Crepidula

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Crepidula
Crépidules groupe.jpg
A stack of live Crepidula fornicata with a small live chiton on the shell on the left
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha
Superfamily: Calyptraeoidea
Family: Calyptraeidae
Genus: Crepidula
Synonyms[2]
  • Calyptraea (Syphopatella) Lesson, 1831
  • Crypta Gray, 1847
  • Crypta (Ergaea) H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854
  • Crypta (Ianacus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Garnotia Gray, 1857
  • Ianacus Mörch, 1852
  • Siphonipatella Agassiz, 1847 (unjustified emendation of Syphopatella)
  • Siphopatella (incorrect subsequent spelling)
  • Syphopatella Lesson, 1831

Crepidula, common name the slipper snails, slipper limpets or slipper shells, is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Calyptraeidae. This family includes the slipper snails (Crepidula), hat snails (Calyptraea), spiny slipper snails (Bostrycapulus), and cup-and-saucer snails (Crucibulum) as well as Crepipatella, Siphopatella, Grandicrepidula, and Maoricrypta.[2]

These recent changes in the definition of Crepidula are based on both DNA sequence data as well as anatomical work. Dissections of various calyptraeids show that species that are now placed in Grandicrepidula and Maoricrypta are anatomically very different from the true Crepidula. If only the shells are examined this difference is not apparent. This distinction is supported by DNA sequence data from 3 genes (COI, 16S and 28S).[3]

The genus Crepidula is probably the best studied group within the calyptraeids. A variety of species are commonly used in developmental, ecological, and behavioral research.[4] They have been the major focus of research on protandrous sex-change in marine invertebrates and have been used to demonstrate that sex change is environmentally mediated (the timing of sex change depends on association with other individual snails).[5][6][7] Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula onyx are well-studied examples of invasive, exotic species in marine habitats.[8][9]

Due to their simple shells and plastic morphology, calyptraeid taxonomy is challenging. In many cases distinct species with similar-looking shells have been lumped into a single species with either global or unusual distributions. In these cases close examination of the mode of development or of DNA data is vital to verify the species identity. Because such taxonomic lumping is difficult to clear from the internet or from the literature many species range estimates available on the internet include dubious data or data from species that have been taken out of synonymy.

Species[edit]

Species within the genus Crepidula include:[10][11][12]

Species brought into synonymy
Extended list of synonyms
  • Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791) sensu Zenetos et al.2004: synonym of Bostrycapulus odites Collin, 2005
  • Crepidula acuta H. C. Lea, 1842: synonym of Crepidula convexa Say, 1822
  • Crepidula adspersa Dunker, 1846: synonym of Crepidula porcellana Lamarck, 1801
  • Crepidula bilobata Reeve, 1859: synonym of Crepidula lingulata Gould, 1846: synonym of Crepipatella lingulata (Gould, 1846)
  • Crepidula calceolina Deshayes, 1830: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula californica Tryon, 1886: synonym of Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Crepidula calyptraeiformis Deshayes, 1830: synonym of Bostrycapulus calyptraeiformis (Deshayes, 1830)
  • Crepidula candida Risso, 1826: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula capensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1835: synonym of Crepipatella capensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1835)
  • Crepidula cataldi Parenzan, 1970: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula coei Berry, 1950: synonym of Crepidula naticarum Williamson, 1905
  • Crepidula contorta Quoy & Gaimard, 1832: synonym of Maoricrypta monoxyla (Lesson, 1830)
  • Crepidula costata G. B. Sowerby I, 1824: synonym of Maoricrypta costata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1824)
  • Crepidula costata Deshayes, 1830: synonym of Maoricrypta costata (G. B. Sowerby I, 1824)
  • Crepidula costulata Dunker, 1852: synonym of Crepidula incurva (Broderip, 1834)
  • Crepidula crepidula (Linnaeus, 1767): synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula depressa Deshayes, 1830: synonym of Crepidula dilatata Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Crepipatella dilatata (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula deshayesii de Folin, 1867: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula desmoulinsi Locard, 1886: synonym of Crepidula moulinsii Michaud, 1829
  • Crepidula dilatata Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Crepipatella dilatata (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula dorsata (Broderip, 1834): synonym of Crepipatella dorsata (Broderip, 1834)
  • Crepidula excisa Philippi, 1849: synonym of Ergaea walshi (Reeve, 1859)
  • Crepidula explanata Gould, 1853: synonym of Crepidula perforans (Valenciennes, 1846)
  • Crepidula exuviata Reeve, 1859: synonym of Crepidula perforans (Valenciennes, 1846)
  • Crepidula fasciata de Roissy, 1805: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula fecunda Gallardo, 1979: synonym of Crepipatella peruviana (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula fissurata G. B. Sowerby II, 1883: synonym of Crepipatella lingulata (Gould, 1846)
  • Crepidula foliacea Broderip, 1834: synonym of Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Crepidula gibbosa Defrance, 1818:[37] synonym of Crepidula moulinsii Michaud, 1829
  • Crepidula glauca Say, 1822: synonym of Crepidula convexa Say, 1822
  • Crepidula grandis Middendorff, 1849: synonym of Grandicrepidula grandis (Middendorff, 1849)
  • Crepidula gravispinosa Kuroda & Habe, 1950: synonym of Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Crepidula hochstetteriana Wilkens, 1922 : synonym of † Maoricrypta radiata (Hutton, 1873)
  • Crepidula immersa Angas, 1865: synonym of Maoricrypta immersa (Angas, 1865)
  • Crepidula incurva Zittel, 1864: synonym of † Crepidula wilckensi Finlay, 1924 : synonym of Maoricrypta radiata (Hutton, 1873) †
  • Crepidula italica Defrance, 1818: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula lamina H. C. Lea, 1843: synonym of Crepidula plana Say, 1822
  • Crepidula lingulata Gould, 1846: synonym of Crepipatella lingulata (Gould, 1846)
  • Crepidula lirata Reeve, 1859: synonym of Crepidula incurva (Broderip, 1834)
  • Crepidula maculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1832: synonym for Sigapatella novaezelandiae.
  • Crepidula minuta Middendorff, 1849: synonym of Crepidula nummaria Gould, 1846
  • Crepidula monoxyla (Lesson, 1831): synonym of Maoricrypta monoxyla (Lesson, 1830)
  • Crepidula nautiloides Lesson, 1832: synonym of Crepipatella dilatata (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula navicelloides Carpenter, 1864: synonym of Crepidula nummaria Gould, 1846
  • Crepidula nebulata Mabille, 1895: synonym of Crepidula nivea C. B. Adams, 1852
  • Crepidula orbella Yokoyama, 1920: synonym of Ergaea walshi (Reeve, 1859)
  • Crepidula orbiculata Dall, 1919: synonym of Crepipatella orbiculata (Dall, 1919)
  • Crepidula osculans C. B. Adams, 1852: synonym of Phenacolepas osculans (C. B. Adams, 1852)
  • Crepidula pallida (Broderip, 1834): synonym of Calyptraea pallida Broderip, 1834
  • Crepidula patagonica d'Orbigny, 1841: synonym of Crepipatella patagonica (d'Orbigny, 1841)
  • Crepidula patula Deshayes, 1830: synonym of Crepipatella peruviana (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula peruviana Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Crepipatella peruviana (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula plana (A. Adams & Reeve, 1850): synonym of Ergaea walshi (Reeve, 1859)
  • Crepidula pulchella Aradas, 1846: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula rhyssema Olsson & Harbison, 1953: synonym of Crepidula plana Say, 1822
  • Crepidula riisei Dunker, 1852: synonym of Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Crepidula rostriformis Gould, 1846: synonym of Crepidula adunca G. B. Sowerby I, 1825
  • Crepidula rugosa Carpenter, 1856: synonym of Crepidula onyx G. B. Sowerby I, 1824
  • Crepidula rugulosa Dunker, 1846: synonym of Crepipatella capensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1835)
  • Crepidula sandaliformis de Serres, 1830: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula sandalina Deshayes, 1833: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula scabies Reeve, 1859: synonym of Ergaea walshi (Reeve, 1859)
  • Crepidula sinuosa Turton, 1825: synonym of Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822
  • Crepidula solida Hinds, 1844: synonym of Crepidula adunca G. B. Sowerby I, 1825
  • Crepidula squama (Broderip, 1834): synonym of Crepidula striolata Menke, 1851
  • Crepidula strigellata Dunker, 1853: synonym of Crepidula striolata Menke, 1851
  • Crepidula sulin Dautzenberg, 1912: synonym of Crepidula porcellana Lamarck, 1801
  • Crepidula tomentosa Quoy & Gaimard, 1832: synonym of Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791): synonym of Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Crepidula uncata Menke, 1847: synonym of Crepidula adunca G. B. Sowerby I, 1825
  • Crepidula uncinata Philippi, 1887: synonym of Crepidula dilatata Lamarck, 1822: synonym of Crepipatella dilatata (Lamarck, 1822)
  • Crepidula virginica Conrad, 1871: synonym of Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Crepidula walshi Reeve, 1859: synonym of Ergaea walshi (Reeve, 1859)
  • Crepidula wilckensi Finlay, 1924: synonym of † Maoricrypta radiata (Hutton, 1873)
  • Crepidula youngi (Powell, 1940): synonym of Maoricrypta youngi Powell, 1940

Species that were previously placed in the genus Crepidula but have subsequently been removed from the genus on the basis of work by Bruce Marshall of the Te Papa Museum and Rachel Collin of the Smithsonian Institution include the following:

Now Maoricrypta:

Now Grandicrepidula:

Now Siphopatella:

Synonyms:

  • Crepidula maculata Quoy & Gaimard, 1832: synonym of Crepidula aculeata (Gmelin, 1791)

Ecology[edit]

Like all calyptraeids, slipper snails are sedentary filter-feeders. Adults use their large gill to capture microalgae from suspension, but there is some evidence that small juveniles can also use the radula to scrape algae from the substrate.

Introduced and invasive Crepidula species[edit]

Crepidula fornicata - Native to the east coast of North America and ranging from Florida north into Canada. This species is now widespread and considered highly invasive along the north coast of Spain and France, along much of England's coastline and into the North Sea. It has also been reported from San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound and the Mediterranean Sea.

Crepidula convexa - Native to the east coast of North America and ranging from South Carolina to New England. This species has been reported from Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay.

Crepidula onyx - Native to the Southern coast of California and northern Pacific coast of Mexico. This species is now widespread and considered highly invasive in Asia. It has been reported from Korea, Japan and Hong Kong.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lamarck J.B. (1799). Mém. Soc. Hist. nat. Paris 78.
  2. ^ a b Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2011). Crepidula Lamarck, 1799. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137722 on 2011-05-21
  3. ^ Collin, Rachel. 2003. The Utility of Morphological Characters in Gastropod Phylogenetics: An Example From the Calyptraeidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 4: 541–593
  4. ^ Henry, Jonathan J.; Collin, Rachel; Perry, Kimberly J.. 2010. The Slipper Snail, Crepidula: An emerging Lophotrochozoan model system. Biological Bulletin, 218(3): 211-229.
  5. ^ Mérot, Claire; Collin, Rachel. 2012. Effects of food availability on sex change in two species of Crepidula (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 449: 173-181.
  6. ^ Collin, Rachel; McLellan, Michelle; Gruber, Karl F.; Bailey-Jourdain, Catherine. 2005. Effects of Conspecific Associations on Size at Sex Change in Three Species of Calyptraeid Gastropods. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1: 89-97.
  7. ^ Collin, Rachel. 1995. Sex, size, and position: a test of models predicting size at sex change in the protandrous gastropod crepidula fornicata. The American Naturalist, 146(6): 815-831.
  8. ^ Coe, Wesley R. 1948. Nutrition and sexuality in protandric gastropods of the genus Crepidula. Biol. Bul. 94(3): 158-160.
  9. ^ Hendler, G. and D. R. Franz. 1971. Population dynamics and life history of Crepidula convexa Say (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Delaware Bay. Biol. Bul. 141: 514-526.
  10. ^ [1] Crepidula at ITIS
  11. ^ Ross, Landon T. (1965). "The genus Crepidula in North America: its taxonomy, phylogeny, and distribution. unpublished Florida State Univ. thesis". Retrieved on May 2009.[2]
  12. ^ [3] Crepidula at Discover Life
  13. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula aeola Dall, 1927. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532681 on 2011-01-11
  14. ^ a b Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula aplysioides Reeve, 1859. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532682 on 2011-01-11
  15. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula argentina Simone, Pastorino & Penchaszadeh, 2000. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532683 on 2011-01-11
  16. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula atrasolea Collin, 2000. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=419702 on 2011-01-11
  17. ^ Collin R. (2005). "Crepidula badisparsa sp. nov. (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from Bocas del Toro Province, Panama". Caribbean Journal of Science 41(2): 269-276. PDF.
  18. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula cachimilla Cledon, Simone & Penchaszadeh, 2004. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=388656 on 2011-01-11
  19. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula carioca Simone, 2006. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=389784 on 2011-01-11
  20. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula convexa Say, 1822. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=160228 on 2011-01-11
  21. ^ Bouchet, P. (2010). Crepidula coquimbensis Brown & Olivares, 1996. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=510048 on 2011-01-11
  22. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula cymbaeformis Conrad, 1844. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532684 on 2011-01-11
  23. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula depressa Say, 1822. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=419703 on 2011-01-11
  24. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138963 on 2011-01-11
  25. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula intratesta Simone, 2006. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=389785 on 2011-01-12
  26. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula maculosa Conrad, 1846. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=419704 on 2011-01-12
  27. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula margarita Simone, 2006. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=389786 on 2011-01-12
  28. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula moulinsii Michaud, 1829. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=180993 on 2011-01-12
  29. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula navicula (Mörch, 1877). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532685 on 2011-01-12
  30. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula onyx G. B. Sowerby I, 1824. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=397063 on 2011-01-12
  31. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula plana Say, 1822. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=160230 on 2011-01-12
  32. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula porcellana (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138965 on 2011-01-12
  33. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Crepidula protea (d'Orbigny, 1841). In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=532686 on 2011-01-12
  34. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula pyguaia Simone, 2006. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=389787 on 2011-01-12
  35. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula unguiformis Lamarck, 1822. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138966 on 2011-01-12
  36. ^ WoRMS (2010). Crepidula ustulatulina Collin, 2002. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=387736 on 2011-01-12
  37. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula gibbosa Defrance, 1818. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138964 on 2011-01-12
  38. ^ Gofas, S. (2010). Crepidula grandis Middendorff, 1849. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=254469 on 2011-01-12
  • Collin, R. 2003. The Utility of Morphological Characters in Gastropod Phylogenetics: An Example From the Calyptraeidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 4: 541–593
  • Collin, R. 2003. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Calyptraeid Gastropods and Their Implications for the Biogeography of Marine Speciation. Systematic Biology, 5: 618-640.
  • Collin, R. 2002. Another Last Word on Crepidula Convexa With a Description of C. Ustulatulina N. Sp. (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) From the Gulf of Mexico and Southern Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 1: 177-184.
  • Collin, Rachel. 2005. Crepidula Badisparsa Sp. Nov. (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) From Bocas Del Toro Province, Panamá. Caribbean Journal of Science, 2: 269-276.
  • Collin, R. 2000. Phylogeny of the Crepidula plana (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) cryptic species complex in North America. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 78: 1500-1514.
  • Hoagland, K.E. 1977. Systematic review of fossil and recent Crepidula and discussion of the evolution of the Calyptraeidae. Malacologia 16(2): 353-420
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp. (
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213

External links[edit]