Creaky-voiced glottal approximant

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Creaky-voiced glottal approximant
Audio sample

The creaky-voiced glottal approximant is a consonant sound in some languages. In the IPA, it is transcribed as ʔ̞, ʔ̰, or ʔ̬.[1] It involves tension in the glottis and diminution of airflow, compared to surrounding vowels, but not full occlusion.


Features of the creaky-voiced glottal approximant:


It is an intervocalic allophone of a glottal stop in many languages.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Gimi ogo /oʔ̞o/ 'a grub' It is reported to be contrastive in which it is phonologically the voiced equivalent of the glottal stop /ʔ/.[2] Indicated as /ʔ/ by one author.[3]
Tundra Nenets [example needed] [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kehrein, Wolfgang; Golston, Chris (2005). "A prosodic theory of laryngeal contrasts". Phonology. 21 (3): 325–357. doi:10.1017/S0952675704000302. S2CID 62734231.
  2. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  3. ^ Gimi Organised Phonology Data. [Manuscript] [1]
  4. ^ Katz, Hartmut. 1975. Generative Phonologie und phonologische Sprachbunde des Ostjakischen und Samojedischen. (Münchener Universit"ats-Schriften, Finnisch-ugrische Bibliothek, 1.) München: Universit"at München.
  5. ^ Tereshchenko, N. M. 1966. Neneckij jazyk. In Lytkin, V. I. and Majtinskaja, K. E. (eds.), Jazyki narodov SSSR. Volume 3: Finno-ugorskie i samodijskie jazyki, 376–395. Moscow / Leningrad: Nauka.
  6. ^ Décsy, Gyula. 1966. Yurak Chrestomathy. (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 50.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  7. ^ Hajdú, Peter. 1963. The Samoyed Peoples and Languages. (Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series, 14.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  8. ^ Ristinen, Elaine K. 1965. On the Phonemes of Nenets. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 40. 22–44.
  9. ^ Ristinen, Elaine K. 1968. Problems Concerning Vowel Length in Nenets. Ural-Altaisches Journal 40. 22–44.
  10. ^ Colarusso (2012), p. 2.