Creep (Radiohead song)

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"Creep"
Radiohead original creep cover.jpg
Single by Radiohead
from the album Pablo Honey
Released21 September 1992
Format
Recorded1992
StudioChipping Norton Recording Studios in Oxfordshire, England
Genre
Length3:56
Label
Songwriter(s)
Producer(s)
Radiohead singles chronology
"Creep"
(1992)
"Anyone Can Play Guitar"
(1993)
Audio sample
"Creep"

"Creep" is a song by the English alternative rock band Radiohead, released as their debut single in 1992. It appeared on their first album, Pablo Honey (1993). "Creep" was not initially a chart success, but became a worldwide hit after being rereleased in 1993. Radiohead took elements from the 1972 song "The Air That I Breathe"; following legal action, Albert Hammond and Mike Hazlewood are credited as cowriters. The members of Radiohead grew weary of "Creep" in later years, and refused to perform it for a period. It is included in Radiohead: The Best Of.

Writing and recording[edit]

According to Radiohead bassist Colin Greenwood, singer Thom Yorke wrote "Creep" while studying at Exeter University in the late 1980s.[2] Guitarist Jonny Greenwood said the song was inspired by a girl that Yorke had followed around and who unexpectedly attended a Radiohead performance.[3]

In 1992, during rehearsals for their first album, Pablo Honey, with producers Sean Slade and Paul Q. Kolderie, Radiohead spontaneously performed "Creep". Yorke jokingly described the song as the band's "Scott Walker song", which Slade and Kolderie mistook to mean the song was a cover.[4] After some failed attempts to record other songs, Slade and Kolderie suggested Radiohead play "Creep" again. They recorded it in a single take; after the performance everyone in the room burst into applause. After the band assured Kolderie that "Creep" was an original song, he called EMI to tell them to consider it as Radiohead's first single.[5] While the recording had minimal overdubs and the band had not intended to release it, the producers were impressed.[2][6]

The middle eight originally featured a guitar solo from Greenwood. When guitarist Ed O'Brien pointed out that the chord progression was the same as "The Air That I Breathe", a 1972 song by the Hollies, Yorke wrote a new middle eight, using that song's vocal melody. According to Greenwood, "It was funny to us in a way, sort of feeding something like that into [it]. It's a bit of change."[7]

The version issued for radio play replaces the line "so fucking special" with "so very special". Radiohead worried that issuing a censored version would be selling out, but decided it was acceptable since their idols Sonic Youth had done the same thing; nonetheless, Jonny Greenwood noted the British press "weren't impressed".[3] During the recording session for the censored lyrics, Kolderie convinced Yorke to rewrite the first verse, telling him he thought Yorke could do better.[8]

Composition and lyrics[edit]

Ostinato from Radiohead's "Creep" features modal mixture, common tones between adjacent triads (B between G & B, C and G between C & Cm, see: Macro analysis), and an emphasis on subdominant harmony (IV = C in G major).[9]About this soundPlay 

The G–B–C–Cm chord progression is repeated throughout the song, only alternating between arpeggiated chords in the verses and last chorus and loud power chords during the first two choruses. In G major, these may be interpreted as "I–III–IV–iv".[9] According to Guy Capuzzo, the ostinato musically portrays "the song's obsessive lyrics, which depict the 'self-lacerating rage of an unsuccessful crush'." For example, the "highest pitches of the ostinato form a prominent chromatic line that 'creeps' up, then down, involving scale degrees ....[while] ascend[ing], the lyrics strain towards optimism...descend[ing], the subject sinks back into the throes of self-pity ... The guitarist's fretting hand mirrors this contour".[10]

When the song shifts from the verse to the chorus, Jonny Greenwood plays three blasts of guitar noise ("dead notes" played by releasing fret-hand pressure and picking the strings). Greenwood said he did this because he did not like how quiet the song was; he explained: "So I hit the guitar hard—really hard".[3] O'Brien said: "That's the sound of Jonny trying to fuck the song up. He really didn't like it the first time we played it, so he tried spoiling it. And it made the song."[11] During the song's outro, Jonny Greenwood plays a piano figure. Kolderie forgot to add the piano part during the final mix until the end of the song, but the band approved of the result.[12]

According to Yorke, "Creep" tells the tale of an inebriated man who tries to get the attention of a woman to whom he is attracted by following her around. In the end, he lacks the self-confidence to face her and feels he subconsciously is her. When asked about "Creep" in 1993, Yorke said: "I have a real problem being a man in the '90s... Any man with any sensitivity or conscience toward the opposite sex would have a problem. To actually assert yourself in a masculine way without looking like you're in a hard-rock band is a very difficult thing to do... It comes back to the music we write, which is not effeminate, but it's not brutal in its arrogance. It is one of the things I'm always trying: To assert a sexual persona and on the other hand trying desperately to negate it."[13] Jonny Greenwood said the song was in fact a happy song about "recognizing what you are".[3] According to Guardian critic Alexis Petridis, "Creep" has an "almost complete lack of resemblance to the music [Radiohead] went on to make".[14]

Release and reception[edit]

EMI released "Creep" as a single in September 1992,[15] when it reached number 78 on the UK Singles Chart, selling 6,000 copies.[16] Radio 1 found the song "too depressing" and refrained from playing it.[17] Radiohead moved to a second single, "Anyone Can Play Guitar", to promote Pablo Honey, and released a non-album single, "Pop Is Dead".

Towards the end of 1992, DJ Yoav Kutner played "Creep" often on Israeli radio, having been introduced to the song by a EMI representative, and it became a national hit. Radiohead quickly set up tour dates in the country to capitalise on the success.[18][19] "Creep" had similar success in New Zealand, Spain, and Scandinavian countries.[20] Around the same time, the San Francisco, California radio station KITS added the song to its playlist, and soon other radio stations along the American West Coast followed suit. A censored version of the song was released to radio stations, and, by the second half of 1993, the song had become a hit nationwide, charting at number 34 on the Billboard Hot 100.[2] It remains Radiohead's highest-charting single in the Billboard Hot 100. By the time Radiohead went to the United States, they were surprised by the success of the song. Yorke told Melody Maker in 1993 that many journalists misunderstood the song, asking him if it was a joke.[17]

Radiohead initially did not want to reissue "Creep" in the UK, but relented; bassist Colin Greenwood said that "after doing so well in America, there was this tremendous pressure from radio people, the press, the record company, even our fans, to put it out".[21] The 1993 reissue reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart.[22] The release was bolstered by a September 1993 Top of the Pops performance, which drew criticism from the music press and artists including Oasis guitarist Noel Gallagher.[3][23] In the US, "Creep" was aided by its appearance in a 1994 episode of the MTV animated series Beavis and Butt-Head; Capitol, Radiohead's US label, used the endorsement in a marketing campaign with the slogan "Beavis and Butt-Head Say [Radiohead] Don't Suck".[24]

Legacy[edit]

Following the release of Pablo Honey, Radiohead spent two years touring in support of Belly and PJ Harvey. They performed "Creep" at every show, and came to resent it. O'Brien recalled: "We seemed to be living out the same four and a half minutes of our lives over and over again. It was incredibly stultifying."[24] Yorke said the band felt they were being judged on a single song and had to move on.[24] In 2015, drummer Philip Selway said: "'Creep' did us a lot of favours. I think it gave us a lot of space in terms of how the record company approached us. But I think for us, creatively, I think each track has always been a reaction to the last one ... we’d been kind of going down that route for a good few years, and there were these other ideas coming through."[25] The 1994 song "My Iron Lung" was written in response to the reaction to "Creep"; the song contains the lines: "This is our new song / just like the last one / a total waste of time".[24]

During the tour for Radiohead's third album, OK Computer (1997), Yorke became hostile when "Creep" was mentioned in interviews and refused requests to play it, telling a Montréal audience: "Fuck off, we're tired of it."[26] He dismissed fans demanding to hear it as "anally retarded".[26] After the tour, Radiohead did not perform "Creep" until the encore of their 2001 hometown concert at South Park, Oxford, after an equipment failure halted a performance of another song.[27]

Radiohead performed "Creep" as the opening song of their headline performance at the 2009 Reading Festival.[28] They did not perform it again until 2016, when they played it several times on tour for their ninth studio album, A Moon Shaped Pool. After a fan spent the majority of a concert shouting for it, the band decided to play it to "see what the reaction is, just to see how it feels".[29] They also performed the song during the encore of their headline performance at the Glastonbury Festival that year; according to Guardian critic Alexis Petridis, "Given Radiohead’s famously fractious relationship with their first big hit ... the performance of Creep [was] greeted with something approaching astonished delight."[14] In 2017, O'Brien said: "It's nice to play for the right reasons. People like it and want to hear it. We do err towards not playing it because you don't want it to feel like show business."[30] In the same interview, Yorke said: "It can be cool sometimes, but other times I want to stop halfway through and be like, 'Nah, this isn't happening'."[30]

In December 2007, VH1 ranked "Creep" the 31st greatest song of the 1990s.[31] In June 2008, "Creep" re-entered the UK Singles Chart at number 37 after its inclusion on Radiohead: The Best Of.[32] As of April 2019, it was the UK's most streamed song released in 1992, with 10.1 million streams.[33]

Covers[edit]

"Creep" has been covered by artists including Frank Bennett,[34] Haley Reinhart and Postmodern Jukebox,[35] Sarah Geronimo,[36] the Pretenders,[37] Kelly Clarkson[37] and Tears for Fears on their Rule The World Tour.[38] In April 2008, American musician Prince covered "Creep" at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival. A bootleg recording was shared online, but removed at Prince's request; after being informed of the situation in an interview, Yorke said: "Well, tell him to unblock it. It's our song."[39][40] In 2010, a cover of the song performed by Scala & Kolacny Brothers accompanied the trailer for the film The Social Network.[41]

Copyright infringement[edit]

The chord progression and melody in "Creep" is similar to that of the 1972 song "The Air That I Breathe".[42] Songwriters Albert Hammond and Mike Hazlewood received cowriting credits and a percentage of the royalties.[43] According to Hammond, "The publisher of ["The Air That I Breathe"], Rondor Music, felt ['Creep'] was a steal ... and he sued Radiohead and they agreed. Because they were honest they weren't sued to the point of saying 'we want the whole thing'. So we ended up just getting a little piece of it."[44]

In January 2018, American singer Lana Del Rey stated on Twitter that Radiohead were taking legal action against her for allegedly plagiarising "Creep" on the track "Get Free" from her album Lust for Life (2017), asking for 100% of publishing royalties instead of Del Rey's offer of 40%. She denied that "Creep" had inspired "Get Free".[45] Radiohead's publisher Warner/Chappell Music confirmed it was seeking songwriting credit for "all writers" of "Creep", but denied that a lawsuit had been brought or that Radiohead had demanded 100% of royalties.[46] Performing at Lollapalooza Brazil in March, Del Rey told the audience that "my lawsuit's over, I guess I can sing that song any time I want".[47]

Track listing[edit]

Original UK release
  1. "Creep" – 3:55
  2. "Lurgee" – 3:07
  3. "Inside My Head" – 3:12
  4. "Million Dollar Question" – 3:18
(Cassette – Promo)
  1. "Creep" – 3:56
  2. "Faithless, the Wonder Boy" – 4:10
UK re-release (CD)
  1. "Creep" (album version) – 3:58
  2. "Yes I Am" – 4:25
  3. "Blow Out" (remix) – 4:00
  4. "Inside My Head" (live) – 3:07
UK re-release (12" vinyl)
  1. "Creep" (acoustic) – 4:19
  2. "You" (live) – 3:39
  3. "Vegetable" (live) – 3:07
  4. "Killer Cars" (live) – 2:17
Dutch release (CD)
  1. "Creep" (Album Version) – 3:59
  2. "Yes I Am" – 4:26
  3. "Inside My Head" (live) – 3:07
  4. "Creep" (live) – 4:19
  • Note: All tracks recorded live at the Metro in Chicago by JBTV on June 30, 1993, except A1 recorded live for KROQ Radio on July 13, 1993.
Single
  1. "Creep" – 3:56
Digital re-release
  1. "Creep" 3:56
  2. "Inside My Head" 3:12
  3. "Million Dollar Question" 3:18
  4. "Yes I Am" 4:26
  5. "Blow Out (Remix)" 4:19

The original versions of "Lurgee", "Blow Out", "You" and "Vegetable" are taken from the album Pablo Honey.

Personnel[edit]

  • Thom Yorke – lead vocals
  • Colin Greenwood – bass guitar
  • Jonny Greenwood – lead guitar, piano
  • Ed O'Brien – rhythm guitar
  • Philip Selway – drums

Chart performance[edit]

Chart (1992/1993) Peak
position
Australia (ARIA)[48] 6
Austria (Ö3 Austria Top 40)[49] 15
Belgium (Ultratop 50 Flanders)[50] 37
Belgium (Ultratop 50 Wallonia)[51] 8
Canada (Canadian Hot 100)[52] 30
Denmark (Tracklisten)[53] 18
France (SNEP)[54] 4
Germany (Official German Charts)[55] 50
Ireland (IRMA)[56] 13
Netherlands (Single Top 100)[57] 13
New Zealand (Recorded Music NZ)[58] 19
Norway (VG-lista)[59] 3
Sweden (Sverigetopplistan)[60] 35
Switzerland (Schweizer Hitparade)[61] 39
UK Singles (Official Charts Company)[62] 7
US Billboard Hot 100[63] 34
US Billboard Modern Rock Tracks 2
US Billboard Album Rock Tracks 20
US Billboard Mainstream Top 40 39
Charts (2018) Peak
position
France (SNEP)[64] 4

Certifications[edit]

Region Certification Certified units/Sales
Australia (ARIA)[65] Gold 35,000^
Canada (Music Canada)[66] Gold 40,000*
Denmark (IFPI Denmark)[67] Gold 45,000*
Italy (FIMI)[68] 2× Platinum 100,000double-dagger
United Kingdom (BPI)[69] Platinum 600,000double-dagger

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
double-daggersales+streaming figures based on certification alone

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Reising (2005), p.210
  2. ^ a b c Marzorati, Gerald. "The Post Rock Band". The New York Times. 1 October 2000. Retrieved on 28 July 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e Kempf, Christi. "The Radiohead Vision Creeps Onto Airwaves". Chicago Sun-Times. 7 June 1993.
  4. ^ Randall, p. 83
  5. ^ Randall, p. 83-84
  6. ^ Sprague, David. "Contagious Creep". Billboard. 15 May 1993.
  7. ^ "Creeping into the Limelight". Fender Frontline. Fall 1993.
  8. ^ Randall, p. 99
  9. ^ a b Capuzzo, Guy. "Neo-Riemannian Theory and the Analysis of Pop-Rock Music", p.186–87, Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 177–199. Autumn 2004. Capuzzo uses "+" to indicate major and "-" to indicate minor (C+, C-).
  10. ^ Capuzzo ibid. Also quotes Ross 2001, 118.
  11. ^ CD Inlay Archive. 1993 Archived 29 June 2012 at Archive.today
  12. ^ Randall, p. 98
  13. ^ Sullivan, Jim. "Creep stumbles onto fame". The Boston Globe. 8 October 1993.
  14. ^ a b Petridis, Alexis. "Radiohead at Glastonbury 2017 review". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  15. ^ Randall, p. 84-85
  16. ^ Randall, p. 88
  17. ^ a b Jennings, Dave. "Creepshow". Melody Maker. 25 September 1993.
  18. ^ "Never Forget Radiohead's Relationship With Israel Goes Way Back". Slate. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  19. ^ "Is this the reason Radiohead is playing Israel?". New York Post. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  20. ^ Randall, p. 90-91
  21. ^ Randall, p. 117
  22. ^ Randall, p. 118
  23. ^ Live Forever: The Rise and Fall of Brit Pop. 2003. Bonus interviews.
  24. ^ a b c d Runtagh, Jordan; Runtagh, Jordan (22 February 2018). "Radiohead's 'Pablo Honey': 10 Things You Didn't Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  25. ^ "Q&A: Radiohead's Philip Selway Remembers The Bends". Stereogum. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  26. ^ a b "Radiohead: "We were spitting and fighting and crying…" – Page 8 of 16 – Uncut". Uncut. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  27. ^ "Rapturous return for masters of misery". BBC News. 8 July 2001. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  28. ^ Reporter, News (31 August 2009). "Radiohead open with 'Creep' at Reading Festival 2009". NME. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  29. ^ Michelle Geslani, Thom Yorke surprised at album's success
  30. ^ a b Greene, Andy (8 June 2017). "19 Things We Learned Hanging Out With Radiohead". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  31. ^ 100 Greatest Songs of the '90s Archived 14 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ The Official UK Charts Company: Top 100 Singles Chart. 15 June 2008
  33. ^ Savage, Mark (11 April 2019). "The UK's most-streamed songs may surprise you". Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  34. ^ "ABC Broadcasting: "Hottest 100, History, 1996"". Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  35. ^ "Haley Reinhart's 'Creep' cover with Postmodern Jukebox is worth a listen". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  36. ^ Esteves, Patricia. "Concert review The Sarah G experience". philstar.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  37. ^ a b "The Pretenders, London, 1995 – In Their Right Place: Ranking 10 Radiohead 'Creep' Covers (Plus One Bonus Clip!) | SPIN". spin.com. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  38. ^ "Tears For Fears Rule The World Set List".
  39. ^ "Radiohead News – Yahoo! Music". Music.yahoo.com. 30 May 2008. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  40. ^ Andrea DenHoed (23 April 2012). "A Rehabilitated "Creep"". The New Yorker.
  41. ^ Radio, Southern California Public (26 August 2010). "Cover of Radiohead's 'Creep' from 'The Social Network' trailer". Southern California Public Radio. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  42. ^ Locker, Melissa. "11 Suspiciously Sound-Alike Songs". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  43. ^ Wardle, Ben. "Get off Coldplay's case – similar songs can co-exist peacefully". Guardian.co.uk. 12 May 2009. Retrieved on 22 September 2010.
  44. ^ Reporters, Telegraph (8 January 2018). "Lana Del Rey sued by Radiohead for allegedly copying Creep". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  45. ^ Kim, Michelle. "Lana Del Rey Says Radiohead Suing Her for Copying "Creep"". Pitchfork. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  46. ^ "Radiohead Publisher Issues Statement Refuting Lana Del Rey Lawsuit". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  47. ^ "Lana Del Rey Says Radiohead Lawsuit Is Over". Stereogum. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  48. ^ "Australian-charts.com – Radiohead – Creep". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  49. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Radiohead – Creep" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  50. ^ "Ultratop.be – Radiohead – Creep" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  51. ^ "Ultratop.be – Radiohead – Creep" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  52. ^ "Red Hot Chili Peppers – Awards". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  53. ^ "Danishcharts.com – Radiohead – Creep". Tracklisten. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  54. ^ "Lescharts.com – Radiohead – Creep" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  55. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Radiohead – Creep". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  56. ^ "Chart Track: Week 18, 1993". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  57. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Radiohead – Creep" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  58. ^ "Charts.nz – Radiohead – Creep". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  59. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Radiohead – Creep". VG-lista. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  60. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Radiohead – Creep". Singles Top 100. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  61. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Radiohead – Creep". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  62. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  63. ^ "Radiohead Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  64. ^ "Lescharts.com – Radiohead – Creep" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  65. ^ "The ARIA Australian Top 100 Singles 1994". Australian Record Industry Association Ltd. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  66. ^ "Canadian single certifications – Radiohead – Creep". Music Canada. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  67. ^ "Danish single certifications – Radiohead – Creep". IFPI Denmark. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Scroll through the page-list below until year 2019 to obtain certification.
  68. ^ "Italian single certifications – Radiohead – Creep" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 24 September 2018. Select "2018" in the "Anno" drop-down menu. Select "Creep" in the "Filtra" field. Select "Singoli online" under "Sezione".
  69. ^ "British single certifications – Radiohead – Creep". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 13 April 2018. Select singles in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type Creep in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.

References[edit]

  • Clover, Joshua (2009). 1989: Bob Dylan Didn't Have This to Sing About. University of California Press. ISBN 052094464X.
  • Forbes, Brandon W. and George A. Reisch (2009). Radiohead and Philosophy: Fitter Happier More Deductive. Open Court Publishing. ISBN 0812696646.
  • Jones, Carys Wyn (2005). "The Aura of Authenticity: Perceptions of Honesty, Sincerity, and Truth in 'Creep' and 'Kid A'". In Joseph Tate (ed.). The Music and Art of Radiohead. Ashgate. ISBN 0754639797.
  • Randall, Mac. Exit Music: The Radiohead Story. Delta, 2000. ISBN 0-385-33393-5
  • Reising, Russell (2005). Speak To Me: The Legacy Of Pink Floyd's Dark Side Of The Moon. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0754640191.
  • Reynolds, Tom (2008). Touch Me, I'm Sick: The 52 Creepiest Love Songs You've Ever Heard. Chicago Review Press. pp. 47–51. ISBN 9781556527531.

External links[edit]