Crakow (shoe)

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Poulaines worn in Burgundy ca. 1470

Crakows or crackowes were a style of shoes with extremely long toes very popular in the 15th century. They were so named because the style was thought to have originated in Kraków, then the capital of Poland. They are also sometimes known as poulaines or pikes,[1] though the term poulaine, as in souliers a la poulaine, "shoes in the Polish fashion", referred to the long pointed beak of the shoe, not the shoe itself.[2]


Long toed shoes had been popular in Europe at different times, first appearing in the archaeological record in the 12th century and falling in and out of fashion periodically before reaching their most exaggerated form in the third quarter of the 15th century and falling out of fashion in the 1480s.[3][4]

14th century poulaine-toed shoes found in London were found only in men's sizes,[4] but 15th century art shows them being worn by both men and women, with the toes of men's shoes being the most extravagantly long. In 1463, Edward IV passed a sumptuary law restricting anyone "under the state of a Lord, Esquire, [or] Gentleman" from wearing poulaines over the length of two inches. In 1465, they were banned altogether, so that all cordwainers and cobblers within the City of London were prohibited from making shoes with pikes more than two inches long.[5]

The poulaine inspired later footwear fashions, such as the 1950s Winklepicker boots.



Poulaine toes were packed with stuffing to provide rigidity and help them hold their shape. Surviving examples from medieval London have the points stuffed with moss.[3]

Tying up the toes[edit]

There is no archaeological or medieval iconographic evidence to support the idea that the toes were ever tied up to the leg.[2] The practice is mentioned by the antiquarian John Stow in his 1698 publication A Survey of London, where he wrote:

However, given that John Stow was writing over 100 years after the shoes fell out of fashion, and the lack of rigorous historical research in the writings of the time, he cannot be considered a reliable source. His record of Act 4 of Edward IV is exaggerated - the actual act does mention restrictions in length, but not monetary penalties, parliament or clergy:

Poulaine at the shoemaker of Archeon

Poulaines as overshoes[edit]

Overshoes made from leather or cork, called Pattens, were frequently worn with late medieval shoes both indoors and outdoors. The shape of pattens reflected the style of shoes in different periods, and pattens during the period where poulaine toes were fashionable have matching long toes. These pattens would have supported the toe of the shoes if required.

Toe length[edit]

Archaeological evidence in the form of surviving shoe soles shows that the length of the point beyond the toes of the foot was rarely, if ever, more than 50% of the length of the foot.[3][4] This is consistent with depictions of highly fashionable European men from the third quarter of the 15th century when poulaine toes were at the height of their popularity.

Depiction of the Battle of Sempach in the Luzerner Schilling, showing a large pile of shoe-tips on a hill in the upper-left of the illustration (1513)

As with many items of high fashion the most extreme examples were worn by the upper classes. In periods when poulaine toes were popular most shoes were somewhat pointed, even those used during warfare. There is clear evidence from the Battle of Sempach that in certain periods soldiers on campaign wore shoes with toes so long as to interfere with the wearer's ability to run. In that battle, it became necessary for the knights of Leopold III, Duke of Austria to dismount and fight on foot, and because they did not have time to prepare for the engagement, they were forced to cut off the tips of their poulaines. The Swiss chroniclers report how a huge pile of these shoe-tips was found in a heap after the battle, and they are also depicted in the background of the battle scene in the Lucerne Chronicle of 1513.

Sabatons of Emperor Maximilian I, c. 1485

A surviving pair of sabatons belonging to Emperor Maximilian have extremely long poulaines, but they were used only on horseback and in this case the long points were detachable from the sabatons for foot combat. The catches can be seen over the area of the big toe.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pratt, Lucy; Woolley, Linda (2008). Shoes (Pbk. ed. ed.). London: V&A Publications. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1-851-77537-8. 
  2. ^ a b c Carlson, I. Marc. 2001, "Medieval European Long Toed Shoes", "Footwear of The Middle Ages", 2001
  3. ^ a b c Goubitz, Olaf; van Driel-Murray, Carol; Groenman-Van Waateringe, Willy. 2001 "Stepping through time : archaeological footwear from prehistoric times until 1800": Zwolle [Netherlands] : Stichting Promotie Archeologie
  4. ^ a b c Grew, F. and de Neergaard, M. 1988. Shoes and Pattens. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 2. London: HMSO, pp. 88–9.
  5. ^ Grew, Francis; de Neergaard, Margrethe (2002). Shoes and Pattens (New ed. ed.). Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. p. 117. ISBN 0851158382. 
  6. ^ John Stow, 'Bredstreete warde', in A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603, ed. C L Kingsford (Oxford, 1908), pp. 344-352 [accessed 22 July 2015]