Crimean Tatar language
|Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili
Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили
|Native to||Ukraine, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Romania, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Bulgaria|
|Cyrillic and Latin; previously Arabic (Crimean Tatar alphabet)|
Official language in
Crimean Tatar-speaking world
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Crimean Tatar (Qırımtatarca, Qırımtatar tili, Къырымтатарджа, Къырымтатар тили), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a language spoken for centuries in Crimea. It is a Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada. It should not be confused with Tatar proper, spoken in Tatarstan and adjacent regions in Russia; the languages are related but not mutually intelligible. Though only distantly related, it is mutually intelligible with Turkish, Turkmen, and Azerbaijani due to language contact and influence.
- 1 Number of speakers
- 2 Dialects
- 3 History
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Current situation
- 6 Writing systems
- 7 Comparison with other languages
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
Number of speakers
Today, more than 260,000 Crimean Tatars live in Crimea. Approximately 150,000 reside in Central Asia (mainly in Uzbekistan), where their ancestors had been exiled in 1944 during World War II by the Soviet Union. However, of all these people, mostly the older generations are the only ones still speaking Crimean Tatar. In 2013, the language was estimated to be on the brink of extinction, being taught in only around 15 schools in Crimea. Turkey has provided support to Ukraine, to aid in bringing the schools teaching in Crimean Tatar to a modern state. An estimated 5 million people of Crimean origin live in Turkey, descendants of those who emigrated in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Of these an estimated 2,000 still speak the language. Smaller Crimean Tatar communities are also found in Romania (22,000), Bulgaria (6,000), and the United States. Crimean Tatar is one of the seriously endangered languages in Europe.
Almost all Crimean Tatars are bilingual or multilingual, using as their first language the dominant languages of their respective home countries, such as Ukrainian, Turkish, Uzbek, or Russian.
Each of the three subethnic groups of the Crimean Tatars has its own dialect. The dialect of the Nogays, the former inhabitants of the Crimean steppe (should not be confused with Nogai people), is of Kypchak–Nogay origin.
The Yalıboylus, who lived on the southern coast of Crimea before 1944, speak an Oghuz dialect.
The Tat Tatars from the Crimean Mountains (should not be confused with Tat people) use a middle dialect of Kypchak–Cuman origin. The dialect is a direct descendant of the Cuman language, but it has been strongly influenced by Oghuz. The modern Crimean Tatar written language is based on Tat because the Tats comprise about 55% of the total Crimean Tatar population.
The forming of the Crimean Tatar spoken dialects began with the first Turkic invasions of Crimea and ended during the period of the Crimean Khanate. However, the official written languages of the Crimean Khanate were Chagatai and Ottoman Turkish. After Islamization, Crimean Tatars wrote with an Arabic script.
In 1876, the different Turkic Crimean dialects were made into a uniform written language by Ismail Gasprinski. A preference was given to the Oghuz dialect of the Yalıboylus, in order to not break the link between the Crimeans and the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. In 1928, the language was reoriented to the middle dialect spoken by the majority of the people.
In 1928, the alphabet was replaced with the Uniform Turkic Alphabet based on the Latin script. The Uniform Turkic Alphabet was replaced in 1938 by a Cyrillic alphabet. Since the 1990s, the government has encouraged replacing the script with a Latin version again, but the Cyrillic is still widely used (mainly in published literature and newspapers). The current Latin-based Crimean Tatar alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, with two additional characters: Ñ ñ and Q q.
Crimean Tatar was the native language of the poet Bekir Çoban-zade.
The vowel system of Crimean Tatar is similar to some other Turkic languages. Because high vowels in Crimean Tatar are short and reduced, /i/ and /ɯ/ are realized close to [ɪ], even though they are phonologically distinct.
According to the constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, as published in Russian by its Verkhovna Rada, Russian and Crimean Tatar languages enjoy a "protected" (Russian: обеспечивается ... защита) status; every citizen is entitled, at his request (ходатайство), to receive government documents, such as "Passport, Birth certificate and others" in Crimean Tatar. According to the constitution of Ukraine, however, Ukrainian is the only official language in all of Ukraine. Recognition of Russian and Crimean Tatar was a matter of political and legal debate.
Before the Sürgün, the 18 May 1944 deportation by the Soviet Union of Crimean Tatars to internal exile in Uzbek SSR, Crimean Tatar had an official language status in the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
Crimean Tatar can be written in either the Cyrillic or Latin alphabets, both modified to the specific needs of Crimean Tatar, and either used respective to where the language is used. Under Ukrainian rule, the Latin alphabet was preferred, but upon Russia's annexation of Crimea, Cyrillic became the sole official script.
Crimean Tatars used Arabic script from 16th century to 1928.
Â â symbol is not considered to be a separate letter.
|[a]||[b]||[dʒ]||[tʃ]||[d]||[e]||[f]||[ɡ]||[ɣ]||[x]||[ɯ]||[i], [ɪ]||[ʒ]||[k]||[l]||[m]||[n]||[ŋ]||[o]||[ø]||[p]||[q]||[r]||[s]||[ʃ]||[t]||[u]||[y]||[v], [w]||[j]||[z]|
гъ, къ, нъ and дж are separate letters (digraphs).
Comparison with other languages
Turkish and Azerbaijani
|Meclis Haberleri 10.09.2003// Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisiniñ 120-cı toplaşuvı olıp keçti
2003 senesi sentâbr 7 künü Aqmescitteki İslâm Merkeziniñ binasında Qırımtatar Milliy Meclisiniñ 120-cı toplaşuvı olıp keçti.
|Meclis Haberleri 10.09.2003// Kırım Tatar Millî Meclisi'nin 120. toplantısı gerçekleşti
7 Eylül 2003 günü Akmescit'teki İslam Merkezi'nin binasında Kırım Tatar Millî Meclisi'nin 120. toplantısı gerçekleşti.
|Məclis Xəbərləri 10.09.2003// Qırım Tatar Milli Məclisinin 120-ci toplantısı keçirildi
2003-cü il sentyabrın 7-si günü Ağməsciddəki İslam Mərkəzinin binasında Qırım Tatar Milli Məclisinin 120-ci toplantısı keçirildi.
|Assembly News 10.09.2003// 120th meeting of Crimean Tatar National Assembly was held
On 7 September 2003, 120th meeting of Crimean Tatar National Assembly was held at the Islamic Centre building in Simferopol.
Because of its common name, Crimean Tatar is sometimes mistaken to be a dialect of Tatar proper. Although these languages are related (because both are Turkic), the Kypchak languages closest to Crimean Tatar are, as mentioned above, Kumyk, Karachay-Balkar and Nogay, not Tatar.
- Crimean Tatar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- The status of Crimea and of the city of Sevastopol is since March 2014 under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community consider Crimea to be an autonomous republic of Ukraine and Sevastopol to be one of Ukraine's cities with special status, whereas Russia considers Crimea to be a federal subject of Russia and Sevastopol to be one of Russia's three federal cities.
- "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 2.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Crimean Tatar". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Crimean Tatar language at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Crimean Tatar language in danger, Avrupa Times, 02/19/2013
- Tapani Salminen, UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe, September 1999
- Kavitskaya 2010, p. 6
- Kavitskaya 2010, p. 8
- Kavitskaya 2010, p. 10
- Конституция Автономной Республики Крым
- Berta, Árpád (1998). "West Kipchak Languages". In Johanson, Lars; Csató, Éva Ágnes. The Turkic Languages. Routledge. pp. 301–317. ISBN 978-0-415-08200-6.
- Kavitskaya, Darya (2010). Crimean Tatar. Munich: Lincom Europa.
|Crimean Turkish edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Wiktionary's category of Crimean Tatar words
- Linguistic corpus of Crimean Tatar language
- Crimean Tatar internet library
- Automatic Latin–Cyrillic transliterator for Crimean Tatar texts
- Crimean Tatar Online Dictionary
- Russian–Crimean Tatar Dictionary (a)
- Russian–Crimean Tatar Dictionary (b)
- Russian–Crimean Tatar Dictionary (c)
- Ukrainian–Crimean Tatar Dictionary
- Online Crimean Tatar (Northern dialect)–Turkish–English Dictionary tatarcasozluk.com