Crêpe

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Crêpe
Crepes dsc07085.jpg
A stack of crêpes
Alternative namesCrepe
TypePancake
Place of originFrance
Serving temperatureWarm or hot or cold
Main ingredientsWheat flour or buckwheat flour, milk, eggs
A sweet crêpe opened up, with whipped cream and strawberry sauce on it
Video demonstration of preparing crêpes

A crêpe or crepe (/krp/ (About this soundlisten)[1] or /krɛp/, French: [kʁɛp] (About this soundlisten), Quebec French: [kʁaɪ̯p] (About this soundlisten)) is a type of very thin pancake. Crêpes are usually of two types: sweet crêpes (crêpes sucrées) and savoury galettes (crêpes salées). Crêpes are served with a variety of fillings, from the simplest with only sugar to flambéed crêpes Suzette or elaborate savoury galettes. While crêpes are often associated with Brittany, a region in the northwest of France, the consumption is widespread in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada, and many parts of Europe, North Africa, North America, Lebanon, Brazil and Argentina.

Etymology[edit]

Crêpes belong to the general category of ancient Greek Tiganitai, from Greek tiganos (τίγανος), meaning "frying pan", which, in English, is literally translated to Pancakes.[2] The French term "crêpe" derives from the Latin crispa, meaning with "creases". The name "galette" came from the French word galet ("pebble") since the first gallettes were made on a large pebble heated in a fire.

Traditions[edit]

In France and Belgium, crêpes are traditionally served on Candlemas (La Chandeleur), February 2nd. This day was originally Virgin Mary's Blessing Day but became known in France as "Le Jour des Crêpes" (literally translated "The Day of the Crêpes", and sometimes called colloquially as "Avec Crêpe Day", "National Crêpe Day", or "day of the Crêpe"), referring to the tradition of offering crêpes. In fact, in 472 Pope Gelasio I offered Crêpes to French pilgrims that were visiting Rome for celebrating the Chandeleur[3]. Also, the belief is that catching the crêpe with a frying pan after tossing it in the air with your right hand while holding a gold coin in your left hand would cause you to become rich that year.[4][5] The roundness and golden color of a crêpe resembles the sun and its rays. This symbolism also applies to the coin held in the person's hand.[6]

Types of crêpe[edit]

Sweet crêpes are generally made with wheat flour (farine de froment). When sweet, they can be eaten as part of breakfast or as a dessert. Common fillings include Nutella spread, preserves, sugar (granulated or powdered), maple syrup, golden syrup, lemon juice, whipped cream, fruit spreads, custard, and sliced soft fruits or confiture.

Savory crêpes are made with non-wheat flours such as buckwheat. A normal savoury crêpe recipe includes using wheat flour but omitting the sugar.[7][citation needed] Batter made from buckwheat flour is gluten-free, which makes it possible for people who have a gluten allergy or intolerance to eat this type of crêpe. Common savoury fillings for crêpes served for lunch or dinner are cheese, ham, and eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke (in certain regions), and various meat products.

Batters can also consist of other simple ingredients such as butter, milk, water, eggs, flour, salt, and sugar.[8] Fillings are commonly added to the centre of the crêpe and served with the edges partially folded over the centre. An Indian variety of the crêpe uses a multi-grain flour called "bhajanee"[9][circular reference], eggs, curd, and an assortment of spices as its ingredients. It is a modern variation of an Indian dish called Thalipeeth.

Making batter[edit]

In order to make an evenly thin crêpe, it is crucial to have a batter without lumps, which is difficult. After whisking the batter, it is best to let it rest for half an hour, or even overnight, to let the bubbles from whisking disappear from the batter. Some even mix the batter to a fine consistency by using a blender or mixer.[10]

Crêperies[edit]

A small crêperie
Crêperie in Germany

A crêperie may be a takeaway restaurant or stall, serving crêpes as a form of fast food or street food, or may be a more formal sit-down restaurant or café.[11]

Crêperies are typical in France, especially in Brittany; however, crêperies can be found throughout France and in many other countries.

Because a crêpe may be served as either a main meal or a dessert, crêperies may be quite diverse in their selection and may offer other baked goods such as baguettes. They may also serve coffee, tea, buttermilk, and cider (a popular drink to accompany crêpes).[12]

Special crêpes[edit]

Mille crêpes(ja) are a French cake made of many crêpe layers. The word mille means "a thousand", implying the many layers of crêpe.[13] Another standard French and Belgian crêpe is the crêpe Suzette, a crêpe with lightly grated orange peel and liqueur (usually Grand Marnier), which is subsequently lit upon presentation.[14]

English pancakes are similar to wheat flour crêpes and are served with golden syrup or lemon juice and sugar. Swedish pancakes, also called Nordic pancakes, are similar to French crêpes. In some of the Nordic countries, crêpes are served with jam or fruit, especially lingonberries (or the butter from that fruit) as a dessert with a variety of savoury fillings. Traditional Swedish variations can be exotic. Beside the usual thin pancakes, called pannkakor in Swedish and räiskäle in Finnish which resemble the French crêpes and, often served with whipped cream and jam, are traditionally eaten for lunch on Thursdays with pea soup. The Swedish cuisine (as well as the Finnish one) has plättar/lettu, which resemble tiny English pancakes, are fried several at a time in a special pan. Others resemble German pancakes but are baked in the oven and include fried pork in the batter (fläskpannkaka). Potato pancakes called "raggmunk" contain shredded raw potato and may contain other vegetables (sometimes the pancake batter is omitted, producing rårakor).

A special Swedish pancake is the saffron pancake from Gotland which is made with saffron and rice and baked in the oven. It is common to add lemon juice to the sugar for extra taste. The pancakes are often served after a soup. Another special Swedish pancake is the äggakaka (eggcake), also called skånsk äggakaka (Scanian eggcake).[15] It is almost like an ordinary Swedish pancake but it is much thicker and more difficult to make due to the risk of burning it. It is made in a frying pan and is about 1½ to 2 inches thick and is served with lingonberries and bacon. The Norwegian variety is commonly eaten for dinner, traditionally with bacon, jam (typically bilberry jam) or sugar.[citation needed]

A plate of 49er flapjacks

The 49er flapjack is a sourdough crêpe which is popular in the United States,[16] getting its name from the popularity of this style of pancake during the California Gold Rush. Because it is similar to a Swedish pancake, the 49er is sometimes served with lingonberry sauce, although most often it is rolled up with butter and powdered sugar, or served open-faced and topped with maple syrup.

Cherry Kijafa Crêpes are also common in the United States and are made with a traditional crêpe base, but filled with cherries simmered in a Kijafa wine sauce.[17]

Crêpe dentelle is a crispy biscuit made with a very thin layer of crêpe folded in a cigar shape and then baked. It is usually enjoyed with a hot drink during the goûter, in France.[18]

Crêpes in European culture[edit]

A sweet crêpe filled with oats, berries, and topped with whipped cream.
Frixuelos. This is a kind of crêpe made in Asturias, Spain.

In Norwegian, crêpes are called pannekake, in most German regions Crêpes (referring to a wide and flat crêpe, as opposed to the smaller and thicker native Pfannkuchen pancakes). In Swedish, a crêpe is called pannkaka in southern regions while being called plättar in the north, in Danish, pandekager ("pancakes"), in Icelandic it is called pönnukaka, in Finnish a crêpe is called either ohukainen or lettu or räiskäle, in Greek it is krepa (Κρέπα), in Dutch it is a pannenkoek or flensje, and in Afrikaans a pannekoek, which is usually served with cinnamon and sugar. In the Spanish regions of Galicia and Asturias, they are traditionally served at carnivals. In Galicia, they're called filloas, and may also be made with pork blood instead of milk. In Asturias, they are called fayueles or frixuelos, and in Turkey, akıtma.

In areas of central Europe, formerly belonging to the Austro-Hungarian empire, there is a thin pancake comparable to a crêpe that in Austro-Bavarian is called Palatschinken; in Hungarian: palacsinta; and in Bulgarian, Macedonian, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, and Slovene: palačinka; in Slovak: palacinka. In the Balkan countries, palačinka or pallaçinka may be eaten with fruit jam, quark cheese, sugar, honey, or the hazelnut-chocolate cream Nutella, while there is also a breaded variant which is mostly filled with meat. Restaurants which are specialised in palačinci are called "Palačinkara" in the region. In Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine, there is a similar dish known as the blintz. The Oxford English Dictionary derives the German and Slavic words from the Hungarians palacsinta, which it derives from the Romanian plăcintă, which comes in turn from classical Latin placenta ("small flat cake"), even though the Romanian plăcintă is more similar to a pie, and the crêpes are actually called clătită. During the Russian celebration of Maslenitsa (Russian Butter Week), one of the most popular foods is blini, or crêpes. Since they are made from butter, eggs and milk, crêpes are allowed to be consumed during the celebration by the Orthodox church. There are endless combinations to the recipes and the execution of crêpes. White flour can be replaced with buckwheat flour and milk can be switched for kefir. Furthermore, different oils can be added or substituted. Blini are served stocked with a piece of butter and topped with caviar, cheese, meat, potatoes, mushrooms, honey, berry jam, or often a dollop of sour cream. The dish is supposed to represent the sun, since the holiday is about the beginning of the spring. [19]

In addition to crêperies and crêpe franchises, some crêpe manufacturers use modern equipment to produce crêpes in bulk.

Chocolate-Coconut Crêpe served in crêperie near the Pantheon in Paris, France

The names for thin crêpes in other parts of Europe are:

Crêpes outside of Europe[edit]

Dishes with similar appearance, taste and preparation methods exist in other parts of the world as well.

In South India, a crêpe made of fermented rice batter is called a dosa, which often has savoury fillings. In Western India, a crêpe made of gram flour is called "Pudlaa" or "Poodla", with the batter consisting of vegetables and spices. Another variety is called "patibola" and is sweet in taste due to milk, jaggery, or sugar. The injera of Ethiopian/Eritrean/Somali/Yemeni cuisine is often described as a thick crêpe. In Somalia, Malawaḥ (Somali: Malawax) is very similar to a crêpe. It is mostly eaten at breakfast.

Crêpes have also long been popular in Japan and Malaysia, with sweet and savoury varieties being sold at many small stands, usually called crêperies. In Argentina and Uruguay, they are called panqueques and are often eaten with dulce de leche. Various other French foods such as crêpes, soufflés, and quiche have slowly made their way into North American cooking establishments.[20] Typically, these franchises stick to the traditional French method of making crêpes but they have also put their own spin on the crêpe with new types such as the hamburger and pizza crêpe.

In Mexico, crêpes are known as crepas, and were introduced during the 19th century by the French[21][22] and are typically served either as a sweet dessert when filled with cajeta (similar to dulce de leche), or as a savoury dish when filled with Huitlacoche (corn smut), which is considered a delicacy.

In the Philippines, a unique native crêpe recipe is the daral which is made from ground glutinous rice and coconut milk batter (galapong). It is rolled into a cylinder and filled with sweetened coconut meat strips (hinti).[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd Ed. 2008.
    Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  2. ^ [Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, XIV, 645c; Galen, On the Properties of Foods, I, 3]
  3. ^ https://france-amerique.com/en/la-chandeleur-the-day-to-flip-crepes/
  4. ^ Clay, Xanthe (17 February 2007). "With a flame in your art". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 25 April 2008.
  5. ^ Redmond, Barbara (30 January 2012). La Chandeleur – Le Jour des Crêpes. Retrieved on 28 February 2012 from http://awomansparis.wordpress.com/2012/01/30/la-chandeleur-le-jour-des-crepes/.
  6. ^ Sokolov, Raymond. "Sun food." Natural History May 1993: 82. Academic Search Complete.
  7. ^ Alfaro, Danilo. "Sweet or Savory Basic Crepe Recipe". The Spruce Eats. Dotdash. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  8. ^ "Wrap it up in a crêpe; Thin pancakes work in savoury or sweet dishes." Times Colonist (Victoria, British Columbia). (24 April 2013 Wednesday) LexisNexis Academic.
  9. ^ Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalipeeth. Retrieved 3 April 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ "Finding the Best Way to Make Crêpes with Fluid Dynamics Research". 6 November 2019.
  11. ^ "La Creperie Cafe". Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  12. ^ "La Creperie Key West". Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  13. ^ Hesser, Amanda (15 May 2005). "The Way We Eat: Building a Modern, Multistoried Dessert". The New York Times.
  14. ^ Courtine, Robert J. (1984), Larousse gastronomique (French edition), Paris: Librairie Larousse.
  15. ^ "Skånsk egg cake". Swedish Food.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Why They Sell Like Hot Cakes". Los Angeles Times. 16 March 1995. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  17. ^ Pancake House (2007). "Cherry Kijafa Crepes"; retrieved from http://www.originalpancakehouse.com/phm_crepes2.html.
  18. ^ "lace crepes". Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  19. ^ Nesterova, Maria (24 February 2014). "Maslenitsa, another Russian festival you've probably never heard of". Eurokulture.missouri.edu. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  20. ^ Benenson, R. (1984). Dining in America. Editorial research reports 1984 (Vol. I). Washington, DC: CQ Press.
  21. ^ Fernández-del-Villar, Miguel Angel and Ruiz-Naufal, Víctor M., Mesa Mexicana (1993), Fundación Cultural Bancomer, ISBN 9789686084948
  22. ^ Hursh, Karen (1 February 2005). "The French Influence On Mexican Cooking". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  23. ^ Polistico, Edgie. "daral". Philippine Food Illustrated. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
19. Life A La Henri – Being The Memories of Henri Charpentier, by Henri Charpentier and Boyden Sparkes, The Modern Library, New York, 2001 Paperback Edition. Originally published in 1934 by Simon & Schuster, Inc.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Crêpe at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of crêpe at Wiktionary
  • Crêpe at Wikibook Cookbooks