Crime in Antarctica

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While crime in Antarctica is relatively rare,[1] isolation and boredom affect certain people there negatively and may lead to crime.[2] Alcoholism is a known problem on the continent,[2] and has led to fights and indecent exposure.[3] Other types of crimes that have occurred in Antarctica include illicit drug use,[2] torturing and killing wildlife,[2] racing motorbikes through environmentally sensitive areas,[2] assault with a deadly weapon, attempted murder, and arson. Sexual harassment also has been reported.[4]

Robberies are highly unusual in Antarctica because the people cannot bring very much onto the continent.[3] Also very little use for money exists in Antarctica.[3]

Under the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, ratified by 53 nations, persons accused of a crime in Antarctica are subject to punishment by their own country.[3]

National laws applying to crimes in Antarctica[edit]

South Africa[edit]

South African citizens in Antarctica are subject to South African law under the South African Citizens in Antarctica Act, 1962. Under the act, Antarctica is deemed to be within the jurisdiction of the magistrate's court at Cape Town.[5]

United States[edit]

The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (enacted October 12, 1984) covers crimes committed by Americans or crimes committed against Americans.[6] Any American who is outside of the United States, but not in another country, is still subject to certain U.S. laws.[6] All Americans committing a crime, and any foreigner committing a crime against an American outside of a sovereign state, are subject to prosecution in a U.S. federal court.[6] This includes international waters and Antarctica.[6] Although nations claim territory in Antarctica, the United States does not recognize these claims.[6]

Examples of crimes covered by the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 include murder, maiming, rape, arson, treason, and bribing a federal official.[1]

List of crimes in Antarctica[edit]

1959 – The Vostok Station (станция Восток), then a Soviet research station in Princess Elizabeth Land, was the scene of a fight between two scientists over a game of chess.[7][2][8] When one of them lost the game, he became so enraged that he attacked the other with an ice axe.[8][7][2] According to some sources, it was a murder,[8][7][2] though other sources say that the attack was not fatal.[9] Afterwards, chess games were banned at Soviet/Russian Antarctic stations.[7][8]

October 1981 – Arson was attempted at a chapel in the McMurdo Station vicinity.[10] The McMurdo Station is an American research station at the McMurdo Sound. A winter-over crew person who was intoxicated set fire to the chapel late one night to be sent home early.[10] Someone noticed smoke coming from the chapel and reported it to the fire house.[10] The person who reported it went inside and pulled some of the pews away from the fire.[10] Shortly thereafter, a friend arrived, and they both pulled the burning carpet out the door before the firefighters arrived.[10] Because quick action was taken, damage was not significant and was repaired that coming summer.[10]

12 April 1984 – The Almirante Brown Station is an Argentine research station located on the Coughtrey Peninsula by Paradise Harbor. The station's original facilities were burned down by the station's leader and doctor on 12 April 1984 after he was ordered to stay for the winter.[11] The station personnel were rescued by the ship Hero and taken to Palmer Station, an American research station on Anvers Island.[12] The stations are about 58 km (36 mi) apart by air.

9 October 1996 – At McMurdo Station, a fight occurred between two workers in the kitchen.[13] One worker attacked the other with a hammer.[13] Another cook tried to break up the fight and was also injured.[13] The two victims were Tony Beyer and Joe Stermer.[13] Both of them required stitches.[13] FBI agents from the United States were sent to McMurdo Station to investigate and make an arrest.[3] The suspect was flown to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he faced charges of four counts of assault with a dangerous weapon.[14] He pleaded not guilty.[15] No further information was publicly available.

11 May 2000 – On May 11, 2000, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, an American research station located at the South Pole, Australian astrophysicist Rodney Marks had a fever, stomach pains, and nausea.[16] On May 12, he died.[17] It was believed at the time that Marks died of natural causes.[16] It was the onset of winter, so his body could not be transported for six months.[16] His body was put into a freezer at the observatory.[16] After the six months were over, Marks' body was flown to Christchurch, New Zealand, for an autopsy.[16] The autopsy concluded that he had died from methanol poisoning.[16] How the poisoning occurred remains a mystery.[16]

9 October 2018 – A stabbing occurred at the Bellingshausen Station (станция Беллинсгаузен), a Russian research station on King George Island.[18] The alleged perpetrator was Sergey Savitsky (Сергей Савицкий), a 54-year-old electrical engineer.[19] He allegedly stabbed Oleg Beloguzov (Олег Белогузов), a 52-year old welder, in the chest[19] multiple times.[20] According to some sources, the attack occurred because Beloguzov was giving away the endings of books that Savitsky checked out at the station's library.[21] Other sources say that the attack occurred in the dining room when Beloguzov teased Savitsky by telling him that he should dance on top of the table to make money.[20] Both accounts say that Savitsky was believed to be intoxicated at the time of the attack.[20][21] They had worked together at the station for about six months,[18] and Savitsky was apparently having an emotional breakdown.[22] Being in a confined space may have been a major cause for this.[22] Both Beloguzov and Savitsky had had problems with each other for several months.[20] Beloguzov was sent to a hospital in Chile.[18] Savitsky surrendered to the manager of the station,[19] and 11 days later was placed on a flight back to Russia,[19] where he was placed on house arrest until December 8 or 9.[18][22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Audit of NSF's Law Enforcement Program in the Antarctic" (PDF). National Science Foundation Office of the Inspector General. 30 August 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Joyner, Christopher Clayton; Chopra, Sudhir K. (28 July 1988). The Antarctic Legal Regime. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 90-247-3618-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e Rousseau, Bryant (28 September 2016). "Cold Cases: Crime and Punishment in Antarctica". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  4. ^ Medina, Jennifer (24 September 2018). "Sexual Harassment Allegations Wipe a Name Off the Map". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  5. ^ Joubert, J. J., ed. (2014). Criminal Procedure Handbook (11th ed.). Cape Town: Juta. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-48510-061-4.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Chapter 6: Living and Working at USAP Facilities : U.S. Criminal Jurisdiction" (PDF). 2018-2020 USAP Participant Guide. United States Antarctic Program. 2018. p. 55. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Bennett, John (15 September 2016). "How Antarctic isolation affects the mind". Canadian Geographic. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Barrett, Emma; Martin, Paul (23 October 2014). Extreme: Why some people thrive at the limits. OUP Oxford. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-164565-5.
  9. ^ Hutchison, Kristan (3 February 2002). "Weathering the Winter" (PDF). The Antarctic Sun. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ward, Paul (2001). "Antarctica Fire History". Cool Antarctica. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Almirante Brown Station, Antarctic Peninsula". Waymarking.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  12. ^ Rejcek, Peter (20 April 2015). "Passing of a Legend: Death of Capt. Pieter J. Lenie at age 91 marks the end of an era in Antarctica". The Antarctic Sun. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e Spielmann, Peter James (14 October 1996). "FBI Agents To Visit Antarctica In Rare Investigation of Assault". The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Antarctica Assault Defendant Released to Halfway House". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 22 October 1986. p. A-5.
  15. ^ "Assault subject pleads not guilty to charges". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 26 October 1996.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Serena, Katie (17 November 2017). "The Mystery Of The South Pole's Only Murder". All That's Interesting. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  17. ^ Case 4 - The Death of Rodney Marks (Podcast). Mysterious Circumstances. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d "Man faces attempted murder charge after stabbing at Russia's Antarctic outpost". The Guardian. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d Hale, Tom (26 October 2018). "A Remote Antarctic Research Station Is Now The Scene Of A Brutal Attempted Murder". IFL Science. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  20. ^ a b c d Haskins, Caroline (25 October 2018). "An Attempted Murder at a Research Station Shows How Crimes Are Prosecuted in Antarctica". Motherboard. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  21. ^ a b "Cold-Blooded: Scientist In Antarctica Accused Of Stabbing Colleague For Spoiling The Endings Of Books". CBS Los Angeles. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  22. ^ a b c Mandelbaum, Ryan F. (24 October 2018). "Report: Russian Researcher Charged With Attempted Murder in Stabbing of Colleague in Antarctica". Gizmodo. Retrieved 19 January 2019.