Creoles of color
The Creoles of color are an historic ethnic group of Creole people that developed in the former French and Spanish colonies of Louisiana (especially in the city of New Orleans), Southern Mississippi, Alabama, and Northwestern Florida in what is now the United States. French colonists in Louisiana first used the term "Creole" to refer to whites born in the colony, rather than in France. It was also used for slaves born in the colony.
But as a group of mixed-race people developed from unions between Europeans and Africans, the term Creoles of color was applied to them. In some cases, white fathers would free their concubines and children, forming a class of Gens du couleur libre (free people of color). The French and Spanish gave them more rights than the slaves.
Mixed-race Creoles of color became identified as a distinct ethnic group, Gens de couleur libres (free persons of color), prior to the 19th century. During Louisiana’s colonial period, Créole referred to people born in Louisiana whose ancestors had come from elsewhere; i.e., all natives other than Native Americans. The term Créole was first used by French colonists to distinguish themselves from foreign-born settlers, and later as distinct from Anglo-American settlers. Colonial documents show that the term Créole was used variously at different times to refer to white people, mixed-race people, and black people, including slaves.
Many Creoles of color were free, and their descendants often enjoyed many of the same privileges that whites did, including (but not limited to) property ownership, formal education, and service in the militia. During the antebellum period, their society was structured along class lines and they tended to marry within their group. While it was not illegal, it was a social taboo for Creoles of color to marry slaves and it was a rare occurrence. Some of the wealthier and prosperous Creoles of color owned slaves themselves. Other Creoles of color, such as Thomy Lafon, used their social position to support the abolitionist cause.
Another Creole of color, wealthy planter Francis E. Dumas, emancipated all of his slaves in 1863 and organized them into a company in the Second Regiment of the Louisiana Native Guards, in which he served as an officer.
Some historians suggest that New Orleans was the cradle of the civil rights movement in the United States, due to the earliest efforts of Creoles to integrate the military en masse. Creoles of Color had been members of the militia for decades under both French and Spanish control of the colony of Louisiana. For example, around 80 free Creoles of Color were recruited into the militia that participated in the Battle of Baton Rouge in 1779.
After the United States made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and acquired the large territory west of the Mississippi, the Creoles of color in New Orleans volunteered their services and pledged their loyalty to their new country. They also took an oath of loyalty to W.C.C. Claiborne, the Louisiana Territorial Governor appointed by President Thomas Jefferson.
Months after the colony became part of the United States, Claiborne's administration was faced with a dilemma previously unknown in the U.S.; integration in the military by incorporating entire units of previously established "colored" militia. In a February 20, 1804 letter, Secretary of War Henry Dearborn wrote to Clairborne saying, ". . .it would be prudent not to increase the Corps, but to diminish, if it could be done without giving offense. . ."  A decade later, the militia of color that remained volunteered to take up arms when the British began landing troops on American soil outside of New Orleans in December 1814. This was the commencement of the Battle of New Orleans.
After the Louisiana Purchase, the territory and New Orleans became the destination of many migrants from the United States, as well as new immigrants. Migrants from the South imposed their binary slave society system, classifying most Creoles of color as black and second-class citizens, regardless of their education, property ownership, or previous status in French society. The US had developed a harsh racial caste system. After the American Civil War, during and after Reconstruction, the struggle of whites to impose white supremacy increased the pressure of people of color. Generally, the Creoles of Color were relegated by whites to the ranks of the mass of newly emancipated slaves.
With the advantage of having been better educated than the new freedmen, many Creoles of color were active in the struggle for civil rights and served in political office during Reconstruction, helping to bring freedmen into the political system. During late Reconstruction, white Democrats regained political control of state legislatures across the former Confederate states by intimidation of blacks and other Republicans at the polls. Through the late nineteenth century, they worked to impose white supremacy under Jim Crow laws and customs. They disfranchised the majority of blacks, especially by creating barriers to voter registration through devices such as poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, etc., stripping African Americans, including Creoles of color, of political power.
Creoles of color were among the African Americans who were limited when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, deciding that "separate but equal" accommodations were constitutional. It permitted states to impose Jim Crow rules on federal railways and later interstate buses.
Finally, more than a century later, social change had reversed much of its two-century eclipse. On June 14, 2013 Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal signed into law Act 276, creating the "prestige" license plate stating "I'm Creole", in honor of the Creoles' contributions, culture, and heritage. In the 21st century, the term Louisiana Creole people, or Creole, generally refers to people of mixed-race and descendants of the early Catholic culture.
Contribution to the arts
Some Creoles of color trained as classical musicians in 19th-century Louisiana. These musicians would often study with those associated with the French Opera House; some traveled to Paris to complete their studies. Creole composers of that time are discussed in Music and Some Highly Musical People by James Monroe Trotter, and Nos Hommes et Notre Histoire by Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes.
Notable classical Creole musicians
- Basile Barès
- Edmund Dédé
- Laurent Dubuclet
- Andrus Espree
- Lucien-Léon Guillaume Lambert
- Charles Lucien Lambert
- Sidney Lambert
- Victor-Eugene McCarty
- Samuel Snaër
- George Baquet
- Paul Barbarin
- Louis Barbarin
- Danny Barker
- Emile Barnes
- Paul Barnes
- Sidney Bechet
- Barney Bigard
- Louis Cottrell, Sr.
- Louis Cottrell, Jr.
- Joe Darensbourg
- Louis Nelson Delisle
- Cie Frazier
- Freddie Keppard
- Lawrence Marrero
- Jelly Roll Morton (Ferdinand J. LaMothe)
- Albert Nicholas
- Kid Ory
- Manuel Perez
- Jimmy Palao
- Alcide Pavageau
- Alphonse Picou
- De De Pierce
- Armand J. Piron
- John Robichaux
- Omer Simeon
- Lorenzo Tio
- List of Louisiana Creoles
- Louisiana Creole people
- Louisiana French
- Louisiana Creole French
- Cane River Creole National Historical Park
- Melrose Plantation
- Faubourg Marigny
- Little New Orleans
- Frenchtown, Houston
- Magnolia Springs, Alabama
- Kein, Sybil. "Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana's Free People of Color". Louisiana State University Press, 2009, p. 73.
- Shirley Elizabeth Thompson, Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans, Harvard University Press, 2009, pg. 162
- Eaton, Fernin. "Louisiana's Free People of Color-Digitization Grant-letter in support". Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Charles Gayarré, History of Louisiana: The Spanish Domination, William J. Widdleton, 1867, pp 126-132
- Carter, Clarence (1940). The Territorial Papers of the United States, Vol. IX, The Territory of Orleans. p. 174.
- Eaton, Fernin. "1811 Slave Uprising, etc". Salon Publique, Pitot House, November 7, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Rowland, Dunbar (1917). Official Letter Books of W.C.C. Claiborne, 1801-1816. Mississippi Dept. of Archives & History. pp. Vol II, p. 54–55.
- Eaton, Fernin. "1811 Slave Uprising-Governor on Trial: Claiborne in His Own Words". Salon Publique, Pitot House, November 7, 2011, pp. 11-13. academia.edu. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Kathe Managan, The Creole Community and the Struggle for Civil Rights, lameca.org, Accessed November 22, 2013.
- Adam Fairclough, Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915-1972, University of Georgia Press, 2008, pp. 1-21
- Charles B. Hersch, Subversive Sounds: Race and the Birth of Jazz in New Orleans, University of Chicago Press, 2007, pg. 98-109
- Scott DeVeaux, Gary Giddins, Jazz, wwnorton.com, Accessed November 22, 2013
- Douglas, Nick (2013). Finding Octave: The Untold Story of Two Creole Families and Slavery in Louisiana. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
- Jacques Anderson, Beverly (2011). Cherished Memories: Snapshots of Life and Lessons from a 1950s New Orleans Creole Village. iUniverse.com.
- Malveaux, Vivian (2009). Living Creole and Speaking It Fluently. AuthorHouse.
- Kein, Sybil (2009). Creole: the history and legacy of Louisiana's free people of color. Louisiana State University Press.
- Jolivette, Andrew (2007). Louisiana Creoles: Cultural Recovery and Mixed-Race Native American Identity. Lexington Books.
- Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth (2009). Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans. Harvard University Press.
- Martin, Munro; Britton, Celia (2012). American Creoles: The Francophone Caribbean and the American South. Liverpool University Press.
- Gehman, Mary (2009). The Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction. Margaret Media, Inc.
- Clark, Emily (2013). The Strange History of the American Quadroon: Free Women of Color in the Revolutionary Atlantic World. The University of North Carolina Press.
- Dominguez, Virginia (1986). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
- Cossé Bell, Caryn (2004). Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana 1718-1868. Louisiana State University Press.
- Anthony, Arthe A. (2012). Picturing Black New Orleans: A Creole Photographer's View of the Early Twentieth Century. University Press of Florida.
- In their words: We are all Creole
- Creole Poems
- C.R.E.O.L.E. Inc.
- Zydeco Nation
- Test Suggests 'Black' Man Is Really Not
- Quadroons for Beginners: Discussing the Suppressed and Sexualized History of Free Women of Color with Author Emily Clark
- I Am What I Say I Am: Racial and Cultural Identity among Creoles of Color in New Orleans
- A Creole Melting Pot: the Politics of Language, Race, and Identity in southwest Louisiana, 1918-45
- Beyoncé and Solange Knowles breaking boundaries
- Michelle Covington: The Great Migration and Creole Cooking
- The Creole Connection
- After Katrina, transplanted Creoles vow to keep culture alive
- Bay Area Grammy Nominee Represents Local Creole Community
- Cluse: 'Creole is a lot more than people think'
- Finding Agnes