Crataegus douglasii

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Crataegus douglasii
Crataegus douglasii.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Species:
C. douglasii
Binomial name
Crataegus douglasii
Crataegus douglasii range map 2.png
Natural range of Crataegus douglasii
Synonyms

C. brockwayae Sarg.[1]
C. columbiana Howell[2]

Crataegus douglasii is a North American species of hawthorn known by the common names black hawthorn and Douglas' thornapple. It is most abundant in the Pacific Northwest.

Description[edit]

Crataegus douglasii is a compact erect bushy shrub growing to 8–9 metres (26–30 feet) tall with a trunk of up to 10 centimetres (4 inches) thick.[3] It is covered in fan-shaped green leaves about 2.5–5 cm (1–2 in) long[3] with teeth along the distal margin. Thorns along the branches are 1–2.5 cm long.[3]

White flowers with greenish centers grow in bunches at the ends of each thin branch. The fruit is a blackish pome up to about 1 cm across, containing 3–5 rocklike seeds.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

The species is named after David Douglas, who collected seed from the plant during his botanical explorations.[4]

Formerly placed within the species, Crataegus douglasii var. duchesnensis is now considered to be a synonym of Crataegus saligna.

Distribution[edit]

The thorny shrub is native to northern and western North America, where it grows in varied habitats from forest to scrubland. It is most abundant in the Pacific Northwest.

Ecology[edit]

The foliage is browsed by cattle and sheep. Various birds, including quail, the Hungarian partridge, and ring-necked pheasant feed on the berries,[4][5] as do bears and other animals.[3] Magpies nest in the branches.[3] The species is a larval host to the gray hairstreak, mourning cloak, pale tiger swallowtail, and western tiger swallowtail.[6]

Uses[edit]

The fruits were a good food source for Native American peoples such as the Cheyenne and Nlaka'pamux.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kruschke, E.P. (1965). "Contributions to the taxonomy of Crataegus". Milwaukee Public Museum Publications in Botany. 3: 11–273.
  2. ^ Phipps, J.B. (1995). "The identity of Crataegus columbiana and its relationship to C. piperi (Rosaceae)". Taxon. 44 (3): 405–8. doi:10.2307/1223414. JSTOR 1223414.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Arno, Stephen F.; Hammerly, Ramona P. (2020) [1977]. Northwest Trees: Identifying & Understanding the Region's Native Trees (field guide ed.). Seattle: Mountaineers Books. pp. 248–249. ISBN 1-68051-329-X. OCLC 1141235469.
  4. ^ a b Whitney, Stephen (1985). Western Forests (The Audubon Society Nature Guides). New York: Knopf. p. 392. ISBN 0-394-73127-1.
  5. ^ Peattie, Donald Culross (1953). A Natural History of Western Trees. New York: Bonanza Books. p. 519.
  6. ^ The Xerces Society (2016), Gardening for Butterflies: How You Can Attract and Protect Beautiful, Beneficial Insects, Timber Press.
  7. ^ "Crataegus douglasii". WTU Herbarium Image Collection. Burke Museum, University of Washington. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
  8. ^ Pojar, Jim; Andy MacKinnon (1994). Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Lone Pine. p. 73. ISBN 1-55105-042-0.

External links[edit]