Craugastoridae

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Craugastoridae
Craugastor fitzingeri.jpg
Craugastor fitzingeri
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Craugastoridae
Hedges, Duellman & Heinicke, 2008
Subfamilies and genera

See the text.

The Craugastoridae, or fleshbelly frogs, are a family of New World direct-developing frogs. As delineated here, following the Amphibian Species of the World, it is a large family containing 746 species. They are found from the southern United States southwards to Central and South America.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomy of these frogs is not yet settled,[2][3] and other sources may treat the subfamily Strabomantinae as a family, Strabomantidae,[3][4][5] with correspondingly smaller Craugastoridae.[3][6][7] The most recent rearrangement of subfamilies and genera is from 2014.[8]

Life history[edit]

With the possible exception of Craugastor laticeps that may be ovoviviparous,[9] craugastorid frogs have direct development: no free-living tadpole stage is known; instead, eggs develop directly into small froglets.[10]

Subfamilies and genera[edit]

The following taxonomy follows Padial and colleagues (2014)[8] and is adopted by the Amphibian Species of the World.[1]

Taxa not placed in a subfamily[edit]

Subfamilies[edit]

  • Ceuthomantinae Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009 (495 sp.) (=Pristimantinae Ohler and Dubois, 2012)
    • Ceuthomantis Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009 (four species)
    • Dischidodactylus Lynch, 1979 (two species)
    • Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870 (484 sp.)
    • Yunganastes Padial, Castroviejo-Fisher, Köhler, Domic, and De la Riva, 2007 (five species)
  • Craugastorinae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008 (132 sp.)
  • Holoadeninae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008 (118 sp.)

Taxa formerly in Craugastoridae[edit]

The following two taxa were formerly placed in Craugastoridae but are now in superfamily Brachycephaloidea, awaiting more data to resolve their position:[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Higher taxonomy and progress". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Blackburn, D.C.; Wake, D.B. (2011). "Class Amphibia Gray, 1825. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa 3148: 39–55. 
  4. ^ "Strabomantidae Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  5. ^ "Strabomantidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "Craugastoridae Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 
  7. ^ "Craugastoridae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Padial, J. M.; Grant, T.; Frost, D. R. (2014). "Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria". Zootaxa 3825: 1–132. doi:10.11646/zootaxa825.1.1. 
  9. ^ McCranie, J.R., M.H. Wake, L. Valdés Orellana (2013). "Craugastor laticeps. Possible ovoviviparity". Herpetological Review 44 (4): 653–654. 
  10. ^ Hedges, S. B.; Duellman, W. E. & Heinicke, M. P (2008). "New World direct-developing frogs (Anura: Terrarana): Molecular phylogeny, classification, biogeography, and conservation" (PDF). Zootaxa 1737: 1–182. 
  11. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Atopophrynus Lynch and Ruiz-Carranza, 1982". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  12. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Geobatrachus Ruthven, 1915". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 June 2015.