Creaky voice

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Creaky voice
◌̰
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ̰
Unicode (hex) U+0330

In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation, vocal fry, or glottal fry) is a special kind of phonation[1][2] in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact. They vibrate irregularly at 20–50 pulses per second, about two octaves below the frequency of normal voicing, and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. Although creaky voice may occur with very low pitch, as at the end of a long intonation unit, it can occur with any pitch.

Creaky voice is prevalent as a peer-group affectation among young women in the United States.[3][4][5][6][7] According to a 2012 study in PLOS ONE, young women using creaky voice are viewed as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive and less employable.[8]

In some languages, such as Jalapa Mazatec, creaky voice has a phonemic status; that is, the presence or absence of creaky voice can change the meaning of a word.[9] In the International Phonetic Alphabet, creaky voice of a phone is represented by a diacritical tilde U+0330  ̰ combining tilde below, for example [d̰].

A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring in some Korean consonants for example, is called "stiff voice". The Danish prosodic feature stød is an example of a form of laryngealisation that has a phonemic function.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Titze, I. R. (2008). "The Human Instrument". Scientific American 298 (1): 94–101. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-94. PMID 18225701. 
  2. ^ Titze, I. R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3. 
  3. ^ Paulson, T. (2005-05-26). "A Northwest dialect? That's 'Goofy,' some say". SeattlePI. 
  4. ^ Banse, T. (2005-07-22). "Pacific Northwest Dialect Spoken Here". Kuow.org. 
  5. ^ Yuasa, I. P. (2010). "Creaky Voice: A New Feminine Voice Quality for Young Urban-Oriented Upwardly Mobile American Women?". American Speech 85 (3): 315–337. doi:10.1215/00031283-2010-018. 
  6. ^ Wolk, L.; Abdelli-Beruhe, N. B.; Slavin, D. (2012). "Habitual Use of Vocal Fry in Young Adult Female Speakers". Journal of Voice 26 (3): e111–e116. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2011.04.007. PMID 21917418. 
  7. ^ Vuolo, Mike. "Do You Creak?", Slate, undated (audio) from c. 03:45 mins.
  8. ^ Anderson, Rindy C., et al. "Vocal Fry May Undermine the Success of Young Women in the Labor Market", PLOS ONE, 28 May 2014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097506
  9. ^ Ashby, M.; Maidment, J. A. (2005). Introducing Phonetic Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-521-00496-1. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 

Further reading[edit]