Cramer v. United States
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- Not to be confused with Cramer v. United States (1923), an opinion involving individual aboriginal title in California.
|Cramer v. United States|
|Argued March 9, 1944
Reargued November 6, 1944
Decided April 23, 1945
|Full case name||Anthony Cramer v. United States|
|Citations||325 U.S. 1 (more)|
|Conviction for treason must meet the definition given in Article III of the constitution.|
|Majority||Jackson, joined by Roberts, Frankfurter, Murphy, Rutledge|
|Dissent||Douglas, joined by Stone, Black, Reed|
|U.S. Const. art. III § 3|
Cramer v. United States, 325 U.S. 1 (1945), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States reviewed the conviction of Anthony Cramer, a German-born naturalized citizen, for treason. The case was reargued on November 6, 1944, and finally decided on April 23, 1945.
Cramer had associated with two Germans, Werner Thiel and Edward Kerling]], and had prior business dealings with one of them. The two were later found to be in the United States for the purpose of sabotage. Cramer was also arrested and convicted on the basis of this association.
The Court decided 5-to-4 to overturn the jury verdict. Writing for the majority, Justice Robert H. Jackson said that the US Constitution is clear in its definition of treason, limited to the waging of war, or giving material assistance to an enemy. The prosecution and its witnesses could demonstrate only an association and not that Cramer had given "Aid and Comfort," as defined in Article III. Jackson wrote that the jury had been given no evidence that Cramer had "even paid for their drinks."
- Ex parte Bollman: an earlier treason case before the high court.
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