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Creole (markup)

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Creole is a lightweight markup language, aimed at being a common markup language for wikis, enabling and simplifying the transfer of content between different wiki engines.


The idea was conceived during a workshop at the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis.[1][2] An EBNF grammar and XML interchange format for Creole have also been published.[3][4] Creole was designed by comparing major wiki engines and using the most common markup for a particular wikitext element. If no commonality was found, the wikitext of the dominant wiki engine MediaWiki was usually chosen.

On July 4, 2007, the version 1.0 (final)[5] of Creole was released, and a two-year development freeze was implemented to allow time for authors of wiki engines to adopt the new markup.

Creole syntax examples[edit]

Emphasized text:

//emphasized// (e.g., italics)
**strongly emphasized** (e.g., bold)


* Bullet list
* Second item
** Sub item

# Numbered list
# Second item
## Sub item


Link to [[wikipage]]
[[link_address|link text]]

Headings: (closing equals signs are optional)

= Extra-large heading
== Large heading
=== Medium heading
==== Small heading



Horizontal Line:





|=  |= table |= header |
| a | table  | row     |
| b | table  | row     |

No markup:

This text will //not// be **formatted**.

Support in engines[edit]

Creole 1.0 is the default syntax in Bitbucket wikis, which also support some Creole 1.0 additions.[6]

Creole 1.0 is one of the available markup languages for the online educational platform Moodle,[7] and the UML rendering software PlantUML.[8]


  1. ^ Chuck Smith. "Wiki Creole Press Release". wikicreole.org. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  2. ^ Sauer, Christoph; Chuck Smith; Tomas Benz (2007). "Wiki Creole: A Common Markup" (PDF). Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis. ACM Press. pp. 131–142. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  3. ^ Martin Junghans; Dirk Riehle; Rama Gurram; Matthias Kaiser; Mario Lopes; Umit Yalcinalp (2007). "An EBNF grammar for Wiki Creole 1.0" (pdf). ACM SIGWEB Newsletter. 2007 (Winter). Association for Computing Machinery: 4. doi:10.1145/1324960.1324964. ISSN 1931-1745. S2CID 43278300. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  4. ^ Martin Junghans; Dirk Riehle; Umit Yalcinalp (2007). "An XML interchange format for Wiki Creole 1.0" (PDF). ACM SIGWEB Newsletter. 2007 (Winter). Association for Computing Machinery: 4. doi:10.1145/1324960.1324965. ISSN 1931-1745. S2CID 15913866. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  5. ^ "Creole 1.0". WikiCreole. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  6. ^ "Special Support for Creole". Atlassian Documentation. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  7. ^ "Creole format - MoodleDocs". MoodleDocs.
  8. ^ "Creole support in PlantUML". PlantUML.

External links[edit]