia and other states.[9][16] After demonstrations by gay rights groups, the company ended its policy in March 1991 and stated it would not discriminate based on sexual orientation.[89][90] The company's founder, Dan Evins, subsequently described the policy as a mistake.[9] From 1992 onward,[91] the New York City Employees Retirement System, then a major shareholder, put forward proposals to add sexual orientation to the company's non-discrimination policy. An early proposal in 1993 was defeated, with 77 percent against and only 14 percent in support, along with 9 percent abstaining.[92] It was not until 2002 that the proposals were successful; 58 percent of company shareholders voted in favor of the addition.[89]

Cracker Barrel achieved the lowest score (15 out of 100) of all rated food and beverage companies in the Human Rights Campaign's 2008 Corporate Equality Index, a measure of LGBT workplace equality.[93] Their score for 2011 had increased to a 55. The 2011 survey noted that the firm had established a non-discrimination policy and had introduced diversity training that included training related to sexual orientation.[94] However, the company's score for 2013 dropped to a 35 out of 100, not having obtained the points related to non-discrimination toward gender identity and health benefits for partners of LGBT employees and transgender-inclusive benefits.[95] In 2019, Cracker Barrel earned a score of 80 on the index, and maintained that score in the 2020 and 2021 reports.[96][97][98]

On December 20, 2013, Cracker Barrel announced it would no longer sell certain Duck Dynasty products which it was "concerned might offend some of [its] guests"[99] after Phil Robertson, a star of the reality TV show, remarked in a GQ interview:[100]

Don't be deceived. Neither the adulterers, the idolators, the male prostitutes, the homosexual offenders, the greedy, the drunkards, the slanderers, the swindlers—they won't inherit the kingdom of God. Don't deceive yourself. It's not right.

— Duck Dynasty's Phil Robertson

Robertson also made "comments likening homosexuality to terrorism and bestiality" in the interview, and expressed views about race which attracted criticism. On December 22, less than two days after pulling the products from its shelves, Cracker Barrel reversed its position after protests from customers.[101][102][103]

Beginning in 2016, the company adopted a pro-LGBT stance, developing an internal diversity council which included LGBTQ members. Since 2017, the company has sponsored Out & Equal, a workplace-equality non-profit organization.[104]

In 2018, Cracker Barrel developed a limited edition of the chain's signature rocking chairs featuring a LGBT rainbow pattern. The company donated these "Rainbow Pride Rockers" to various pro-LGBTQ organizations, including the Human Rights Campaign, Nashville LGBT Chamber of Commerce, Nashville Pride, Out & Equal Workplace Summit.[105][106]

In 2019, the company announced it would not permit Grayson Fritts, a Knox County, Tennessee cop and pastor at All Scripture Baptist Church who has called for the execution of LGBTQ people, to hold an event in one of its restaurants.[107][108]

Race- and gender-based discrimination lawsuits[edit]

In July 1999, a discrimination lawsuit was filed against Cracker Barrel by a group of former employees, who claimed that the company had discriminated against them on the grounds of race.[109][110] In December 2001, twenty-one of the restaurant's customers, represented by the same attorneys, filed a separate lawsuit, alleging racial discrimination in its treatment of guests.[111][112][113] Regarding both accusations, Cracker Barrel officials disputed the claims and stated that the company was committed to fair treatment of its employees and customers.[110][112][114]

In 2004, an investigation by the U.S. Justice Department found evidence that Cracker Barrel had been segregating customer seating by race; seating or serving white customers before seating or serving black customers; providing inferior service to black customers, and allowing white servers to refuse to serve black customers.[115] The Justice Department determined that the firm had violated Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The company was required to sign a five-year agreement to introduce "effective nondiscrimination policies and procedures." The terms included new equal opportunity training; the creation of a new system to log, investigate, and resolve complaints of discrimination; and the publicizing of its non-discrimination policies. They were required to hire an outside auditor to ensure compliance with the terms of the settlement.[116] In 2006, Cracker Barrel paid a $2 million settlement to end a lawsuit alleging race and sexual harassment at three Illinois restaurants.[117][118] Cracker Barrel stores subsequently began displaying a sign in the front foyer explaining the company's non-discrimination policy,[115] and added to its website and menu the policy and details on how to make a complaint.[119]

Since the early 2000s, Cracker Barrel has provided training and resources to minority employees to improve its image on diversity. These efforts involved outreach to minority employees, along with testing a training plan to help employees whose first language is Spanish to learn English.[68] By 2002, minorities made up 23 percent of the company's employees, including over 11 percent of its management and executives.[69]

Cracker Barrel is on the Corporate Advisory Board for the Texas Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP),[120] and is a corporate sponsor of the NAACP Leadership 500 Summit.[121] The company has been praised[by whom?] for its gender diversity, particularly on its board of directors, which includes three women out of eleven total board members.[122] Its chief executive officer (CEO), Sandra Cochran, is the second woman in Tennessee to hold that office in a publicly traded company.[122]

Legal disputes[edit]

Kraft Foods vs. Cracker Barrel[edit]

In November 2012, Cracker Barrel licensed its name to Smithfield Foods' John Morrell Division in a deal to create a line of meat products to be sold in supermarkets and through other retail channels. In response, Kraft Foods filed a trademark-infringement lawsuit in February 2013. Kraft has sold cheese in retail stores under its Cracker Barrel brand since 1954. The corporation said that Cracker Barrel stores have not made significant sales of retail food products beyond their restaurant menu, and asked that the Smithfield Foods deal be nullified by the U.S. District Court in the Northern District of Illinois.[123]

On November 14, 2013, in a unanimous ruling authored by Judge Richard Posner, the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld a ruling by a lower District Court judge granting an injunction against the sale of Cracker Barrel's meat products to be sold in stores. The Seventh Circuit upheld the injunction based on the combined similarity of the parties’ marks, goods, and channels of trade: "It's not the fact that the parties' trade are so similar that is decisive, nor even the fact that the products are similar (low-cost packaged food items). It is those similarities coupled with the fact that, if Cracker Barrel prevails in this suit, similar products with confusingly similar trade names will be sold through the same distribution channel – grocery stores, and often the same grocery stores – and advertised together." In Judge Posner's estimation, these similarities – despite the differences in the parties’ respective logos and regardless of where the products are located in relation to each other in grocery stores – might lead consumers to "think all the Kraft products bearing the 'Cracker Barrel' name were produced in association with the Defendant." In economics this behavior is referred to as 'traditional forward confusion.' The court further concluded the likelihood of confusion was exacerbated by the fact that both products at issue were inexpensive; thus, consumers were unlikely to scrutinize their respective labels.[124] In response to the ruling, Kraft Foods and Cracker Barrel made an agreement regarding the use of the Cracker Barrel name. In exchange for Kraft dropping the trademark-infringement lawsuit, Cracker Barrel agreed to sell its products under the brand name "CB Old Country Store."[125]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store Set to Join the S&P MidCap 400; Marten Transport to be Added to S&P SmallCap 600". June 29, 2015. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Cracker Barrel Old County Store – Annual Report (2020)". Cracker Barrel. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved March 1, 2021.
  3. ^ Cracker Barrel Old Country Store (October 7, 2021). "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc. (CBRL) – FORM DEF 14A". US Securities and Exchange Commission | Proxy Statement (definitive). Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  4. ^ "Management". investor.crackerbarrel.com. Cracker Barrel Old Country Store. Archived from the original on September 13, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
  5. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store". Archived from the original on 2021-04-01. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  6. ^ a b c d e "CBRL Financials". Nasdaq. January 30, 2021.
  7. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old County Store – Annual Report (2019)". Cracker Barrel. p. 8. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rhein, Liz (June 10, 1987). "Along the interstate with Cracker Barrel". Restaurant Business. No. V86. p. 112. ISSN 0097-8043. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Carlino, Bill (September 20, 1993). "Dan W. Evins: barreling toward the top". Nation's Restaurant News. No. V27. p. 115. ISSN 0028-0518. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  10. ^ "Where Did Cracker Barrel Get Its Name?". Southern Living. July 12, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-07-15. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  11. ^ a b c d e Gutner, Toddi (April 27, 1992). "Nostalgia sells". Forbes. p. 102. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  12. ^ a b Adler Thorp, Susan (April 28, 1986). "Summer Tourists Improve Picture for Cracker Barrel". Memphis Business Journal. p. 10. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  13. ^ a b c Strother, Susan G. (February 1, 1998). "President: Cracker Barrel is Rolling Along". Orlando Sentinel (Florida). p. H1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  14. ^ a b c Brooks, Steve (March 1, 1996). "A barrel full of questions". Restaurant Business. p. 48. Archived from the original on November 27, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  15. ^ a b c Moritz, Gwen (April 25, 1994). "Off the interstate and to the 'burbs". Nashville Business Journal. No. V10. p. 33. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d e Tarquinio, J. Alex (September 25, 1997). "Cracker Barrel Customizes Menus, Changes Reflect Regional Tastes". The Capital Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  17. ^ a b Jackovics, Ted (June 26, 2005). "Cracker Barrel opens new restaurants away from interstates". Tampa Tribune. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  18. ^ Hartmann, Stacey (May 21, 1999). "Cracker Barrel celebrates 30th with book drive, sweepstakes". The Tennessean. p. 6E. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  19. ^ Garner, Meg (April 14, 2017). "Cracker Barrel opens first West Coast restaurant". Nashville Business Journal. Archived from the original on November 9, 2019. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  20. ^ Cruz, Rene Ray De La (5 February 2018). "The 'magic' of Cracker Barrel: Fans line up for the official opening day of the company's first store in California". vvdailypress.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  21. ^ Luna, Nancy (October 11, 2019). "Cracker Barrel buys Maple Street for $36M". Nations Restaurant News. Archived from the original on October 11, 2019. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
  22. ^ Farkas, David (May 1, 2000). "Fixing the Fixin's". Chain Leader. p. 96. ISSN 1528-4999. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  23. ^ French, Rose (November 23, 2006). "Cracker Barrel overhauls billboards". The Houston Chronicle. p. 5. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  24. ^ "Cracker Barrel Fiscal 2011 Fourth Quarter Conference Call on the Internet" (Press release). Cracker Barrel Old Country Store. August 30, 2011. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  25. ^ "Cracker Barrel names McCarten as a board member". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. August 10, 2011. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
  26. ^ "Cracker Barrel Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year Fiscal 2011 Results And Provides Guidance for Fiscal 2012" (Press release). Cracker Barrel Old Country Store. September 13, 2011. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  27. ^ Alan Liddle (January 17, 2012). "Cracker Barrel founder Dan Evins dies at 76". The Daily Meal. Archived from the original on November 25, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  28. ^ Hoover, Ken (April 25, 2005). "Cracker Barrel Served Up Piping Hot Profit". Investor's Business Daily. p. B20. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  29. ^ Papiernik, Richard L (November 27, 1995). "Down-home image can't hide Cracker Barrel's fine tuned focus". Nation's Restaurant News. p. 11. ISSN 0028-0518. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  30. ^ "Cracker Barrel to eliminate trans fats". Ocala Star Banner. May 18, 2007. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  31. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store to eliminate trans fats". Associated Press. May 17, 2007. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  32. ^ Russell, Keith (July 5, 2002). "Travelers taking to highways". The Tennessean. p. 1E. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  33. ^ a b Kappes, Keith (August 16, 2011). "It's official: Cracker Barrel coming to Morehead!". The Morehead News. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  34. ^ Wadhwani, Anita (March 13, 2011). "Cracker Barrel tries out new strategies". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  35. ^ Loew, Karen (June 25, 2003). "Toys in the Attic". The Tennessean. p. 1W. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  36. ^ Hall, Jason (July 12, 1999). "Cracker Barrel: country-fried success since 1999". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 10. Archived from the original on October 19, 2020. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  37. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel turns 40". The Tennessean. August 31, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ Williams, G. Chambers III (September 3, 2013). "Cracker Barrel 'pickers' were years ahead of TV reality shows". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015.
  39. ^ "Local". crackerbarrel.com. Cracker Barrel Old Country Store. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  40. ^ Lagomarsino, Katherine (April 11, 2018). "Dream Job Alert: This Man Is In Charge of Buying Antiques for Every Single Cracker Barrel". Country Living. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  41. ^ Beck, Ken (November 20, 2019). "Singleton lives in his 'Lebanon museum'". The Wilson Post. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  42. ^ Richards, Gregory (January 27, 2003). "Cracker Barrel Chain Makes an Art out of Decoration". Florida Times-Union. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  43. ^ Williams III, G. Chambers (September 2, 2013). "Cracker Barrel warehouse is treasure trove of Americana". USA TODAY. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  44. ^ Matthews, Lauren (April 11, 2018). "12 Things You Didn't Know About Cracker Barrel". Country Living. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  45. ^ Rutledge, K Dawn (August 27, 2003). "Restaurant company continues to strengthen its business through Outreach". Westside Gazette. p. 1B. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  46. ^ Hieb, Dan (August 18, 2010). "Zagat gives thumbs up to Cracker Barrel". Nashville Business Journal. Archived from the original on August 21, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  47. ^ Polis, Carey (September 6, 2011). "Five Guys, Subway Top In-N-Out, Taco Bell In Zagat's Fast Food Survey". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
  48. ^ "Cracker Barrel Secures OBIE Hall of Fame Award". Manufacturing Close-Up. March 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  49. ^ Grossman, Lena (July 28, 2017). "Elderly Couple Couple Traveled 5 Million Miles to Hit Every Cracker Barrel in America Except One". Time. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  50. ^ Pennell, Julie (August 29, 2021). "Couple completes mission to visit all 645 Cracker Barrels in America". Today. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  51. ^ "Cracker Barrel Corporate Governance Guidelines". Cracker Barrel. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
  52. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store Elects Gilbert Dávila to Board of Directors". Cision PR Newswire. 10 July 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  53. ^ "Leadership". investors.crackerbarrel.com. Cracker Barrel. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  54. ^ "10-Q: Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc" (Press release). Edgar Online 10-K, 10-Q Glimpse Feed (USA). February 21, 2012. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  55. ^ a b McCain, Randy (May 3, 2009). "Core values are at heart of Cracker Barrel's rise". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  56. ^ Carlson, Kathy (October 27, 2003). "At Cracker Barrel, training is a specialty". The Tennessean. p. 1E. Archived from the original on February 1, 2004.
  57. ^ Warren, Lisa. "East Tennessee's Dolly Parton Gets 8th Grammy Win". Greeneville Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 2021-11-23. Retrieved 2022-01-04.
  58. ^ Shelton, Caitlyn (2020-11-11). "Dolly Parton to perform in Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade". WZTV. Retrieved 2022-01-04.
  59. ^ Walsh, Christopher (2009-10-23). "Alan Jackson Collection Coming From Cracker Barrel". Billboard. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  60. ^ FitzPatrick, Hayley (July 9, 2019). "Country's biggest female stars band together for equal representation, industry changes". ABC News. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
  61. ^ Moss, Marissa R. (July 29, 2019). "Little Big Town, Ingrid Andress Cover Dixie Chicks for Women in Country Campaign". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  62. ^ Shields, Judy (November 24, 2020). "The Oak Ridge Boys Member Joe Bonsall Talks About Their New Live Dinner Christmas Show at Opryland Now Until Christmas Night". The Hollywood Times. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  63. ^ Bernstein, Jonathan; Freeman, Jon; Hudak, Joseph (December 2, 2020). "Year in Review: 10 Best Country Collaborations of 2020". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 25, 2022.
  64. ^ "Cracker Barrel Donates to Civil Rights Fund". The Tennessee Tribune. November 1, 2007. p. 5. ISSN 1067-5280. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  65. ^ "Cracker Barrel donates $1 million worth of food to Gulf". Nation's Restaurant News. October 17, 2005. p. 22. ISSN 0028-0518. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  66. ^ Elan, Elissa (May 31, 2010). "A flood of support: restaurateurs pitch in to raise funds for Nashville disaster victims; Community". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  67. ^ Richardson, Hamilton (May 30, 2009). "CD sales support injured vets". The Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  68. ^ a b c French, Rose (June 18, 2005). "Cracker Barrel Rebuilds Image". The Post and Courier. p. 9B–10B. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  69. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store offers $25,000 scholarship through National Black MBA program". Chicago Defender. October 1, 2002. p. 2. ISSN 0745-7014. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  70. ^ "100 Partners For Student Leadership". Atlanta Inquirer. November 19, 2005. p. 5. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  71. ^ Brown, Will (November 13, 2008). "Cracker Barrel serves up funding". Tallahassee Democrat. p. 5A. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  72. ^ Russell, Keith (August 18, 2001). "Atlanta Motor Speedway". The Tennessean. p. 1A. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  73. ^ Naujeck, Jeanne Anne (October 2, 2004). "'Opry' adds Cracker Barrel to name". The Tennessean. p. 1E. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  74. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel banks on CD deals". The Tennessean. November 11, 2007. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  75. ^ "Daniels follows Krauss to Cracker Barrel". Billboard. July 12, 2005. Archived from the original on June 21, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
  76. ^ "Cracker Barrel offers bacon, eggs and CDs". The Bismarck Tribune. December 24, 2010. p. 1C. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  77. ^ Felkins, Jared (November 8, 2013). "Cracker Barrel sells Mitchell House to fraternity". Lebanon Democrat. Lebanon, Tennessee. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  78. ^ "Mitchell House, Cracker Barrell". Manous Design. Archived from the original on 2015-02-23. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  79. ^ Ruggless, Ron (November 13, 2013). "Cracker Barrel shareholders reject third Biglari board bid". Nation's Restaurant News. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  80. ^ Duprey, Rich (December 20, 2013). "Biglari Takes Another Crack at Cracker Barrel". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  81. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel Adopts Poison Pill". The New York Times. September 23, 2011. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  82. ^ Parton, Mitchell (September 15, 2020). "Cracker Barrel rejects SA investor Sardar Biglari's attempt at control". San Antonio Business Journal. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  83. ^ Heller, Jonathan (August 21, 2013). "Food Fight: Biglari Makes Another Run at Cracker Barrel". The Street. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  84. ^ a b Ruggless, Ron (September 17, 2013). "Biglari requests $20 dividend from Cracker Barrel". Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  85. ^ a b Jefferson, Greg (November 17, 2013). "Biglari trying to push dividend, debt at Cracker Barrel". San Antonio Express News. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  86. ^ Danner, Patrick (November 24, 2020). "Cracker Barrel shareholders hand San Antonio investor Sardar Biglari worst defeat". San Antonio Express-News. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  87. ^ "Cracker Barrel Urges Shareholders to Reject Biglari Nomination to Board of Directors" (Press release). Business Wire. November 4, 2013. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  88. ^ Williams III, G. Chambers (December 30, 2013), "Cracker Barrell rejects latest attempts to force a sale", USA Today, archived from the original on November 16, 2016, retrieved August 26, 2017
  89. ^ a b Price, Deb (December 23, 2002). "Perseverance gains Cracker Barrel gift". The Detroit News. p. 11A. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  90. ^ Hayes, Jack (March 4, 1991). "Cracker Barrel comes under fire for ousting gays". Nation's Restaurant News. No. V25. p. 1. ISSN 0028-0518. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  91. ^ McCann, Michelle (July 1, 1998). "Shareholder Proposal Rule: Cracker Barrel in Light of Texaco". Boston College Law Review. Boston College Law School. 39 (4). Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  92. ^ Staff writer (November 24, 1993). "Restaurant Bias Ban Loses". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
  93. ^ "2008 Corporate Equality Index" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
  94. ^ "Corporate Equality Index 2011". Issuu. Human Rights Campaign. October 4, 2010. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  95. ^ "Corporate Equality Index 2013" (PDF). Corporate Equality Index. Human Rights Campaign. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  96. ^ "Corporate Equality Index 2019 – Full Report" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-04-23. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  97. ^ "Corporate Equality Index 2020 – Full Report" (PDF). Human Rights Campaign. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-04-21. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  98. ^ "Cracker Barrel Old Country Store Inc". HRC. Archived from the original on 2021-07-21. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  99. ^ Starnes, Todd (December 21, 2013). "Cracker Barrel pulls 'Duck Dynasty' merchandise". Fox News. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  100. ^ Magary, Drew (January 2014), "What the Duck?", GQ, archived from the original on December 21, 2013, retrieved December 23, 2013
  101. ^ Fields, Liz (December 22, 2013). "Cracker Barrel Flipflops on Nixing 'Duck Dynasty' Items From Shelves". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  102. ^ Subramanian, Courtney (December 22, 2013), "Cracker Barrel Pulls About Face on "Duck Dynasty" Merchandise", Time, archived from the original on December 24, 2013, retrieved December 23, 2013
  103. ^ Kyles, Kyra (December 19, 2013), Duck Dynasty Dad on Blacks, Welfare, Jet, archived from the original on December 24, 2013, retrieved December 23, 2013, A&E announced Wednesday that Duck Dynasty star Phil Robertson was suspended indefinitely after making disparaging comments about gays and Blacks. [...] We think he may want to leave the topic of race relations out of his duck-summoning mouth.
  104. ^ "LGBT friendly policies make business sense". US News. October 13, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  105. ^ "Diversity and Inclusion". Cracker Barrel. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  106. ^ Etienne Germaine (July 2, 2020). "I co-founded an LGBT Employee Resource Group: why being gay in the workplace should not be an issue". Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  107. ^ "Cracker Barrel Finally Chooses LGBTQ Love Over Homophobic Hate". The New York Observer. June 20, 2019. Archived from the original on July 19, 2020. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
  108. ^ Scottie Andrew; Brian Ries (19 June 2019). "Cracker Barrel bans an anti-gay pastor from holding an event in one of its stores". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  109. ^ Hill, Shelley (October 5, 1999). "NAACP seeks class action in discrimination case against Cracker Barrel". Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  110. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel denies it discriminates against black employees". Associated Press. November 4, 1999. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  111. ^ Poole, Sheila M. (October 16, 1999). "Plaintiffs seek to expand Cracker Barrel wage suit". The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  112. ^ a b "Cracker Barrel Hit With $100M Racism Suit". Newsday. December 13, 2001. p. A78. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  113. ^ McCampbell, Candy (December 14, 2001). "Patrons accuse Cracker Barrel of bias". The Tennessean. p. 1E. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  114. ^ Russell, Keith; Bivins, Larry (April 12, 2002). "Executives say racist charges are unfounded". The Tennessean. p. 1E. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  115. ^ a b Schmidt, Julie; Copeland, Larry (May 7, 2004). "Cracker Barrel customer says bias was 'flagrant'". USA Today. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  116. ^ "Justice Department Settles Race Discrimination Lawsuit Against Cracker Barrel Restaurant Chain". United States Department of Justice. May 3, 2004. Archived from the original on October 27, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  117. ^ "Cracker Barrel To Pay $2 Million For Race And Sexual Harassment At Three Illinois Restaurants". LawMemo. March 10, 2006. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
  118. ^ Pallasch, Abdon M. (March 12, 2006). "Cracker Barrel settles Illinois workers' harassment claims". Chicago Sun Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  119. ^ DuPlessis, Jim (October 21, 2006). "Discrimination claims hurt business even if false". The State. p. B8. Archived from the original on October 1, 2021. Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  120. ^ "Corporate Advisory". texasnaacp.org. Texas Conference of the NAACP. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  121. ^ "Sponsors". NAACP Leadership 500 Summit. NAACP. May 2015. Archived from the original on February 8, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  122. ^ a b Allyn, Bobby (August 2, 2011). "Cracker Barrel says 'goodbye, glass ceiling'". The Tennessean. p. B1. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  123. ^ "Kraft sues Cracker Barrel restaurants over trademark". Chicago Tribune. February 1, 2013. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  124. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (November 14, 2013). "Kraft Foods vs. Cracker Barrel Old Country Store Inc". Archived from the original on April 24, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  125. ^ Maze, Johnathan (October 4, 2013). "Cracker Barrel Kraft Settle Differences". Rest Finance. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved February 2, 2019.

External links[edit]