Crime in Iran
Crime in Iran is present in various forms, and may include the following offenses: murder, kidnapping, theft, fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, drug selling, alcohol smuggling, oil smuggling, tax evasion and many other ordinary crimes that criminals commit.
Drug trafficking and money laundering
Drug trafficking is a major and ongoing issue in Iran. Iran is a key transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin to Europe. It shares a 975-kilometer (606 mi) common border with Afghanistan-the world's largest opium producer-which provides a short land route for drug transit between Afghanistan and Europe. With 2.8 percent of the population addicted to drugs, Iran has the high rate of drug addiction, that rivals the 10 - 15% in Afghanistan. 40% of prisoners in Iran have been convicted on drug related charges. According to published figures, Iran has so far lost close to 3,500 police and security officers to the anti-drug campaign that annually costs the country almost $1 billion and inflicts an annual damage of about $8.5 billion on Iran's economy. Hundreds of drug smugglers have also been hanged.
It has been estimated by the government of Iran in 2015 that dirty money from drug trafficking in Iran amounts to 10 trillion toumans a year (1 touman equals 10 rials), some of which has been finding its way into "elections and the securing of votes" to influence the country's politics.
The majority of drug users in Iran are addicted to opium. Iran produces almost none of its own opium; the opium is brought into the country from neighbor Afghanistan. In 2006, over 53 percent of the opium produced in Afghanistan left the country through Iran. Several measures have been taken by the Iranian authorities to combat drug trafficking. This includes increasing the number of police forces on the southeastern border of Iran and introducing severe laws and penalties for people found guilty of drug trafficking.
Iran has become a leading figure in combating drug trafficking; so far Iranian authorities have made over 85 percent of the worlds total opium seizures. Between 2009 and 2010, the amount of illicit drugs seized by Iranian police totalled over 340 tons.
Tax evaders typically are either involved in activities in the gray sector of economy or in the underground market which they do not divulge. Others are engaged in smuggling and the black market. The losses are equivalent to 20% to 25% of the country’s gross domestic product revenue. In 2014, international medias reported Iranian nationals to be listed among the tax evaders in the HSBC scandal in Switzerland.
According to the U.S. Department of State: "Iran is a source, transit, and destination for women trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude. Iranian women are trafficked internally for the purpose of forced prostitution and for forced marriages to settle debts. Iranian children are trafficked internally and Afghan children are trafficked to Iran for the purpose of forced marriages, commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude as beggars or laborers. According to non-governmental sources, Iranian women and girls are also trafficked to Pakistan, Turkey, Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom for commercial sexual exploitation."
Iran began restricting alcohol production and consumption shortly after the Iranian revolution. Even with this ban, alcohol smuggling is still popular in Iran today. It is reported that over 2.5 million dollars of alcohol is smuggled into Iran every day. Smugglers often have a hard time smuggling alcohol into Iran; border security forces repeatedly clash with smugglers and many die.
Oil smuggling has become more of an issue in Iran. Iranians pay an average price of 25 cents a liter for gasoline while neighboring countries pay more than a dollar per liter which makes oil smuggling a profitable business for smugglers. Every year in Iran, over 1.8 billion liters of refined oil products are smuggled to neighboring countries. These countries include Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan and Turkey.
According to state owned news network Press TV, Iran currently produces 230 million liters of the four main fuels-gasoline, diesel, kerosene and furnace oil, every day; 40 million liters of this production (17%) is smuggled out of the country daily.
Iran has one of the highest execution rates (second only to China). Adultery and homosexual sex are considered illegal acts under Iranian law and carry the death penalty. Punishment for drug use and trafficking can be severe; anyone convicted of having possession of, using or trafficking in illegal drugs can expect long jail sentences, heavy fines and even the death penalty.
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