|Product type||Caramel coated popcorn and peanuts|
|Previous owners||The Cracker Jack Company |
Cracker Jack is an American brand of snack consisting of molasses-flavored, caramel-coated popcorn and peanuts, well known for being packaged with a prize of trivial value inside. The Cracker Jack name was registered in 1896. A slogan, "The More You Eat The More You Want", was also registered that year. Some food historians consider it the first junk food.
Cracker Jack is famous for its connection to baseball lore. The Cracker Jack brand has been owned and marketed by Frito-Lay since 1997. Frito-Lay announced in 2016 that the prizes would no longer be provided, replaced with a QR code which can be used to download a baseball-themed game.
The origin of sugar coated popcorn with a mixture of peanuts is unknown but probably dates to the early nineteenth century, and is perhaps an American recipe. Sugar coated popcorn was manufactured and sold in America and mention of this is found in newspapers and periodicals. For example, in the Freeport, Illinois Daily Journal newspaper published on January 29, 1857 (page 2, second column) there is an advertisement by a local merchant selling sugar coated popcorn. Popcorn and peanut mixtures were certainly known at this time and mention of such recipes found their way into literature and expressions of speech in America. For example, in the Friday, August 23, 1867, edition of the Evening Star, a newspaper published in Washington, D. C., on page 4, we read a notice that The Nantucket Inquirer and Mirror says "Peanuts and Popcorn were not mixed up with piety when we first knew camp meetings, nor cigar smoking nor Psalm singing. But the times are changed and we with them." In the December 5, 1885 issue of Scientific American, page 362, an inquiry was published asking how the sugar coating was prepared after the popcorn had popped. In the 1886 edition of the Pennsylvania Historical Review, Gazetteer, Post-Office, Express and Telegraph Guide, page 222, Goodwin Brothers, 105 North Front Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are listed as manufacturers of Sugar Coated Popcorn, Prize Balls, Corn Balls, Corn Cakes, etc.
In Chicago there are two legends of how Cracker-Jacks originated. The oldest attributes it to Charles Frederick Gunther (1837-1920), who is also known as "The Candy Man" and "Cracker-Jacks King". Another attributes it to Frederick William Rueckheim—a German immigrant known informally as "Fritz"—sold popcorn at 113 Fourth Avenue, now known as Federal Street, in Chicago beginning in 1871. The Rueckheim legend is filled with exaggerations since sugar coated popcorn with molases and mixed with peanuts, as we have already seen above in news clippings was already known at least by the 1860's. The Rueckheim popcorn was made by hand using steam equipment. In 1873, Fritz bought out his partner, William Brinkmeyer, and brought his brother Louis Rueckheim over from Germany to join in his venture, forming the company F.W. Rueckheim & Bro.
The Rueckheim Brothers produced a new recipe including popcorn, peanuts, and molasses, and first presented it to the public at the World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago's first World's Fair) in 1893. However, the molasses was sticky in this early prototype.
In 1896, Louis discovered a method to separate the kernels of molasses-coated popcorn during the manufacturing process. As each batch was mixed in a cement-mixer-like drum, a small quantity of oil was added—a closely guarded trade secret. Before this change, the mixture had been difficult to handle, as it stuck together in chunks.
Naming and packaging
In 1896, the first lot of Cracker Jack was produced, the same year the name was registered. It was named by an enthusiastic sampler who remarked: "That's a crackerjack!" (a colloquialism meaning "of excellent quality"). The product's tagline—"The More You Eat, the More You Want"—was also introduced in 1896. In 1899, Henry Gottlieb Eckstein developed the "waxed sealed package" for freshness, known then as the "Eckstein Triple Proof Package", a dust-, germ-, and moisture-proof paper package. In 1902, the company was reorganized as Rueckheim Bros. & Eckstein. "Take Me Out to the Ball Game", a song written by lyricist Jack Norworth and composer Albert Von Tilzer, gave Cracker Jack free publicity when it was released in 1908 with the line: "Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack!" In 1922, the name of the Chicago company was changed to The Cracker Jack Company.
Cracker Jack's mascots Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo were introduced as early as 1916 and registered as a trademark in 1919. Sailor Jack was modeled after Robert Rueckheim, grandson of Frederick. Robert, the son of the third and eldest Rueckheim brother, Edward, died of pneumonia shortly after his image appeared at the age of 8. The sailor boy image acquired such meaning for the founder of Cracker Jack that he had it carved on his tombstone, which can still be seen in St. Henry's Cemetery in Chicago. Sailor Jack's dog Bingo was based on a real-life dog named Russell, a stray adopted in 1917 by Henry Eckstein, who demanded that the dog be used on the packaging. Russell died of old age in 1930.
The Cracker Jack Company was purchased by Borden in 1964 after a bidding war between Borden and Frito-Lay. Borden sold the brand to Frito-Lay parent PepsiCo in 1997, and Cracker Jack was quickly incorporated into the Frito-Lay portfolio. In 2013, Frito-Lay announced that Cracker Jack would undergo a slight reformulating, adding more peanuts and updating the prizes to make them more relevant to the times.
On April 30, 2013, Frito-Lay expanded the Cracker Jack product line to include other salty snacks in the spirit of the original Cracker Jack. Called Cracker Jack'D, it is distinct from the original Cracker Jack by using black packaging instead of the traditional red and white, as well as showing a close-up version of Sailor Jack & Bingo. In addition, unlike the original Cracker Jack, Cracker Jack'D has not featured prizes in its packages. One of the products available under the Cracker Jack'D line, Cracker Jack'D Power Bites, gained much criticism before its official launch due to accusations of unhealthy amounts of caffeine in the Power Bites.
On June 16, 1993, the 100th anniversary of Cracker Jack was celebrated at Wrigley Field during the game between the Cubs and the expansion Florida Marlins. Before the game, Sailor Jack, the company's mascot, threw out the ceremonial first pitch.
In 2004, the New York Yankees baseball team replaced Cracker Jack with the milder, sweet butter toffee-flavored Crunch 'n Munch at home games. After public outcry, the club switched back to Cracker Jack.
Cracker Jack originally included a small "mystery" novelty item referred to as a "Toy Surprise" in each box. The tagline for Cracker Jack was originally "Candy-coated popcorn, peanuts and a prize", but has since become "Caramel-coated popcorn & peanuts" under Frito-Lay.
Prizes were included in every box of Cracker Jack beginning in 1912. One of the first prizes was in 1914, when the company produced the first of two Cracker Jack baseball card issues, which featured players from both major leagues as well as players from the short-lived Federal League. Early "toy surprises" included rings, plastic figurines, booklets, stickers, temporary tattoos, and decoder rings. Books have been written cataloging the prizes, and a substantial collector's market exists.
Until 1937, Cracker Jack toy prizes were made in Japan. They were designed by Carey Cloud from 1938. Many metal toys were also made by TootsieToy, who also made Monopoly game markers. During World War II prizes were made of paper.
The prizes attained pop-culture status with the catch-phrase "came in a Cracker Jack box," particularly when applied sarcastically to engagement and wedding rings of dubious investment value. Under Frito-Lay, toy and trinket prizes were replaced with paper prizes displaying riddles and jokes, then temporary tattoos. In 2013, some prizes became codes for people to play "nostalgic" games on the Cracker Jack app through Google Play for Android-powered devices. The announcement was made in 2016 that these gameplays would replace tangible prizes.
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- Food portal
- "CJCA – Cracker Jack Collectors Association – History & Lore". Crackerjackcollectors.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Fernandez, Manny (August 8, 2010). "Let Us Now Praise the Great Men of Junk Food". New York Times. p. WK3.
- Tannenbaum, Kiri. "History of Cracker Jack – History of Snack Foods". Delish.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Stradley, Linda (2004). "History of Popcorn, History of Caramel Corn, History of Cracker Jacks, History of Popcorn Squares". Whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Chmelik, Samantha. "Frederick Rueckheim." In Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present, vol. 4, edited by Jeffrey Fear. German Historical Institute. Last modified October 10, 2013.
- American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed 2000
- "The Evening World". March 6, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Bellis, Mary (2013-11-14). "Cracker Jack". About.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- "Charles Panati – Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things". Scribd.com. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- "Brief History". CrackerJack.com. 2010-04-08. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Bhasin, Kim (2013-04-30). "WTF Happened To Cracker Jack?". Huffington Post.
- Tepper, Rachel (2012-11-15). "Frito Lay Unveils Controversial Caffeinated Cracker Jacks, 'Cracker Jack'd'". Huffington Post.
- "Old-timers to play at Tiger Stadium". Detroit Free Press. February 11, 1986. p. 46. Retrieved May 20, 2018 – via newspapers.com.
- Feder, Barnaby J. (1993-06-17). "Old-Timers Day for Snack; Cracker Jack Takes Itself Out to Ballgame". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- "Crunch 'n Munch Waived by Yankees". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 2004-06-04. pp. D02. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Jack Gilford on IMDB
- "1914 Cracker Jack Baseball Checklist, Set Info, Key Cards".
- "Cracker Jack Toys: The Complete, Unofficial Guide for Collectors (Schiffer Book With Prices): Larry White: 9780764301896: Amazon.com: Books".
- "Antique Cracker Jack – Toys & Dolls Price Guide – Antiques & Collectibles Price Guide".
- "C. Carey Cloud – Newspaper Article – The Man Who Gave Us Cracker Jack Toys".