Creole (markup)

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Creole is a lightweight markup language, aimed at being a common markup language for wikis, enabling and simplifying the transfer of content between different wiki engines.


The idea was conceived during a workshop at the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis.[1][2] An EBNF grammar and XML interchange format for Creole have also been published.[3][4] Creole was designed by comparing major wiki engines and using the most common markup for a particular wikitext element. If no commonality was found, the wikitext of the dominant wiki engine MediaWiki was usually chosen.

On July 4, 2007, the version 1.0 (final)[5] of Creole was released, and a two-year development freeze was implemented to allow time for authors of wiki engines to adopt the new markup. Although development to the standard itself is frozen, discussion in the developer community regarding good practices in wiki markup design and about possible additions and changes for future Creole versions continues.

As of 2012, adoption of Creole is limited. Many wiki systems offer it as an option, but few use it by default and few wiki websites enable this optional feature.

Creole syntax examples[edit]

Emphasized text:

//emphasized// (e.g., italics)
**strongly emphasized** (e.g., bold)


* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item

# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item


Link to [[wikipage]]
[[link_address|link text]]

Headings: (closing equals signs are optional)

= Extra-large heading
== Large heading
=== Medium heading
==== Small heading



Horizontal Line:





|=  |= table |= header |
| a | table  | row     |
| b | table  | row     |

No markup:

This text will //not// be **formatted**.

Support in engines[edit]

Creole 1.0 is the default syntax in Bitbucket wikis, which also support some Creole 1.0 additions.[6]

Creole 1.0 is one of the available markup languages for the online educational platform Moodle,[7] and the UML rendering software PlantUML.[8]


  1. ^ Chuck Smith. "Wiki Creole Press Release". Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  2. ^ Sauer, Christoph; Chuck Smith; Tomas Benz (2007). "Wiki Creole: A Common Markup" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis. ACM Press. pp. 131–142. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  3. ^ Martin Junghans; Dirk Riehle; Rama Gurram; Matthias Kaiser; Mario Lopes; Umit Yalcinalp (2007). "An EBNF grammar for Wiki Creole 1.0" (pdf). ACM SIGWEB Newsletter. Association for Computing Machinery. 2007 (Winter): 4. doi:10.1145/1324960.1324964. ISSN 1931-1745. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  4. ^ Martin Junghans; Dirk Riehle; Umit Yalcinalp (2007). "An XML interchange format for Wiki Creole 1.0" (PDF). ACM SIGWEB Newsletter. Association for Computing Machinery. 2007 (Winter): 4. doi:10.1145/1324960.1324965. ISSN 1931-1745. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  5. ^ "Creole 1.0". WikiCreole. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  6. ^ "Special Support for Creole". Atlassian Documentation. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  7. ^ "Creole format - MoodleDocs". MoodleDocs.
  8. ^ "Creole support in PlantUML". PlantUML.

External links[edit]