|Subfamilies and Genera|
The Crenuchidae, South American darters, are a family of freshwater fish of the order Characiformes. The 12 genera include about 74 species, though several species are undescribed. These fish are relatively small (usually under 10 cm (4 in) in standard length) and originate from eastern Panama and South America. Both subfamilies were previously included in the family Characidae, and were placed in a separate family by Buckup, 1998. Buckup, 1993, revised all genera, except Characidium.
- Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
- Buckup, Paulo A. (1998). Relationships of the Characidiinae and the phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei, Ostariophysi). p.123-144. In: Malabarba, L.R; Reis, R.E.; Lucena, Z.M.; Lucena, C.A. (eds.) Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes. 603p. Porto Alegre, EDIPUCRS.
- Buckup, P.A. 1993. Review of the characidiin fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes), with descriptions of four new genera and ten new species. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 4(2):97-154.
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