|Some 11,630 species|
The Crambidae are the grass moth family of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). They are quite variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.
In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999), retains the Crambidae as a full family.
Interactions with Humans
Since crambids are relatively common throughout human settlements, the moths tend to affect crops and gardens, whether harmfully, beneficially or harmlessly.
- Water hyacinth moth Niphograpta albiguttalis, is used to control its host (Eichhornia crassipes), in Florida.
- Water veneer, Acentria ephemerella is a biocontrol agent used against Eurasian watermilfoil
- Bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis, of which the caterpillars are used for human consumption (see entomophagy)
- Mint moth Pyrausta aurata
Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known - introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include:
- Chilo partellus, spotted stalk borer
- Chilo suppressalis, Asiatic rice borer
- Crambus spp., sod webworms
- Duponchelia fovealis
- Diatraea saccharalis, sugarcane borer
- Maruca spp., bean pod borers
- Scirpophaga innotata, rice white stemborer
- Diatraea grandiosella, southwestern corn borer
- Desmia maculalis, grape leaffolder
- subfamilia incertae sedis
- Exsilirarcha Salmon & Bradley, 1956
- Subfamily Acentropinae Stephens, 1836
- Subfamily Crambinae Latreille, 1810
- Subfamily Cybalomiinae Marion, 1955
- Subfamily Glaphyriinae W. T. M. Forbes, 1923 (= Evergestinae Marion, 1952, Noordinae Minet, 1980)
- Noorda Walker, 1859 (= Epinoorda Rebel, 1902)
- Subfamily Heliothelinae Amsel, 1961
- Subfamily Lathrotelinae Clarke, 1971
- Subfamily Linostinae Amsel, 1956
- Linosta Möschler, 1882
- Subfamily Midilinae Munroe, 1958
- Subfamily Musotiminae Meyrick, 1884
- Subfamily Odontiinae Guenée, 1854
- Subfamily Pyraustinae Meyrick, 1890
- Subfamily Schoenobiinae Duponchel, 1846
- Subfamily Scopariinae Guenée, 1854
- Subfamily Spilomelinae Guenée, 1854 (= Wurthiinae Roepke, 1916)
- Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, M. A. Solis, J. E. Hayden, B. Landry, M. Nuss, T. J. Simonsen, S.-H. Yen , A. Zwick & M. P. Cummings 2012: A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification. – Systematic Entomology, London 37 (4): 635–656.
- Minet, J. 2015: Lathrotelidae Clarke, 1971: a rehabilitated name deserving subfamily rank (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). – Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, Paris 120 (1): 109–112.
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Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.). 1999. Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches / Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Band / Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta Teilband / Part 35: 491 pp. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.